Exam 2 study guide
Exam 2 study guide BIOL2082C
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hanna Suggs on Friday October 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL2082C at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Shann in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 142 views. For similar materials see Ecology, Evolution and Population Genetics in Biology at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 10/16/15
Week 5 Life History the number of offspring produced every time the organism has babies EX a human has a fecundity of usually 1 unless they have twins or triplets number of times the organism reproduces reproduce once reproduce multiple times the organism s schedule of growth development and survival when things happen in its life humans are born have kids usually at 2030 years old survive to 7080 and die 0 Usually is the same for all individuals in a population but there can be some variation with individuals 0 traitswhen they reproduce offspring survival rate parental involvement 0 traits size of offspring Fast type R selected have babies fast lots of babies and die soon insects Slow type K selected live long few babies lots of parental involvement people 0 When to have babies how often to have them and how many 0 The 3 main questions of and effective life history life history traits maximize the tness of the population Parental Care and Involvement If both parents help raise young they can have more because they split the cost of raising them Mammals make huge trade offs lay eggs makes milk but no nipples little parental care 0 internal eggs fetus develops halfway and then leaves moms stomach to live in her pouch produces milk and has nipples in pouch for babies to eat extensive parental care 0 internal eggs develops fully in mom produces milk and has nipples extensive parental care Other organismsnot as much of a trade off 0 bacteria basically make a clone of themselves and split in half 0 embryos are created without the eggs being fertilized makes all females so all can lay eggs and do not have the make genes to make a male Can only have a baby boy if a male fertilizes eggs which can happen but is rare 0 need mom and dad to make a baby 0 just need mom makes clones o Hermaphroditesusually owers have both male and female owers on the same plant so that one plant can produce babies Why do we still have sex It take more energy the babies are harder to raise parents each only pass half of their genes off so the baby could be less t than the parent BUT sexual reproduction causes variation which is better for the overall tness of the population they evolve faster 0 the host of a diseaseparasite have to evolve faster than it or the host will die Week 6 Sex Ratiosin most populations the ratio is 11 s of male and female To calculate the tness number of gene copies Take the total number of babies or eggs the number of reproducing females the of gene copies To nd the tness of males do the same thing but divide by the number of males Mating a male and female mate and have a long term relationship to raise the kid 0 Most animals are not they are promiscuous mate with many partners 0 Extra pair couplings have a long term mate but also often cheat on them usually one male mates with many females but female stays loyal Creates more variation so it is advantageous to males and females 0 A female would do it if the male offers more material wealth than a monogamous partner more food safer home etc Sexual selection is pretty much always the choice of the female to mate with the male Females prefer the elaborate secondary sex characteristics such as peacock tails if they have these awesome things they must have good healthgenes which will give the babies good geneshealth Social interactions between individuals in a population is decided by the outcomes of interactions 0 mother gives up her food so mom is hungry and baby is fed 0 two gorillas help each other get food and split it so they are both good 0 gorilla gets food throws it in the lake so no one eats and they are all hungry gorilla gets food eats it in front of starving gorilla Fitness donor positive Fitness donor negative Fitness recipient Altruism Cooperation positive Fitness recipient Spiteful sel sh nega ve Inclusive cost ratio Fitness cost tness bene t lf cost less than bene t they will be altruistic lf cost greater than bene t they will not Inclusive cost calculation is done the same way as inbreeding coef cient Count the number of paths from one organism to other through family tree Count the possible paths between the two take the sum of adding 12 as many times as you have possible paths nnumber of paths through the family tree eusociality extremely social group 1 Several adults living together 2 Overlapping generations 3 Cooperation 4 Reproductive dominance and several or most are sterile Very rare bees are the best example only Queen reproduces Week 7 Distribution of populations conditions where the population could survive conditions where they actually live demographics constant at time of measuring dispersion where they live and how they distribute themselves agesex ratios population pyramids demographics rates at time of measurement pop growth rate birthdeathinfant mortality rate evenly distributed because there is less competition quality of land does not matter very very rare clump around resources like people living in cities Movement individuals moving from place to place where the individuals end up the populations live in high quality patches and travel between them population spreads from high quality area to smaller low quality area a physical barrier prevents individuals from moving to another populations of individuals in an area is directly related to the quality of it lots of food lots of individuals living there Growth Geometric can use if they only breed one time a year Yt Yo1rt where Yt pop at the time Yo initial pop rrate ttime ExponenUal NtNoert where N population Initial popborn diecome leavedNdT change of the pop in a time frame dNdTrN change of pop in a time frameintrinsic rate of change time logistic growth pop cant grow exponentially because of the carrying capac y dNdTrN1NK when NK 1 pop size is constant population density affects the ability to survive more dense better survival meerkats all keeping watch keeps them safe more dense worse survival not enough food to feed all some starve pop density has no effect on tness Week 8 Population pyramids shows males on one side females on other age youngest at bottom Lots of young means either r selected like insects where they have tons of babies but few survive to adulthood or k selected with a high growth rate Low growth rate not a lot more kids than reproductive age If the pop was NOT growing the kids reproducing age K selected in a developed country this is essentially what the US look like measure a cohort group of people that are studied for birthdeathfecundity Sum of fecundity survivorship of each of the studied people
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