ANTR110S Exam 2 review
ANTR110S Exam 2 review ANTR 110S
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nathaniel Rhodes on Friday October 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTR 110S at Old Dominion University taught by KRISTIN M MACAK in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 123 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO ANTHROPOLOGY in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Old Dominion University.
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Date Created: 10/16/15
Intro to AnthropologyANTR110 Exam 2 study guide Professor Macack Chapter 2 E volytion of culture Definitions of culture A Tyler believed culture is acquired through inheritance or being born into a community B Geartz thought that you learn culture by experiencing it 0 White said culture consists of tools to help learn the meaning of a culture D Kottak39s definition of culture is a tradition or habit that is transmitted through learning E Your experiences can be shaped by the culture you are invested in Enculturation Process in which culture is transmitted passed or learned between generations ex Christianity taught to you by parents G Culture instilled within our core values Ways of learning culture A Acculturation Exchange of 2 cultures or groups B Independent invention Culture is invented in one place at different times C Adaptive Adjusting to a certain situation to fit needs D Maladaptive Mechanism counterproductive to adaptation Other terms A Human rights Based on justice and morality beyond and superior to particular countries cultures and religions B Cultural rights Vested in religious and ethnic minorities and indigenous societies C Cultural relativism Behavior should be evaluated in the context of the culture it happens in ex Christian vs Muslim views of a religious happening D Anthropologists should try to understand the situation from the point of view of the people they are studying National culture A culture within a specific state International culture A culture recognizes within the entire community of humans G Subcultures smaller sects of cultures within a particular culture Chapter 6 Human variation and race Diversity A Racial Classification Assigning humans to categories based off their ancestry similarities B Explanatory approach Understanding true biological differences of humans instead of race Intro to AnthropologyANTR110S C Exam 2 study guide Professor Macack Race puts you in a position where you are not biologically distinct even though that is not the case traits that define race are all phenotypicalwhat you look like not based off biological differences AAA race project examines race through history science and personal experience Key message Race is a human invention it is about culture not biology and race and racism are instilled in our everyday lives Biological adaptations A B Humans have a level of melanin in their skin that determines how dark or light it will be darker skin has more advantages in heat and lighter skin has better advantages in the cold The Tropicszone between 23 degrees northCancer and 23 degrees southCapricorn is where darker skin derives from Human ancestry is determined by HaplogroupsLineage or branch of genetic tree marked by one or more specific genetic mutations and clines Gradual shift in gene frequencies between neighboring populations ex joining up with another village Other biological adaptations include Thomson39s nose rule Longer noses in cold areas Bergmann39s rule Larger bodies in the cold slimmer in warmth and Allen39s rule Body form shape is linear in warmer areas rounded in cold climates Chapter 15 Diversity and race A Ethnicity Identifying and sharing a common bond with an ethnic group B Ascribed status Social status with little to no choice ex being a grandson C Achieved status Social status based on accomplishment ex job ladder D Race is ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis not true E Racism Discrimination of a ethnic group on a biological basis denying access to movies based off race F Descent Social identity based off ancestry G Hypodescent Child of mixed unions white and black put in same group as the minority parent in our society black H Changes in the US census have opened up new options to people over the years but still uses race Ethnic groups Share certain beliefs values habits and customs due to similar background Nationalities A Nation Society sharing the same religion language histories territory ancestry and kinship ex Japan B Nationstate An autonomous political entity ex United states C State Stratified with a formal setup ex France D Colonialism Foreign domination ofa peaceful land Intro to AnthropologyANTR110S E Exam 2 study guide Professor Macack Nationalities Ethnic groups that once had unity and now seek to regain their own country Tolerance and Ethnic conflict A Assimilation Process of bringing a minority ethnicity into a country usually through domination in war B Plural society Society with economically interdependent ethnic groups C Multiculturalism Cultural diversity is an experience worth maintaining D Prejudice Hate of a group based off negative assumptions E Stereotypes Assumed ideas that are unfavorable towards a group F Discrimination Treating an ethnicity with disrespectful behavior ex exclusion from events Oppression A Genocide Intentional elimination of a group B Refugees People finding political asylum to escape from war or government collapse ex Haiti C Ethnocide Mass elimination of a ethnicity ex Hitler and the Jews in ww2 D Cultural domination Forcing your culture or ideology on others Chapter 4 Archaeology and Biological Anthropology Research methods A QTWPDF Paleontology Studying ancient life through fossil record Remote sensing Use of aerial photos and satellite imaging to locate sites on land Fossils Remains of past life Systematic survey Surveying different quotplotsquot of land for fossil evidence Excavation actual digging of fossil material other research methods include datingwhich will be talked about later Specialties within archaeology include Paleoanthropologystudy of early hominids homonins and humans Taphonomy study of processes affecting remains of dead animals etc Multidisciplinary approach Different fields of anthropology work together to solve a complex task biologists and archaeologists working together to solve what life was like at the time of a fossil being a living thing Methods of dating the past A Taphonomy mentioned earlier but is the study of processing affecting remains of dead animals Stratigraphy Study of earths layersstrata Paleoanthropology Study of early hominids homonins and humans Intro to AnthropologyANTRllOS Exam 2 study guide Professor Macack Relative dating Establishing a time frame in relation to other strata or material Absolute dating putting a date to a strata or material Dendrochronology Study of rings within a tree Molecular Anthropology