Review- Chapter 7 and 9
Review- Chapter 7 and 9 ISS 210
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Date Created: 10/16/15
ISS 210 Review of Chapter 7 amp 9 Chapter 7 Poverty with a standard of living below the minimum needed for the maintenance of adequate diet health and shelter Most of the poor are impoverished for structural reasons not personal ones 0 The essence of poverty is inequality in money and in opportunity The US has the resources to eliminate poverty if it would give that problem a high enough priority Extent of Poverty developed in the 19605 by the Social Security Administration SSA 0 Based on the minimal amount of money required for a subsistence level of life 0 They computed the cost of a basic nutritionally adequate diet and multiplied it by 3 151 of Americans were poor in 2010 0 this is the largest number of people in poverty in 52 years the official poverty line is arbitrary and minimizes the extent of poverty in the US 0 the government measure does not keep up with inflation 0 housing costs now take up a much larger portion of the family budget than food 0 the poverty line ignores differences in health insurance coverage and the medical care needs of individual families 0 there is a wide variation in the cost of living by locality Supplemental Poverty Measure SPM o A more complicated measure of poverty that takes into account expenses such as food clothing shelter and utilities Poor people are likely to be missed by the US census 0 Several families may be crowded in one apartment o In some rural areas homes are inaccessible 0 Some people may not have a permanent home 0 There are several million immigrants that are here illegally avoid the census The official government data are the best available to provide information about the poor RacialEthnic Minorities Income in the US is distributed unequally by race Asian white latino black implies that the large proportion of poor women is relatively new phenomenon in the US 0 Implies that all women are at risk when actually the likelihood o Obscures the fact that women have always been more economically vulnerable than men especially older women and women of color 0 White women in poverty increased rapidly in the past decade with rising martial disruption Gender Women are more likely than men to be poor Women have lowerpaying jobs with fewer benefits women earned 77 cents for every dollar earned by men Women usually have children and have to pay for child care housing and medical care 2010 nation s poverty rate was 151 o 22 for children under 18 the younger the child is the greater the probability of living in poverty 0 253 poverty rate for children under the age of 6 Children living in families with a female head of the household no husband present had a poverty rate of 469 more than 4x that of marriedcouple families Poverty clusters in certain places Highest poverty rate is in the South 169 386 counties in the US where more than 20 of the people live below the poverty line 0 Overwhelmineg rural areas where 40 of individuals live below the poverty line it is on the rise 0 Neighborhoods in 20052009 were more likely to be White nativeborn homeowners and high school or college graduates Implications of the spatial concentration of poverty 0 1 Limited education opportunities 0 2 A reduction in services and elimination of local jobs as businesses relocate to areas where residents have more discretionary income 0 3 Increased burden on local police hospitals and other services 0 4 Declining neighborhood conditions results in a lowering of home values and lowered asset building for residents 0 5 A higher incidence of poor physical health and mental health outcomes poverty is greatest among those who do not have an established residence 0 quotdouble up population people who live with friends family or other nonrelatives for economic reasons 0 the quotdouble up population increased by more than 50 from 20052010 over half of all farm workers live below the official poverty line 0 Hispanics are overrepresented in this occupation The New Poor 2010 the US hit an alltime high unemployment rate of 10 o hardest hit was the state of Michigan 146 as a result of the collapse of the auto industry and Nevada 13 as a result of housing and construction bust Old Poor the poor of other generations 0 Had hopes of breaking out of poverty or at least their children would 0 This hope was based on a rapidly expanding economy New Poor are much more trapped in poverty The Working Poor Over 26 million fulltime workers were below the poverty line in 2010 Federal minimum wage is 725 14500 before taxes for fulltime a year They do society s dirty work for low pay and few if any benefits They live in substandard housing Their children go to underfinanced public schools They are not eligible for many government supports unlike the nonworking poor The Near Poor people with family incomes at or above the poverty threshold but below 125 of the threshold They are one accident one illness and one job loss away from severe poverty The Severely Poor living at or below half the poverty line Most impoverished individuals and families have incomes considerably below the poverty threshold 2010 the average dollar amount was 9244 for a family to reach the poverty threshold number of severely poor has significantly increased since 1979 o 1 Many of the severely poor live in rural areas that have prospered less than other regions 0 2 A decline in marriage resulted in a substantial increase in single mothers and unattached men 0 3 Public assistance benefits especially in the South have steadily declined since 1980 Myths About Poverty Just quotGet a Job a job is not necessarily a ticket out of poverty for many people the main increase in the number of poor since 1979 has been among the working poor 0 this increase is a result of o Declining wages 0 Higher numbers of working women who head households 0 A low federal minimum