Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide GRG 305
Popular in This Human World: Intro to Geography
Popular in Geography
This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caroline Hahn on Monday January 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GRG 305 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Paul Adams in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 344 views. For similar materials see This Human World: Intro to Geography in Geography at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 01/05/15
EXAM 1 REVIEW GRG305 This Human World fall 2014 Prof Adams Note this is a partial list topics not on this list particularly topics in the book may be on the exam Vocabulary Human geography study of the spatial organization of human activity and of people s relationships with their environments Space open moveable in contrast to place Place specific geographic setting with distinctive physical social and cultural attributes Sense of place everyone has a sense of place relative to their location includes lifeworld pattern and context of daily life and intersubj ectivity the shared meanings in a place Cognitive space space defined and measured in terms of the nature and degree of people s values feelings beliefs and perceptions about locations districts and regions Ethnocentrism attitude that one s own race and culture are superior to others Friction of distance deterrent or inhibiting effect of distance on human society Time space convergence rate at which places move closer together in travel or communication time or costs distance is often spoken of in terms of travel time Culture a shared set of meanings that are lived through the material and symbolic practices of everyday life Cultural region the areas within which a particular cultural system prevails Cultural complex combination of traits characteristic of a particular group Cultural diffusion an increase in the spatial extent of a particularly cultural trait or complex either through the movement of people migration or the adoption of a culture trait by increasing numbers of people Barrier to diffusion different culture different language religion etc Receptivity to diffusion cultural similarity same language religion etc Relocation diffusion the spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another Expansion diffusion the spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process Contagious diffusion the rapid widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population Hierarchical diffusion the spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places Landscape primarily visual present continuous intersubjective linked to power amp authority linked to how people define themselves Map projection systematic rendering on a at surface of the geographic coordinates of the featres fund on Earth s surface 3 0031 Cartography the body of practical and theoretical knowledge about making distinctive visual representations of Earth s surface in the form of maps Cartographic literacy understanding that maps are not a transparent view of the world Thematic map represent one or two variables in map form language is quite varied and involves use of color shape pattem light and dark etc serve to analyze and present data Populmlon Dvenslty One dot represents l 100000 people Choropleth map common and useful use existing system of boundaries group data into two or more levels or classes n F NUMBER OF PERSONS PER SALEM 100 BELOW 101 1 251 50 A 382 501 11 1 1001 ANDABOVE Q 1 39 4 39 2013 E Q E 0 1 G 9 x quot39 E NA NsJonaIAvemae o L P Puducherry Hquot I 1 r Isoline map connects points of equal Value better to use as it is more difficult to distort information using this type of map Peisuns per sq km 31 mi Ever H10 Z Clverz 39 I somu i 1130350 quot 1049 ii 25125 9 324 mtmi N Under I l Under 3 an 39alsand quot 39 39iCl1iI39 e u Capitals untleri mialiion j Equal interval classification scheme classes of data based on range of data Quantile classification scheme classes of data split into quintiles quartiles etc Azimuthal projections used for north and south polar regions Airroute distances distances measured from the center are true distortion of other properties increases away from the center Peter H Dana QI392DI39Q4 Azimuthal Equidistant Cylindrical projections Straight meridians and parallel scale true at equator or at two standard parallels used for marine navigation because thumb lines constant compass setting are straight Conic projections curved latitude lines b23qnr 39 73939 39 is Peters projection exaggerates in the middle latitudes El OIJIEII Robinson projection Peter H Dana QI392DI EI4 3 0031 Ro nson Projection Mercator projection straight meridians and parallels exaggerates EW distances and areas of high latitudes used for marine navigation bc of straight rhumb lines north america and russia would prefer this map and england bc it would be centered 3 0031 Eratosthenes created one of the first maps of the world and incorporated meridians and parallels Minisystem a society with a reciprocal social economy each individual specializes in a particular task tending animals cooking or making pottery who freely give an excess product to others 1 What are some of the specialized topical or thematic interests within human geography 0 Human geographers study diffusion of culture cultural landscapes population change 0 Thematic big broad ideas 0 Topical subsets of themes 2 What is