EBIO1210 Exam 2 Study Guide
EBIO1210 Exam 2 Study Guide EBIO 1210-001
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tatiana Tabares on Friday October 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to EBIO 1210-001 at University of Colorado taught by Dr. Barbara Demmig-Adams in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 333 views. For similar materials see General Biology 1 in Biology at University of Colorado.
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Date Created: 10/16/15
EBIO 1210 Exam 2 Study Guide Exam Topics Cell Diversity Cell features of different groups of organisms links to evolution and health Know what principal features all living cells share All living cells share these key components Nucleic acids DNA to store genetic information for protein synthesis Proteins to perform diverse tasks and ribosomes to make proteins Outer cell membrane to maintain a suitable internal environment Ability to acquire energy from the environment for ATP formation amp the 3 types of cellular work Use presence or absence of certain cell components to predict to which domain of life an organism belongs Prokaryotic Cell Bacterium smaller simpler structure DNA concentrated in nucleoid region which is not bounded by a membrane lacks most organelles possess unique biochemical pathways Eukaryotic Cell larger more complex structure nucleus enclosed by membrane contains many types of organelles multiple compartments allow multitasking Relate mitochondria and chloroplasts to their principal metabolic roles and to the organisms in which they occur Mitochondria The Eukaryotic cell s powerhouse are the sites of cellular respiration the metabolic process that uses oxygen to generate ATP by extracting energy from sugars fats and other fuels Role Burn energyrich molecules with 02 to gain lots of ATP energy for cellular work EBIO 1210 Exam 2 Study Guide Exam Topics All eukaryotes have mitochondria for making lots of ATP they occur in plants animals fungi protists Prokaryotes do not have mitochondria many prokaryotes cannot burn food molecules with O2 and instead use fermentation to make small amounts of ATP Reate chloroplasts to their principal metabolic roles and to the organisms in which they occur Chloroplasts solar energy collectorsconvertors found in plants and algae are the sites of photosynthesis These organelles convert solar energy to chemical energy by absorbing sunlight and using it to drive synthesis of organic compounds such as sugars from carbon dioxide and water 002 and H20 Role Convert solar energy into energyrich sugars in photosynthesis Prokaryotes do not have chloroplasts photosynthetic bacteria perform photosynthesis using other structures Chloroplasts only occur in 0 plants 0 algae Reate the endosymbiont theory to the evolution of eukaryotes Endosymbiont Theory Evidence Mitochondria and Chloroplasts o are each surrounded by a double membrane a have their own DNA and ribosomes and divide within the eukaryotic cell 1 Ancestor of eukaryotic cells has a ER b Nucleus EBIO 1210 Exam 2 Study Guide Exam Topics c Nuclear envelope 2 Ancestor of all nonphotosynthetic eukaryotes has a Mitochondrion i Engulfed nonphotosynthetic prokaryote becomes a mitochondrion 3 Ancestor of all photosynthetic eukaryotes has a Mitochondrion b Chloroplast i Engulfed photosynthetic prokaryote becomes a chloroplast Use cell features to predict whether a given cell is an animal cell or a plant cell Plant Cell only a Chloroplasts for photosynthesis photosynthetic organelle converts energy of sunlight to chemical energy stored in sugar molecules Cell wall support outer layer that maintains cells shape and protects cell Central Vacuole support Prominent organelle in older plant cells functions include storage breakdown of waste products hydrolysis of macromolecules enlargement of vacuole is a major mechanism of plant growth Animal Cell only a Lysosomes digestive organelle where macromolecules are hydrolyzed o Centrosomes with centrioles region where the cell s microtubules are initiated contains a pair of centrioles o Flagella but can be present in some plant sperm Motility structure present in some animal cells composed of a cluster Both Are all bounded by a selective barrier called the plasma membrane Inside all cells is a semifluid jellylike substance called cytosoI in which subcellular components are suspended o All cells contain chromosomes which carry genes in the form of DNA All cells have ribosomes tiny complexes that make proteins according to blueprints from genes mRNA Carbohydrates Principles links to energy metabolism energy flow in ecosystems links to health and metabolic programming EBIO 1210 Exam 2 Study Guide Exam Topics dentify a hexose as a 6carbon monosaccharide CSH1206 CHOH6 Carbohydrate polymers polysaccharides are built from the simplest sugars monosaccharides These are simple sugars a glucose 0 fructose o galactose All carbohydrates polymers and simple sugars consist of multiple units of dentify what features make sugars an energy source Photosynthesis takes energypoor nonreactive 002 and H20 and uses sunlight to turn these into energyrich sugars 0 These electrons are shared equally loosely held which makes sugar and energy source 0 Burning sugars with 02 produces energypoor waste products carbon dioxide and water Sugar has a high potential energy state and is unstable and reactive o Nonpolar bonds have high chemical potential energy and low stability the 0H bonds in sugars serve as an energy source Pace sugars into the context of photosynthesis and cellular respiration o Photosynthesis takes energypoor