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ASU / Evolutionary Anthropology / ANTH 222 / what are the physical traits of homo erectus?

what are the physical traits of homo erectus?

what are the physical traits of homo erectus?

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School: Arizona State University
Department: Evolutionary Anthropology
Course: Buried Cities and Lost Tribes
Professor: Perreault
Term: Fall 2015
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: ASB222 Exam 2 Lecture Study Guide
Description: 1) The genus Homo 2) Technology and Subsistence 3) Reconstruction Environments 4) Bioarchaeology 5) Early Human Evolution
Uploaded: 10/17/2015
21 Pages 10 Views 38 Unlocks
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The genus Homo


what are the physical traits of homo erectus?



1. The Genus Homo

o 2.8 mya in Africa

o Having the same genes as us 2. Homo Erectus

o Dispersed out of Africa to Europe then Asia

• 1.8 mya in Africa

mode 1/2

• 1.7 mya in Dmanisi (Republic of Georgia)

• mode 1/2

• 1.7 mya in Island of Java (East Asia)

• mode 1

• Zhoukoudian (China)

• More different from the others

• Mastered difficult environments (e.g. Cold, Snowy)

. Gone by 600 kya o Physiology

• Long leg, short arms; larger brain size; skull is different

• Brain size: 800cc (twice more than Australopithecine)

• From neck and below is similar to modern human We also discuss several other topics like bus 205 csu

• Less flexible technology o Fully committed the 'ground life' o Well-adapted to dry climate – The nose direction

· Australopithecine (outward)

• Homo Erectus (downward)


what are the physical traits of homo floresiensis?



• Homo Sapiens (downward)

o Discovery, Turkana Boy

• ~1.6 mya

• Well preserved skeleton

• Fully committed to terrestrial life

• Male 6'; Female 5'

• Heavily muscled

• Can run for long distance

• Good for hunting, chasing till exhaustion

• Probably no language o Tools Usage

• 1.8 mya

• Mode 1 tools (Oldowan) . 1.6 mya

• Mode 2 tools (Acheulian)

• Hand axes (tear drop shape)

· Standard set of proportion

• Throughout Africa and Eurasia

• Over 1 million years

• Teaching and Learning through social interaction

o Diet

• Rely on meat (regularly)

• Evidence

• Hand axes were used to butcher carcasses

• Pointed end cut through meat and separates joints

• Rounded edge provides a handle

• Found cut marks


why are we different from animals?



Don't forget about the age old question of education and training of workers would best be categorized as

• Female skeleton suffered from vitamin A poisoning

• Vitamin A can due to eating liver from large predator

• Our tapeworms

• Getting the tapeworms from domestic animals (e.g. pig) We also discuss several other topics like What is mitosis and its stages?

• Two of our tapeworm species diverged from a common ancestor

• Expended in temperate habitats outside of Africa

• Where fruits won't be available during the winter

• Therefore they need to eat meat

• E.g. Europe, Asia o Controlling Fire Sites

• Koobi Fora (Kenya) – 1.5mya

• Small patch of reddened soil in areas containing stone tools

• Can be natural fire; lighting, heat during the day etc

• Swartkrans Cave (South Africa) – 1.5-1.1 mya

• Burned animal bones with H. Erectus fossils

• At least 900 degrees; too hot for wild fire but not camp fire

• There's a downward slope in the cave; the remains may be washed down to the cave

• Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (Israel) — 790 kya

· Burned seeds, woods and flint artifact

• Wonderwerk Cave (South Africa) – 1 mya

• Traces of fire with mode 2 tools

• Microscopic bone fragment burned at campfire temperature

• 750 degrees

• Also cooking their meat; easier to chew and digest

• Explain why we have smaller teeth

3. Homo Florisiensis (Found in 2014)

o Flores (Indonesia)

• 35-12 kya

• aka The Hobbit

• Isolated from the rest of the world

· Discovery in a Cave

• 7 individual

• 1 with complete skull o Physiology

• Brain size: 385-417cc (smaller than chimpanzee)

3 ft tall

• Smaller due to on isolated islands

• To provent starvation o Making stone tools

• Flakes

• Associate with different animal species

• Small elephants

Lizards

Technology and Subsistence We also discuss several other topics like peachtree company uses a sales journal
If you want to learn more check out pornital

1. Cumulative Culture

o Why are we different from the animals?