the difference between formal functional and Vemacular culture regions 0 Vernacular Region a region that most people have heard of i ex The South North America b Formal Region a region defined by the presence or dominance of one or two culture traits i ex Area where people have eaten at least one breakfast taco Area where English is the dominant language c Functional Region a region defined by a systems that holds it together road system monetary system legal system etc i ex Area where dollar is legal currency Area where people are subject to American laws 3 What do you call a region in which people all share a particular culture trait d formal culture region e g in lecture when Adams said a region in which everyone has eaten a breakfast taco such as the Rio Grande Valley 4 What do you call a region that is tied together by a system of some kind political economic transportation etc 0 functional a region defined by a system that holds it together road system monetary system legal system etc aka nodal regions while they exhibit some variability in certain attributes share an overall coherence in structure and economic political and social organization EX The DallasFort Worth Metropolitan area of the Panama Canal 5 What kind of region is quotthe Southwestquot 0 Vernacular a region that most people have heard of 6 Why can39t geographers agree on a single set of boundaries to divide the world into one set of culture regions 0 Because many of these cultural groups strongly disagree on the boundaries locations An example would be the Muslim Kurdish people of Northwestern Iraq For decades they have been striving for independence from the rest of Iraq as they have a completely different cultural from the Sunni and Shi ite groups that compose the majority of Iraqis J ammu amp Kashmir Overlapping claim reflects an unresolved boundary con ict and a deeper ethnic and economic struggle 7 Be able to describe and give examples of three different kinds of diffusion 1 Expansion Contagious Diffusion A phenomenon spreads because of the proximity of carriers or agents of change who are fixed in their location Ideaspractices spread throughout a population in a snowballing process so that the number of knowersusers and the area of occurrence increase Example Agricultural innovations like the use of hybrid seed stock 2 Hierarchical Cascade Diffusion A phenomenon can be diffused from one location to another without necessarily spreading to people or places in between ideas leapfrog from one important person to another or from one urban center to another temporarily bypassing other persons or rural territories Example Fashion trend from large metropolitan areas to successively smaller cities towns and rural settlements 0 example of both Expansion and Hierarchical diffusion of outbreaks of communicable diseases 3 Relocation Diffusion Individuals or groups with a particular idea or practice migrate from one location to another bringing the idea or practice to their new homeland Example Asian immigrants move to the US bring their cultures with them people learn new things like food and language 8 Describe three new culture traits in the US and say something about how they are diffusing 0 Big culture traits language and religion 0 PAGE 147154 9 In what circumstances would religion function as a barrier to diffusion give a couple of examples 0 Amish people do not believe in new technology so would not adopt any 0 A major issue in modem day Iraq is the ISIS faction a right wing Islamic fundamentalist faction that strongly resists Western in uences and practices such as pop culture or ideas such as women39s rights Any kind of non Islamic diffusion is met with the barrel of a Kalashnikov 0 Mormons would block the different in uences because of their traditional beliefs For example they would choose to adhere to health code laws No soda coffee etc and dress in appropriate ways not like some revealing clothes that people dress today 10 In what circumstances would reliable and clean electricity create receptivity to diffusion give a couple of examples 11 What is entailed by the geographical study of the landscape and what does this involve other than the terrain WILL BE ON TEST 0 It is a collection of evidence about our character and experience our struggles and triumphs as humans There are two types of landscape 0 Ordinary Everyday landscapes people create in the course of their lives together Familiar e g Austin Hong Kong NYC crowded city centers to leafy suburbs and quiet rural villages landscapes are lived in and changed and in uence and change the perceptions values and behaviors of the people who live and work in them 0 Symbolic represents particular values or aspirations that builders and financiers want to impart on the larger public Specialsacred has meaning and emotion e g Federal District in Washington DC intended to communicate a sense of power but also of democracy in its imitation of the Greek city state Red Square in Russia Jerusalem 0 Composed of all the elements something you are looking at as opposed to something you are in like place how all the little things combine to create a cultural landscape 12 What are map pro39ections why do we need them and why are they called projections 0 Map projection is a systematic rendering on a at surface of the geographic coordinates of the features found on Earth s surface Because Earth s surface is curved and it s not a perfect sphere it is impossible to represent