hourly wage 0 Increase in housing costs Welfare Dependency Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act PRWORA reformed the welfare system o It shifted welfare programs from the federal government to the states o It mandated that welfare recipients find work within two years o It limited welfare assistance to five years o It cut various federal assistance programs targeted for the poor by 545 billion over six years Formally known as quotAid to Families with Dependent Children AFDC 0 New name quotTemporary Assistance for Needy Families TANF O Facts about government welfare before the 1996 welfare reform o Welfare account for 1A of the income of poor adults I Nearly half the income received by poor adults came from some work activity 0 About 3 of the poor received some form on noncash benefit Medicaid food stamps or housing assistance but only 40 received cash welfare payments 0 The welfare population changes I People move in and out of poverty every year 0 The prereform welfare system was much more generous than now but it was still inadequate to meet the needs of the poor TANF was put into place to promote employment over cash assistance to the poor and get people off welfare the poor the nonpoor The greatest amount of government aid goes to the nonpoor Wealthfare 0 About 3 of the federal outlays for human resources go to the nonpoor ex public education social security Medicare Two hidden welfare systems 0 legal tax loopholes that allow the affluent to escape paying certain taxes and therefore to receive a subsidy ex the tax deduction to homeowners 0 Direct subsidies and credit to assist corporations banks agribusiness and defense industries these subsidy programs to wealthy and corporate interest amount to much more than welfare assistance to the poor The Poor Get Special Advantages The poor pay more than the nonpoor for many services 0 Food and commodities is more expensive for the urban poor 0 Hospitals routinely charge more for services to patients without health insurance 0 Prices are 1020 higher in the WIC only stores women infant children The poor pay more for commodities and services in absolute terms They pay a much larger proportion of their incomes than the nonpoor for comparable items Sales tax takes more of their resources than it does for the nonpoor making it a regressive tax Causes of Poverty 43 of Americans raised in the bottom income quintile remain stuck there as adults 70 remain below the middle the majority of people raised wealthy will stay there Deficiency Theories 1 Innate nferiority Herbert Spencer 0 Social Darwinism the poor are poor because they are unfit survival of the fittest 0 As societies evolve the strong will flourish and the weak will eventually die out 0 Spencer felt that the government should stay out of the way of this progression and not help out the poor Arthur Jensen 0 There is a strong possibility that African Americans are less well endowed mentally than Whites 0 Approximately 80 of IQ is inherited the remaining 20 is attributable to environment Richard Herrnstein o Agreed with Jensen that intelligence is largely inherited 0 Social stratification by inborn differences occurs because I 1 Mental ability is inherited I 2 Success depends on mental ability 0 social classification by ability 0 Reasoning assumes that people who are close in mental ability are more likely to marry and reproduce thereby ensuring castes by level of intelligence 0 Bright people are in the upper classes and dregs are at the bottom Charles Murray 0 Wrote The Bell Curve the latest major revival of social Darwinism o Argued that wealth and other positive social outcomes are increasingly distributed across society according to intelligence IQ tests rather than social background 0 Claims a relationship between lack of success and lack of intelligence 0 It ignores the advantages and disadvantages of ascribed status Biological determinism is a class example of blaming the victim 0 Individual poor person is blamed instead of the structures of society JensenHerrnsteinMurray thesis divides people in the US 0 It provides quotscientific justification for the beliefs of racial superiority of some groups and inferiority of others 0 It legitimates segregation and unequal treatment of socalled inferiors Implication of biological determinism o The explicit validation of the IQ test as a legitimate measure of intelligence 0 For the most part intelligence tests measure educability the prediction of conventional school achievement JensenHerrnsteinMurray thesis overlooks the important contribution of social class to achievement on IQ tests IQ discriminate against the poor 0 In the language used 0 In the instructions that are given 0 In the experiences they assume the subjects have had 0 The face of the person administering the test influences the results 2 o IQ tests provide a selffulfilling prophecy the kind of education the child receives as a result of the testing thus influencing his or her future IQ Poverty is inevitable Cultural Inferiority contends that the poor are qualitatively different in values and lifestyles from the rest of society and that these cultural differences explain continued poverty 0 Transmitted from generation to generation 0 The poor have a subculture with values that differ radically from values of the other social classes Edward Banfield o The difference between the poor and the nonpoor is culture 0 The poor have a presenttime orientation whereas the nonpoor have a futuretime orientation 0 He does not see the presenttime orientation of the poor as an adaption to the hopelessness of their situation Critics of the culturetopoverty hypothesis 0 Argue that this is another way of blaming the victim rather than focusing on the structural conditions that foster certain behaviors 0 Research shows that the poor do not abandon the dominant values of society but retain them while simultaneously holding an alternative set