DNA comparisons for links and relations CDTF39IU Biological Anthropology A Bone biology Study of bone material B Anthropometrics Measuring bone material found C Primatology study of primates and chimps Ethical Issues A The Code of ethics are a legal basis for behavior exhibited in a professional environment B informed consent telling people ahead of time and gaining their acceptance Chapter 16 Food production and Cultivation Adaptive strategies A adaptive strategies Means of making a living productively includes high or low labor and big or small groups being mobile foragers or sedentary farmers which ever fit your needs Foraging searching for food instead of making it Horticulture Nonindustrial plant cultivation requires more hand use than tool use Agriculture more intense industrial mass production and cultivation of food Pastoralism Herders of domesticated animalsmoves beside the herd W909 Transh umanance A Transhumanance is a system where part of the population moves seasonally with herds of animals B Varies from Pastoral Nomadism because in Nomadism you move the herd yourself annually and make money solely off the byproducts of animalsproduct coming directly from animal Modes and means of production A Non industrial production does not have a specific industry it caters do and is not produced in masses unlike industrial where production is specific and created in large amounts B Kinship production is within your own quotkinquot or what you consider a familial group while Capitalism utilizes everyone for trade no matter your social relation to that person Economizing and maximizing Intro to AnthropologyANTRllOS Exam 2 study guide Professor Macack A Economizing and maximizing is using scarce resources to the best possibility you can good resource use B Profitmotive not true of every society Economic anthropologists A Economic anthropologists compare and contrast the difference in many economies They look at Production Distribution and Consumption B Different cultures are motivated to maintain differences in economy because of their cultures beliefs and customs C Profit and motive do not always correlate but most times they do Reprocity A Reprocity continuum A continuum running from generalizedgood to negative Reprocity B Reprocity principle Governing exchanges among social equals C Generalized Reprocity Exchange of closely knit individualsusualy a gift without a expected return D Balanced Reprocity Exchange of two individuals usually a gift with an expected return E Negative Reprocity Unwanted exchange obtained something but wasn39t an item you wanted Potlatch A The potlach is an event held by native Americans to competitively give gifts chiefs gathered to obtain gifts from each other and it was competitive in that the biggest gift was praised the most European settlers later denied this event but later in history let it go on again Chapter 11 Food production and movement Movement A Broad spectrum revolution The foraging that happened towards the end of ice age leading up to Neolithic era small amounts of sedentism happen B Lithic order Paleolithic Mesolithic Neolithic Bad pneumonic device time Pale people Es with my m C Things that define each of the 3 eras in the Paleolithic era there was a heavy amount of foraging people moved a lot in small packs not much farming In the Mesolithic people were still hunting for their food but some practiced the art of domestication controlling the reproductive period of animals and plants there were also new hunting methods and stone tools were improved microliths In the Neolithic most economies Intro to AnthropologyANTR110S Exam 2 study guide Professor Macack were then based on food production arts farming and sedentism staying in a permanent area for a extended period of time First farmers and herders A vertical economy A market that meets the needs of a specific industrymostly farming around this time B food production was going on in 4 primary environmentsfrom highest to lowest in terms of height the high pateau hilly flanks piedmont steppes and the alluvial desert C Sedentism was widely practiced at the time and still is today staying in that permanent area for a long time Neolithic around the world A Africa had pottery and cattle usage going on frequently specifically in the eastern Saharan desert southern Egypt there was a temporary lake used for ceremony and social use summer rain also provided good enough soil for agriculture Cattle were domesticated and used for their by productswhat they produce as opposed to being killed for food they also used wells and obtained sorghum millet legumes tubers and fruits later 7500 BP more social and economic activities calendars were created and religiouspolitical centers were made other such monuments similar to the Stonehenge were found there one of the more complex societies in the Neolithic B Europeans were going through the early stages of sedentary farming utilized middle eastern techniques had 4 major livestock sheep goats cattle and pigs had some foragers left over but for the most part villages were all over C Asia domesticated goat sheep cattle wheat and barley in Pakistan existed later than Mesopotamia Indus valley river helped middle east in Neolithic In China rice was domesticated along with water buffalo dogs and pigs subtropical wetlands with bad winters and non steady rainfall villages were in existence as well as religious findings like burial sites and ceramic vessels D Mexico had many things domesticated by natives like maize potatoes manioc cassava tuber yarns and sweet potatoes In South America alpacas guinea pigs beans potatoes and quinoacereal grain was domesticated Cost and benefit to food production and domestication A Benefits include Inventions new creative and technological developments Monumental architecture mathematics and sciences trade reliable food source and increased economic production B Costs include Harder work less nutritional value in food public health decline greater stresses poverty and environmental degredation Chapter 12 State form and origin of states Intro to AnthropologyANTR110S Exam 2 study guide Professor Macack Origin of state A Polity A political entity B Chiefdoms are permanent political structures hereditary leaders and they lack class divisions A State is a formal central government with class divisions And Empires are mature states with many ethnicities and heavy military might very expansive C Egalitarian Ranked by gender age and achievements ex Inuit tribe D Ranked Society with hereditary inequality lineage of kings instead of chosen leaders E Stratification Unequal power among lower and upper class ex United States F State growth occurs through forms of art marriage written records war and sedentary farming and trade G Key attributes of early cities include Larger population specialized workers taxes monuments support of clergy and government
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