on a at plane sheet of paper or monitor screen without some distortion They PROJECT latitudes and longitudes onto a at surface resulting in representations of Earth 13 Explain what the Mercator projection is good for the nature of its distortions and why it became so popular 0 On the Mercator projection projections on which compass directions are rendered accurately are known as conformal projections a compass bearing between any two points is plotted as a straight line As a result the Mercator projection has been widely used in navigation for hundreds of years Keeps meridians and parallels straight Scales true at equator or at two standard parallels Used for marine navigation bc rhumb lines constant compass setting are straight By distorting areas and distances we have kept directions straight Greatly exaggerates E W distances and areas at high latitudes near either poles Relative size is distorted Mercator projection was widely used as the standard classroom wall map As a result Europeans and North Americans have an exaggerated sense of the size of the northem continents and are unaware of the true size of Africa 14 What areas are often portrayed with the following azimuthal conic and cylindrical projections o Azimuthal projections can be equidistant as in the Azimuthal Equidistant projection which shows air route distances from a specific location or equal area compass directions are correct only from one central point Distortion of other properties of other properties increases away from the center point LI1 39rHu3939Iaul 39 Esp Wu we o Conic Projections Lambert Conformal Conic directions are true in limited areas Distorts area and shape away from standard parallels E 39a Kn Esquotunquotw quot1 H M nhill fn rica LIE39F39lDEFt Ennfmrmal Conic Ulfigiii el 2xEal all SEW Standard Paraii eis EIZIfFl IEJQN Equal Area Conic areas are proportional and directions are true in limited areas distorts scale and distance except along standard parallels Equidistant Conic distances along meridians are true distorts area shapes and directions i 1 gr Hnr1h AmerIua Equ iuiisatant Eur i L 3F iigIquotI E aihll P Etandiar Fquotara illeI93 EEIIEHS H 15 How is the imaginary cylinder oriented when creating a cylindrical projection 0 Vertical 16 What kind of map projection preserves distances directions and areas just as they are on the globe 0 None because there are some kind of distortions on all projections including Equal area or equivalent projections distorts areas 17 Other than with the choice of projection how else do cartographers reveal individual and shared biases long answer needed 0 O 0 Color schemes and data intervals that disorient the Viewer when faced with statistics for instance a map made in the US showing IMR may lash out at China by assigning China s interval a negatively connotated color and data interval that places them in the same quartile as North Korea India and Bangladesh countries with less than stellar infant mortality rates Love Canal wasn t labeled on maps Changing place names Michigan sports thing 18 How is an isoline map different from a choropleth map 0 Isoline a line similar to a contour that connects places of equal data value for example precipitation Isoline maps portray spatial information by connecting points of equal data value similar in how they show temperature involves figuring out the best location to place a line that separates higl low value Choropleth tonal shadings are graduated to reflect variation in numbers frequencies or densities Use existing systems of boundaries countries states counties voting districts etc Group data into 2 or more levels or classes Show spatial variation of one or two variables at a time by using colors shades of grey andor patterns 19 Where were the hearths of plant and animal domestication 0 Agriculture Hearth Areas Middle East in the so called Fertile Crescent around the foothills of the Zagros Mountains parts of present day Iran and Iraq along the oodplains of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers around the Dead Sea Valley Jordan and Israel and on the Anatolian Plateau Turkey South Asia along the oodplains of the Ganga Ganges Brahmaputra Indus and Irawaddy rivers Assam Bangladesh Burma and northern India China along the oodplain of the Huang He Yellow River Americas in Mesoamerica the middle belt of the Americas that extends north to the North American Southwest and south to the Isthmus of Panama around Tamaulipas and the Tehuacan Valley Mexico in Arizona and New Mexico and along the western slopes of the Andes in South America Animal Domestication Middle East and North America sheep cow goat cat donkey dromedarycamel East and Southeast Asia pig chicken duck water buffalo silkworm yak South America llama guinea pig Central Asia horse Bactrian camel Northern Europe reindeer 20 List the most important domesticated plants and animals from the Americas Middle East and Asia 0 Animals above 0 Plants 1 2 3 4 5 North America Beans Mexico Corn South America Potato Fertile Crescent Peas wheat EastSoutheast Asia Millet rice sugar cane 21 Prior to European colonialism there was already a kind of globalization Explain 0 Globalization prior to colonialism stemmed from the expansive trade routes that connected civilizations Different varieties of goods diffused mainly through Hierarchical diffusion major trading postscenters where hot spots for new products 0 Early empires world empires a group of minisystems that have