of values focused on daytoday survival they adapt to their environment Most Americans believe poverty is a combination of biological and cultural factors Structural Theories How society is organized creates poverty and makes certain kinds of people especially vulnerable to being poor Institutional Discrimination Institutional discrimination when the social arrangements and accepted ways of doing things in society disadvantage minority groups the poor d Most good jobs require a college degree poor families can t afford that Minimum wage jobs can not support a family The poor get sick more often and stay sick longer 0 They can t afford preventative care medicine proper diets etc Traditional organization of schools and jobs in the US society has limited the opportunities of racial minorities and women Political Economy of Society Maximizing profit promotes poverty in several ways 0 Employers are constrained to pay their workers the least amount possible in wages and benefits people work full time but are still below the poverty line 0 Maintaining a surplus of undereducated and desperate laborers who will work for very low wages minorities women and undocumented workers 0 Employers make investment decisions without regard for their employees buying technologies to replace workers or moving company overseas Capitalism is revolved around individual gain without regard for other people Capitalist system has resulted in the US being controlled by a 1 elite group with enormous political and economic power The powerful use their political advantage to keep society unequal Costs of Poverty Concentration of poverty in certain areas has been linked to crime delinquency educational problems psychological distress and health problems Family Problems 0 Poverty damages family 0 Poor couples are twice as likely to get a divorce 0 Jobless people are 34x less likely to marry than those with jobs 0 23 of teenagers who give birth come from poor or lowincome families 0 poor children are more likely to be poor as adults Health Problems 0 2010 499 million people had no private or public health insurance 0 infant mortality rate in some poor urban neighborhoods exceed the rate in developing countries 0 The US has a higher infant mortality rate than most other industrialized countries 0 Infants born to African American mothers are 2x as likely to die before their first birthday than infants of White mothers Problems in Schools 0 Children in the poorest families are 6x as likely as their affluent counterparts to drop out of high school 0 Poor children experience less qualified teachers fewer school resources and inadequate education facilities Economic Costs 0 Costs of the US associated with childhood poverty total about 500 billion per year Elimination of Poverty Assumption 1 poverty is a social problem and the source of other social problems therefore it must be eliminated Assumption 2 poverty can be eliminated in the US 0 Spend less money on defense to help the poor the Peace Dividend Assumption 3 poverty is caused by a lack of resources not a deviant value system Assumption 4 poverty cannot be eliminated by the private sector of the economy 0 Businesses will not provide jobs that they consider unnecessary or not immediately profitable o The private sector with its emphasis on profit will not generate the new jobs needed to eliminate poverty Assumption 5 Poverty will not be eliminated by a rising economy 0 Employers do not have jobs with decent wages and benefits even in good times for those with inadequate education and training Assumption 6 Volunteer help from wellmeaning individuals groups and organizations will not eliminate poverty 0 Two problems with leaving poverty to charities I 1 The money received by charities and the number of adults volunteering their services to charities has declined I 2 The poor in many communities will be denied adequate food clothing healthcare and shelter because this plan is voluntary Assumption 7 Poverty is a national problem and must be attacked with massive nationwide programs financed largely and organized by the federal government 0 Poverty must be addressed at the federal level to ensure that the poor will receive equal benefits and services 0 Poverty must be attacked nationally to deal with the structural problems that cause poverty Chapter 9 Gender Inequality There is no nation where women and men are equals Women perform 60 of the work yet they earn 10 of the income and own only 10 oftheland 23 of the word s illiterate are women logical difference between females and males the social and cultural patterns attached to women and men 0 Gender divisions make women and men unequal Women and Men Are Differentiated and Ranked Gender Stratification the hierarchical placement of the sexes that gives women unequal power opportunities and resources Biological models for gender difference 0 Argue that innate biological differences between males and females produce different social behaviors Anthropological models for gender difference 0 Look at masculinity and femininity crossculturally stressing the variation in women s and men s roles Sociologists 0 Treat gender as a social creation deeply embedded in society s Gender Biological or Social Nature vs Nurture o Nurture argues that most differences are socially constructed 0 Nature the differences between women and men are rooted in evolution Biological Bases for Gender Roles 0 Chromosomal and reproductive differences make males and females physically different 0 Hormonal differences are also significant I Androgens males I Estrogens females I They both direct the process of sex 0 Biological differences between women and men are only averages I Influenced by other factors I Ex men are on average larger than women but that also has to do with physical activity and diet which is largely influenced by culture class and race 0 There is considerable overlap in the distribution of traits possessed