• Chimpanzee

• using stone tools

• using a pole to fish termites

• Kids are observing and learning from the mother

• New Caledonian Crows

Crafting hooks to fetch insects o Human culture evolved by the accumulation, over time, of innovations, leading to complex technologies

E.g. Inuit Harpoon o The box experiment

• Chimpanzee doesn't pass on the innovation; they don't completely mimic everything

• Human mimic everything including innovation then pass it on

2. Stone Tools

o 3.4 mya - 500 BP o Two types of stone tools If you want to learn more check out uf class ring

• Chipped

• Paleolithic period

• Using a stone to detach a flake from core

• Then modify the flake Create something sharp

• Process

• Find the right raw material (Glassy rocks)

Chert

Flint

• Obsidian

• Different kinds of hammers are used

• Hard hammer (Hammer stones)

• Soft hammer (Antler billets)

• Different types of percussions for different goals (angles are important)

• Direct percussion (Hammer → Materail)

• Indirect percussion (Hammer → Something + Material)

• Pressure flaking (Trimming the edge of Material)

· More and more precise

• Ground

• Neolithic period

· Graining one stone with another

• Use to process grains

• Still used in some areas o How are they made?

• Refitting - Putting all the flake back together

• Experiments-Learning how to replicate and use them (François Bordes)

3. Ceramic (Pottery)

o ~15kya to present o Hopi woman making coiled pottery o Pottery making procedure

• Pottery Shaping

· Coiling

• Paddle-and-anvil

• Use an anvil to support the pot

• Use with coiling

• Having smooth surface

• America south west

• Wheel

• Turning table

• Invented in middle east

• 5000 years ago

• Mold

• Allow large production in same shape

• Pottery Forming

• Open Kiln

Pile up pots on the bonfire

• Doesn't cook it evenly Closed Kiln

• Reaching really high temperature

• Cooked in little oxygen environment → Turned black o Varieties of sand temper

• Bone temper

• Shell temper

4. Metal

o ~3.5 kya to present o Foundry-men casting bronze in Egypt o The lost-wax method

• Making sculpture out of clay

• Put sticks around

• Add wax on the sculpture

• Wrap the wax-sculpture into clay

• Leave some channel open

• Fire the clay

• The wax melt; the clay cooks

• Pour hot metal into the envelope

• Break the clay

• Metal sculpture left o The Japanese Swore

• Complex metal technology

• Made of steel envelope (tough inside)

• Sharp edge

• Use for a slashing action

• Doesn't get destroyed by others

Reconstruction environments

Easter Island

o Belongs to Chile o European sailers landed on the island o Only have one small watercraft (canoes)

• How did they get there? o Statues

• Natives don't know who made it

• There are left-over 'models' that aren't finished; tools too

• 20 workers are needed full-time for a month

• Need a lot of food to feed the workers

• Need ropes to pull the curved statues up

• But there's no trees = no ropes

• No birds on the island

• Cannibalism is presented (due to no food left) o After archaeological analysis

• Plants

• 35 species existed but then went extinct

• E.g. Wine palm tree – Food, drinks, boats, house, use to transport the statues

• Animals

• 25 species of seabirds

• Common Dolphin / Tuna

• Rats

• Civil War

• Due to no food / ecological disaster

• Population crashed

1. Global Climate

o Sea Cores / Ice Cores / Coral Cores

• The analysis of data from oceanic sediments through the oxygen level and chemical layers which the material retrieved by the core yields information on temperature

changes in the ocean over time.