been absorbed into a common political system Egypt Greece Rome China Byzantium Where you get theses they try to control land these people were colonizing coordinating projects to take over territory then expanded their networks of trade and get other leaders to bow down to them as tribute stealing women and children find these images of cities being knocked down In world empires wealth ows from producer classes to an elite class in the form of taxes or tribute These world empires brought important new elements to the evolution of the world s geographies Emergence of colonization and urbanization Rome The Roman world empire relied on a highly developed infrastructure of roads settlements and utilities Many of the roads that were build by Romans became established as major routes throughout Europe Wherever they could Roman surveyors laid out roads in straight lines Romans pioneered road building military technology city building and hydraulic engineering Road system important be they link together all away around the Mediterranean on a kind of freeway sense this point of history water is easy to move from place to place circling around the Mediterranean and adjacent rivers used boats Greece Greek scholars developed the idea that places embody the fundamental relationship between people and the natural environment and that the study of geography provides the best way of addressing the interdependencies between places and between people and nature Developed the word geography Greeks recognized that climate varies with latitude 22 What are some myths onesided Views of globalization 0 Two types 0 cute cuddly myths In a photograph American soldiers in Iraq seeming to get along very well with local children and other citizens when the reality is usually less friendly 0 businesslike myth if all countries receive American in uences they can live exactly like us 23 List and describe aspects of four different kinds of globalization processes 0 Economic outsourcing leads to labor migration Transnational Corporations international trade 0 Political Intergovernmental organizations with no regional identity UN treaties NATO 0 EnVironmental Cross border impacts climate change sharing of global resources competition for resources 0 Cultural Westernization of other world cultures in valuesstylesideas 24 As indigenous culture has been affected by globalization what has been the character of the diffusion process 0 many get displaced and lost access to their land as globalization has spread Indigenous groups have been exposed to political oppression by more western groups 25 What are some expressions of resistance to globalization o tariffs high taxes militant fundamentalist groups native groups such as the Sami reindeer people in Scandinavia 26 What are three key elements of sustainable development 0 Physical Environment Equity and economy efficiency 27 How do communication and transportation affect the process of globalization and what is the pattern of the dominant communication and transportation ows 33 Why has the CBR fallen more slowly than expected in some parts of the world 0 Demographic trap some peripheralsemi peripheral countries are stalled in transitional stage and still have high birth rates These societies have improved healthcare but culturally have societal attitudes about having large families 34 How does the US compare to other countries in terms of infant mortality 0 As a whole US Mortality is relatively low at 5 deaths per 1000 births ranked 55th in the world Many nations at the top of the list have centralized health care systems driving down IMR Certain southern states have rates as high as 8 comparable to Botswana 35 From the 19thcentury to the present how has the demographic transition affected migration to the US 0 2 major immigration waves At the beginning of the 20th century with an in ux of Eastern European Immigrants In the 21st century with both large Asian and Latino groups Both re ect the diffusion of the Demographic transition 36 Besides population what else in the society changes when a society goes through the demographic transition and why is there a connection between cultural change and demography o Emigration moving from an area Con ict over social values and lifestyles economic development 0 Urbanization people move to cities and have less kids 0 Economic development more likely to participate in a market economy 0 Af uence increases due to economic development 0 The transition is caused by better water and sanitation services education urbanization and secularization 37 What kinds of places have a relatively youngold population in terms of the average age Why Italy and Japan have relatively old populations due to out migration Italy and low birth rates both Many African and other developing countries have very low median ages due to high CDR 38 What is indicated when a population pyramid looks like a column a pyramid a wine glass 0 Column If the population pyramid looks columnar it indicates that this population has stable birthdeath rates and is a relatively well off economy EX The United States pyramid and other core countries look like this 0 Pyramid Indicates that this population is in a rough spot and a developing country The base of the pyramid indicates a high birth rate while the top indicates that the death rate is also high Pretty much all of central Africa fits this bill 0 Wine glass When a population s pyramid has this look to it it indicates that it