by women and men 0 Gender is constantly changing o Femininity and masculinity are molded differently I 1 From one culture to another I 2 Within any one culture over time I 3 Over the course of all women s and men s lives I 4 Between and among different groups off the women and men depending on class race ethnicity and sexuality The Social Bases for Gender Roles 0 There is a wide variety in the social roles assigned to women and men 0 However there roles rarely vary randomly 0 Every society makes gender a major category for organizing social life I sociological perspective that calls on social rather than biological differences to show how all societies transform biological females and males into socially interacting women and men Gender and Power Gendered Institutions all social institutions are organized by gender the beliefs meanings and placement that value men over women 0 Institutionalize male control of socially valued resources forms of social organization in which men are dominant over women Gender inequality is tied to other inequalities race class and sexuality to sort women and men differently Inequalities also work together to produce differences among women and among men Some women get benefits from their race or class or their sexuality while they are simultaneously restricted by gender inflicts negative sanctions on those who are homosexual or bisexual 0 System of sexuality shapes the gender system by discouraging attachment with members of the same sex Sexuality is a form of inequality because it grants privileges to those in heterosexual relationships Sexual identities are socially constructed categories 0 Key linking process in the matrix of domination structured along the lines of race class and gender Sex differentiation is found in all societies but it doesn t always indicate low female status What Causes Gender Inequality Structural thinking treats gender inequality as the outcome of male control over socially valued resources and opportunities Friedrich Engles and Karl Marx o Industrialism and the shift to a capitalist economy widened the gap between the power and value of men and women MacrostructuralTheories 0 Explain gender inequality as an outcome of how women and men are tied to the economic structure of society 0 Women s economic role in society is primary determinant of their overall status 0 The division between domestic and public spheres of activity gives men and women different position of advantage and disadvantage o Roles in the labor force and in the family are interdependent Women s reproductive roles and their responsibilities for domestic labor limit their association with the resources that are highly valued Men s economic obligations in the public sphere ensure them control of highly valued resources and give rise to male privilege Capitalist Societies domesticpublic split is more significant 0 Because highly valued goods and services are exchanged in the public not the domestic sphere male supremacy keeps women in subordinate roles at work and in the home 0 Because of the connections between the class relationships of production capitalism and the hierarchical gender relations of its society patriarchy 0 United States is a capitalist patriarchy Socialization versus Structure Two Approaches to Gender Inequality To understand gender inequality 0 Distinguish between 1 a gender role approach 2 a gender structure approach emphasizes traits that individuals acquire during the course of socialization 0 Ex independent or dependent behaviors and ways of relating emphasizes factors that are external to individuals 0 Ex the social structures and social interactions that reward women and men differently Approaches differ in o How they view sexes o How they explain the causes and effects of sexism o In the solutions they suggest for ending inequality Learning Gender Gender Socialization how we learn gender Gender is not the same in all classes and races Children at Home One the strongest influences on gender role development in children occurs within the family setting Fathers have been found to reinforce gender stereotyping more often than mothers Majority of female characters were portrayed as dependent and submissive in children books 0 Women and girls are still underrepresented in book titles and as central characters the combination of feminine and masculine characteristics in the same individual Fathers who display the most traditional attitudes about gender transmit their ideas onto their sons more so than onto their daughters 0 Mothers transmit their attitudes to their daughters more than their sons Adolescent boys follow their fathers resistance to changes in traditional male roles o Adolescent girls tend to be more supportive of egalitarian gender roles than their parents Males would be less likely than females to develop androgynous characteristics Parents who foster androgynous attitudes and behaviors in their children ultimately cause their girls and boys to have high selfesteem and selfworth Androgynous individuals 0 More effectively manage stress 0 Practice good health 0 College students have better relationships with their parents Children at Play Children teach each other to behave according to cultural expectations Boys more than girls 0 Played outdoors 0 Played in larger groups 0 Played in ageheterogeneous groups 0 Were less likely to play in games dominated by the opposite sex 0 Played more competitive games 0 Played in games that lasted longer Boys 0 Control more space 0 Often violate girls activities 0 Treat girls as contaminating Power play a complex social process involving both gender and separation and togetherness Boys are more easily accepted into play with girls than vice versa Girls are involved in neutral toy behavior 0 Encouraged by both parents to play with neutral toys 0 Boys are not treated the same Messages transmitted to children from advertisements affects their toy use 