• 2/3 million years → year by year

• We use fluctuation in light / heavy oxygen in foraminiferan shell to track climate change

. 016– Light Water (Evaporate easier) – Evaporation (more in clouds) → Glacier . 018- Heavy Water (From vapor to rain easier) - Condensation (more in ocean)

• Heavy water stays in the ocean, light water got filtered out

• The hotter the climate is, the more light oxygen there are in the ocean

• The colder the climate is, the more light oxygen there are as clouds

2. Reconstructing Plant Environment

o Altitudinal zones has different weather

• Therefore, the plants changes according Plant Hardiness Zone Map

. If a certain plant is going to grow in certain place

• The zones are shifting due to climate changes o Plant remains

• Macrobotanical remains

Seeds and fruits

• Water floatation system to find plants remains

• Soil sinks

• Gather what floats

• Plant residues

• Remains of cooked food

• Wood (charcoal)

• Use the microscope to identify the tree species from charcoal

· Fossil Pack Rat Nests

• Pack rates bring food and home materials within 100 meter + Plants is covered through urine

• Inform the vegetation of change through time

· Palynology (Pollen analysis)

• Single cell organism

• Can survive for thousands of years

• Procedure

• Soil sample + Extract pollen from the soil + Use a microscope to identify the pollen + Find the pollen curve (time/percentage)

Bioarchaeology

1. Variety of human remains

o Otzi the Iceman

• Preserved in ice o Inca mummies

• Argentina 1999

3 children

• Died 500 years ago as sacrifice

• Preserved well

Clothes

• Hair

• Soft tissues

• Tattoo o Blindfolded boy

• Germany 2000 BP

• Found in a bog pool

• Low oxygen area o Small child

• Turkey 8500 BP

• Skeleton (most of the time) o Sky burial

. Let the animal to consume it

at Tibet

• Bones everywhere

o Stillwater marsh

• Nevada 1980s

• Robert Kelly, University of Wyoming

• Clark Spencer Larsen - Ohio State University

• Expose a lot of human remains

• More male than female

• Not a lot of broken bones

I some males have broken noses

• Most of the kids have Enamel hypoplasia (3-4 years old)

• Not enough food

• Not enough hunters or farmer

• Consult with the tribes so the remains of ancestors can be peacefully studies

• Don't want them to be moved

• Agree to be excavated if they're in danger to be disturbed or polluted . Cover it up with more soil

• Mark the location

• Check on the burial periodically

• Cannot do distractive analysis

• All the remains have to be rebury . But the remains in crib with locks

2. Sex

o Bone morphology to identify sex

• Male has bigger bones than female

• Male has more muscle larking on the bones

• Downside

• Hard to identify young children

• Difference vary across the globe

3. Age

o Teeth to identify age

• Eruption pattern

• See which teeth has erupted or not on jaw

• Root growth

• Cannot be observed directly with naked eye

• X-ray

• Teeth growth rings

• Just like tree rings

• Can be counted by microscope

• Estimate the age of an individual

• Most likely to be preserved

• Different race have different tooth development o Bones Fusion

• As you go older, bones fuse together

• As you go older, skull grows thicker o Coffin Plate

• Shows the details of when one die who are buried

4. Pathology

o Bacteria, parasites and viruses

· Egyptian mummies

• Tuberculosis

• Peruvian mummy o Trauma in bones

· Led to the death

• Unhealed bones

• E.g.