contains a rather large number of middle aged to old people This is currently a worrying trend in places such as Italy and Japan whose younger citizens are either migrating before old age or simply waiting longer to have children 39 Why would a population pyramid get narrower toward its base 0 This would indicate that birth rates are very low or even negative The population as a whole is very old with no one to care for them 40 How can population growth be our problem even when the most rapid growth is in Africa and Asia 0 With population growth comes with various negative factors such as pollution or potentially unwanted migrations For instance pollution produced by a seaside Chinese industry can run off into the Pacific and poison the waters for all countries that use that body of water And due to extremely high population density such as in India The US could potentially receive an in ux of Indian immigrants looking for better lives 41 Population growth depends on increasing the food supply List five reasons this may not continue much longer 1 Arable land is not always going to be available There is a limited amount of arable land and some of it is used for other things besides farming Erosion can cause soil to lose fertility 2 Biofuels as alternative energy for hydrocarbons reduces the food supply ethanol for instance eats up a LOT of corn in the US alone 3 Decrease in the amount of farmers due to urbanization and migration to cities 4 Chemical fertilizers and pesticides can cause the soil to lose its fertility Water supply becomes contaminated and diseases can result 5 Climate change due to pollution can affect plants growth Increase technology better medical care education of women better transportation 42 Why do people in the poorest parts of the world generally have more children than people in wealthier areas 0 Having lots of kids is basically insurance against high death rates 0 Ensures parents will have someone to take care of them when they are old 0 Good use of labor 0 oppressed ethnic groups go from minority to majority in a region 43 What cultural values and practices might explain why girls are scarcer than boys in certain parts of Asia and how does the diffusion of Western technology relate to this situation 0 Asian countries have patriarchal views of men being better than women A boy is a better investment because they can work and eam money and do tasks that women can t Women are viewed as housewives and shouldn t receive education The one child policy in China forces couples to choose and causes abortion or abandonment of girls Boys keep the family name in marriage 0 Western technology Birth control abortions and medical technology are used to control birth rates Ultrasounds can predict the gender of the child too 44 When a minority is oppressed what effect does this often have on their TFR Name a population that had a high rate of natural increase that declined when it achieved political power 0 An oppressed minority will have more kids as a response to vulnerability But once their situation improves the TFR will decrease as their society becomes more stable South Africa exemplifies this as their TFR is low compared to the surrounding dictatorships 45 When life is unstable and insecure what effect does this tend to have on the TFR 0 The Total Fertility Rate tends to increase when these threats emerge Many families on developing countries decide to have as many children as possible so that they may help them work in the fields or factories to bring in money for the whole family Also in developing countries since the death rates are relatively high Having more children acts as a sort of insurance against one or more child dying 46 Why is population growing fastest in parts of the world that are least capable of supporting extra population this requires a detailed explanation 0 These areas tend to have a limited technological capacity unstable govemments incapable of tending to the needs of their people and a poor agricultural sector that cannot meet the demands of such growth Resources tend to be scarce in these regions due to high population densities 47 Why is the demographic impact of a disease not always easy to predict 0 Many countries compensate by having more children as a disease persists 0 International aide DOES help countries struggling with disease 1 What impact does the education of women have on total fertility rate and natural increase How important is the education of women in regard to the overall demographic pattern in a country 0 A Educating women has the effect of lowering the TFR and rate of natural increase This is due to the fact that education tends to make more and more women independent and make their own choices regarding contraception abstinence and other forms of birth control RNI crude birth rate crude death rate 10 0 B Girls get to go to school and stay in school for as long as boys do Delays childbirth reducing the childbearing portion of a woman s life 5 years later than majority of girls in developing countries 0 Reduces infant mortality reducing perceived need to have many children woman in household has the skills to make more money Improves women s status in society increasing their say in reproductive decisions can say no reducing the number of girls born as a result of trying to have boys Increases women s literacy and skills decreasing the rate of failure of birth control
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