0 Have stronger effects on boys than on girls Formal Education Title IX of the Educational Amendments Act 0 Outlawed gender discrimination However girls and boys are not receiving the same education quotboy crisis young men are marginalized while girls are taking over the schools 0 although males do drop out of school more often than females the trend is most pronounced among minorities and boys from lowincome homes 0 boy crisis is an issue of race and class disadvantage not one of gender difference Schools shortage girls in every dimension of education curriculum teacherstudent interactions sports and female role models Curriculum 0 Formal and informal curricula are powerful shapers of gender 0 Girls take more algebra and geometry boys take higher math given them more advantages 0 Girls received higher grades than boys But tend to score lower on some standardized tests which are used to make big decisions about futures o Evaded Curriculum matters central to the lives of students that are touched on only briefly o Males report they were targets of sexual harassment in schools taunts challenging masculinity TeacherStudentInteractions 0 Girls receive less attention and different types of attention from classroom teachers Sports 0 Sport participation has a general education value 0 Title IX required that schools receiving federal funds must provide equal opportunities for males and females 0 There is improvement but women athletics are still underfunded 0 Opportunities for women as coaches and administrators diminished 46 of women s team coaches were women girls and women see fewer women as role models in such positions Female Role Models 0 Women occupy the bottom rungs while men have the more powerful positions 0 Women make up a large percentage of the nation s classroom teachers but a smaller percentage of school district superintendents 0 As the level of education increases the proportion of women teacher declines Socialization as Blaming the Victim A socialization approach can be misused in a way that it blames women themselves for sex inequality 0 Socialization diverts attention from structured inequality Reinforcing Male Dominance Male dominance is the force that socializes and a force that structure the social world It exists in all levels of society from interpersonal relations to larger institutions Language Ignores trivializes and sexualizes women Overuse of pronoun he Generic termmankind There are fewer derogatory terms that refer to men Interpersonal Behavior Gender inequality is different than other forms of inequality because individuals on both sides of the power divide women and men interact frequently in home workplace etc n mixedsex groups 0 Men talk more 0 Men show more visual dominance 0 Men interrupt more 0 Women display more tentative and polite speech patterns Men take up more space than women do Men touch women without permission more Women 0 Engage in more eye contact 0 Smile more 0 Generally exhibit behavior associated with low status quotdoing gender following the rules and behaviors expected of us as males or females we create gender in interaction Mass Media women are underrepresented in television newsrooms highly stereotyped behavior characterizes both children s and adult programming as well as commercials women appear less frequently in adds than men quotthe new woman places additional stresses on women and at the same time upholds male privilege 0 they work and still do all the housework and take care of the kids 0 more like superwoman Religion US religion follows a typical pattern 0 Clergy is male 0 The vast majority of worshipers are women Common views about gender o 1 Women and men have different missions and different missions and different standards of behavior 0 2 Although women and men are equal in the eyes of the deity women are to some degree subordinated to men Bible promotes male dominance Women are more involved in churches and religious life The Law Women were denied the right to vote prior to the passage of the 19th Amendment During the past 4 decades legal reforms and public policy changes have attempted to place women and men on more equal footing 0 Force of laws depends on how they are enforced and interpreted in courts Politics In 1992 congress experienced the biggest influx of women and minorities in history Women still hold fewer than a fifth of all national seats Congress has two class of personal staff employees 0 1 Highly paid men who hold most of the power 0 2 Lower paid women who are relegated to clerical and support staff globally women are making gains in politics gender gap refers to measurable differences in the way women and men vote and view political issues Structured Gender Inequality the US has one of the highest levels of workplace gender inequality in the industrial world Occupational Distribution Women s employment rates vary by race 0 African Americans women have had a long history of high workforce participation rates Women s participation in the US labor force is one of the most important social trends Women have no received equality in the workplace The two occupations projected to grow most rapidly between now and 2018 registered nurses and home health aides are typically filled by women refers to the pattern whereby women and men are situated in different jobs throughout the labor force Fewer women than men in prestige jobs White women were the major beneficiaries of the new opportunities Trickle down effect 0 White women improved their occupational status by moving into male dominated professions and African American women moved into old white women jobs The Earning Gap Gap between women s and men s earning has remained relatively constant for 3 decades Women earn 81 cents for every dollar men earned Earnings gap persists for several reasons 0 1 Women are concentrated in lowerpaying occupation o 2 Women enter the labor force at different and lowerpaying levels than men 