• Otzi the Iceman - Arrowhead embedded in chest

• Talheim (Germany) – Large pits with 34 individuals (group killing another)

• Little Big Horn (Montana) — Shots and crashes killed a man

• Survived after the trauma

• The bones healed o Disease in bones - Growth arrest feature

• Harris Lines

• Needs X-ray

• Can see the Illness

• Enamel hypoplasia

• Width of the teeth, how long is the stress

• Use the rate of the teeth growth to determine

• Osteoarthritis

• Can see how much labors an individual has

• Associate as hard physical work

Early Human Evolution

1. Early Hominins

0 7-4 mya

• Tropical forests are shrinking down

• Expansion of woodland and savanna in Africa

• Rainfalls are more seasonal

• Become cooler and dryer

• Apes species evolution

• Extinct

• Remain in the forest Move out of the tropical forest- First hominins

• Remain fossil records

· Found in Africa

• E.g. Toumai; Sahelanthropus tchadensis

• First 'walking' motion found (Bipedal)

• Finding holes on the skull

• Small brain

• Flexible toes and hands- cant walk and climb

2. What makes a human?

o Bipedal locomotion

• Walk on two legs

• 7-6 mya

• @ Early hominins, australopithecines o Larger brain

• 2 mya

• @ Homo o Long juvenile period

• We develop slowly

• 2 mya .@ Homo

o Complex foraging techniques

• 2 mya . @ Homo

• Rely more on foods that are hard to get than apes

• Chimpanzees

• Mostly collected

• Human

· Mostly hunted

• Extracted (require more brain power)

• Human forager exploit a much wider range of prey

• Chimpanzees

• Several monkey species

• Bushpigs

• Bushbucks

· Some birds

• Human

• 77 Mammalian species

• 21 reptile species

• 14 fish species

• 150 bird species

• Human use more complex hunting or extracting techniques than apes

• Learning to hunt and extract resources takes many years

• Kung woman digging up a tuber (35 years old, experienced)

• Fijian spear fishing (The older you get the more experienced you are) o Depend on elaborate material culture

• 200 kya

3. Australopithecines

o Lucy

· Australopithecus afarensis

• 4-2 mya

• Compare to human

• Fully bipedal

• Shorter height

• Long arms

• Smaller brain

• Apes 450 cc

• Human 1450 cc

• Sexually dimorphic

• Different body sizes between different genders

• Female 36

Male 5'00

· Evidence

• Laetoli footprints

• Tanzania

• Between 3.76 +- 0,003 and 3.56 +- million years old

• Potassium-Argon Dating

• Probably still spent some time in the trees

• To protect themselves from predators

• Sleep in the trees

4. Bipedalism

o Hypothesis

• Bipedalism is efficient way to travel on the ground

· Pro – You do need to cover a lot of traveling

• Con- Other animals are still walking on four legs

• Bipedalism is a good way to keep cool in open country

• It cools the body down by standing up

• Less direct solar radiation (only head)

• The air is warmer closer to the ground due to soil heat.

• Wind is stronger further from the ground; help evaporation.

• Bipedalism frees hands to carry things

• Don't need to carry things from mouth

• Bipedalism is efficient for harvesting fruit from small trees

• The posture is helping when harvesting fruits

• The very first reason why bipedalism happened

• Supported by chimpanzees

• They don't walk as bipedal

• But they harvest with two feet

5. Mode 1/ Oldowan tools and complex foraging

• Old Tools

• Ethiopia (Africa)- 3.39 mya

• Oldest stone-tool-assisted meat consumption

• Indirect method - Cut mark

• Kenya (Africa) - 3.3 mya

• Lomekwian tools

• The earliest stone tools

• Hammer stones

• Africa

• First widespread stone tool tradition

• Oldowan tools

• Not clear what species made the tools

• Too many different bipedal species

• No clear fossilized bones at the site to make associations o Chimps uses tools; early hominins too – isn't preserved o Oldowan people

• acquired extracted resources were eating meat; wild range of species (2-1.5 mya)

• The tools might be disposed there

• The site might be where the animals dead

• Not enough to conclude that oldowan people were hunting there

• Analysis of the bones

• Concentration of bones doesn't suggest the animals were killed due to disasters

• Stone tools and teeth marks are found on the bones

• Hyena, Stone tool;

• Hunting or stealing food from others?

• Hunting = stone tools cut marks + the most meaty part

• Scavenging = less desired part

• Finding

• Oldowan people were both hunting and scavenging

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