0 3 women as a group have less education and experience than men therefore they are paid less than men 0 4 Women tend to work less overtime than men experience accounts for only 13 of the wage gap largest part of the wage gap is caused by sex discrimination Intersection of Race and Gender in the Workplace Women of color 0 Most segregated group in the workplace 0 Concentrated at the bottom of the work hierarchy o In lowpaying jobs with few fringe benefits 0 Poor working conditions 0 High turnover 0 Little chance of advancement How Workplace Inequality Operates Why are women unequal in the workplace 0 Some place the blame on the individuals others focus on structural conditions and others call on interactional processes to explain women s disadvantages I Rest on social processes rather than outright discrimination Individuals 0 Women s socialization their education and the choices they make to take time out of the workforce to have children produce different work experiences for men and women 0 Human Capital Theory rests on the individual characteristics that workers bring to theirjobs 0 Research shows that women s individual characteristics and their human capital only explains a small part of employment inequality 0 Ideas and practices about gender are embedded in workplace structures I The workplace itself produces gender disparities Dual Labor Market Theory centers on the labor market itself 0 The labor market is divided into two separate segments with different characteristics different roles and different rewards 0 Primary segment is characterized by stability high wages promotion ladders opportunities for advancement good working conditions and provision for job security 0 Secondary segment characterized by low wages fewer or no promotion ladders poor working conditions and little provision for job security I Women s work falls into this segment Men and Women of the Corporation study by Rosabeth Kanter 0 Found that organization location is more important than gender in shaping workers behavior 0 Men and women behave differently at work because differences were created by organizational locations 0 Workers in lowmobility or blocked situations regardless of their sex tended to limit aspirations seek satisfaction in activities outside work dream of escape etc Women gained entry into male dominated fields only after earnings and upward mobility in each of these field declined 0 Salaries had gone down prestige had diminished or the work became quotwomen s work 0 Ghettoization women specialized in lowerstatus specialties in different and less desirable work settings and in lowerpaid industries Many fields that opened up to women no longer have the economic or social status they once had 0 Structures have two tiers o 1 Higherpaying higherrankingjobs with more authority I continues to be male dominated o 2 Lowerpaying more routine jobs with less authority women s entry into medicine college teaching and law has been accompanied by organizational changes an invisible barrier that limits women s upward occupational mobility despite their motivation and capacity for positions of power and prestige men who enter femaledominated professions generally encounter structural advantages which enhances their careers Interactional theories explain why gender is such a major force in the labor process 0 Women s and men s outcomes are enacted and maintained through an interlocking web of social relations among workers 0 All of which draw on gender to guide their workplace interactions Gender in the Global Economy Gender relations in the US and the world are linked to the global economy Private businesses make investment decision that affect the lives of women and men all around the world Global Assembly Line uses the labor of women many of them young single and from poor rural areas Manufactures rely on cheap labor The Costs and Consequences of Sexism Who Benefits Transnational corporation derive extra profits from paying women less than men Women s caregiving keeps the economy going and provides privileges for individual men at women s expense 0 They take care of the kids and elderly and home so men can obtain work The Social and Individual Costs Sexism diminishes the quality of life for all people Our society is deprived of half its resources when women are denied full and equal participation in its institutions Women s inequality produces suffering for millions 0 Poverty that is caused by gender inequality 0 Pauperization of motherhood the highest risk of poverty comes from being female and having children which explains the high rates of both female and child poverty in the US Sexism denies men the potential for full human development because gender segregation denies employment opportunities to men who wish to enter fields such as nursing gradeschool teaching or secretarial work Male inexpressiveness can hinder communication between husband and wives and between fathers and children quota tragedy of American society Fighting the System Feminist Movements in the US Gender inequality in this society has led to feminist social movements 3 stages of feminism have been aimed at overcoming sex discrimination o 1 First stage grew from the abolition movement of the 18305 I women s freedom was an important as freedom from slavery I Seneca Falls convention approved a declaration of independence asserting that men and women are created equal and are endowed with certain inalienable rights 0 2 Gave priority to women s suffrage o 3 Sex discrimination in earning and advancement I National Organization for Women evolved I Seeking legislation to overcome sex discrimination Women s Struggles in the TwentyFirst Century The women s movement remains one of the most influential sources of social change 0 Even though there is a not a unified organization that represents feminism Feminist activities occur at grassroot level
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