nonreactive 002 and H20 and uses sunlight to turn these into energyrich sugars Foow the flow of carbon from 002 to sugars and back between producers and consumers 1 002 molecules from the air is converted to sugars and other molecules by producers via photosynthesis 2 Then sugars are absorbed by consumers that eat plants 3 Then within the cells of producers and consumers sugars are broken down providing cellular energy and releasing COZ EBIO 1210 Exam 2 Study Guide Exam Topics Foow the flow of energy between producers and consumers Sun Energy enters the system as sunlight Solar energy is converted to chemical energy by producers via photosynthesis Energy leaves the system as heat Chemical energy from food is used by consumers to power body functions 91593 dentify the reason why sugars and not ATP are used for longerterm storage of energy 0 ATP is too unstable to serve as an actual storage form of energy Therefore CH bonds in energyrich molecules like sugars are instead used for energy storage and the sugars need to be broken down again later to ATP 0 Sugars exist in cell rings Sugar is like a gold bar not usable in a vending machine for cellular work but stable enough for storage 0 ATP is like small bills or coins usable in vending machines for cellular work but too unstable too reactive for storage Predict the formula of sugars composed of more than one monosaccharide Formula needs to be multiplied by how ever many and then subtract one less H20 than the number you multiplied Hexose CSHHC6 Monosaccharide one hexose Disaccharide two hexoses A disaccharide is formed when dehydration synthesis HZO joins two monosaccharides Know the examples of mono di and polysaccharides from lecture Important monosaccharides o Glucose o Fructose o Galactose Important disaccharides a Table sugar transport sugar in plants sucrose EBIO 1210 Exam 2 Study Guide Exam Topics 0 1 glucose 1 fructose 0 Milk sugar Lactose o 1 glucose 1 galactose Large Carbohydrates polysaccharides 0 Starch energy storage carbohydrate in plants a Glycogen energy storage carbohydrate in animals a Cellulose cell wall for structural support in plants Reate high fructose corn syrup HFCS to human sugar transporters and to fructose malabsorption 0 Sugar transporter in human gut is best at taking up 1 glucose 1 fructose is slow in taking up extra fructose a High Fructose Corn Syrup HFCS formula 55 fructose45glucose since human taste buds are highly sensitive to fructose mix tastes sweeter than natural 11 mix from sucrose 0 30 of US pop suffer varying degrees of fructose malabsorption o flatulence o diarrhea Reate differences in lactose intolerance among human populations to their diets over evolutionary history a Lactose intolerance is the original human condition for adults from the time of huntergatherers o In those ancient human populations that raised dairy cows adults who were lactose intolerant had a lesser chance of survival and reproduction 0 therefore those who lived on dairy farms evolved and were able to over the generations become lactose tolerant Reate the structures of starch glycogen and cellulose to their respective digestibility their functions and the organisms and tissues in which they occur 0 Starch 0 energy storage carbohydrate in plants starch granules in potato cell alpha glucose spiraling helices easy to digest storage carbohydrates amylose many organisms have enzymes that break bonds in starch OOOO EBIO 1210 Exam 2 Study Guide Exam Topics 0 Glycogen 0 energy storage carbohydrate in animals 0 glycogen granules in muscle tissue 0 alpha glucose spiraling helices easy to digest storage carbohydrates 0 Cellulose 0 cell wall for structural support in plants 0 cellulose fibers in plant cell wall 0 beta glucose forms straight fibers hard to digest structural carbohydrate cellulose makes up tightly packed fiber structure of plant cell walls animals cannot break cellulose bonds but some cows and termites rely on microbial symbionts that can 0 only a few microbes have enzymes that break bonds in cellulose All 3 are polymers of glucose Reate the structures of the starches amylose and amylopectin to the respective speed of their breakdown Amylose a long unbranched strands a slowly digested o beans Amylopectin 0 highly branched a rice white flour or baking potatoes a quickly digested 0 even more rapidly digested than the free sugar sucrose Humans store glycogen in the liver as a quickly mobilized energy source High consumption of dietary sugars and quick burning starches triggers energy storage some as glycogen in the liver the majority as visceral fat belly fat Glycogen quickly mobilized and quickly exhausted good for sprintmental tasks fasttwitch EBIO 1210 Exam 2 Study Guide Exam Topics Fat slowly mobilized and more lasting good for extended exercisemarathon slowtwitch Reate different carbohydrates to their roles in the programming of human metabolism Energy stored as Fat 0 sugars and some starches o saturated fats a low fruitvegetables Energy Burned a slowly digested carbs o unsaturated fats a high fruitvegetables To eat and store more when saturated fats and sugars are abundant is an important survival mechanism Photosynthesis Principles energy flow in ecosystems Pace photosynthesis into the context of energy and carbon flow between producers and consumers be able to identify the overall inputs and outputs of photosynthesis Photosynthesis Carbon Source 002 Carbon product Sugar CH bonds H electron H source Water H20 Ultimate energy source Sunlight Final energyrich product Sugar CH bonds 0 Mitochondria generates 0 water 0 carbon 0 Chloroplasts generate 0 sugar EBIO 1210 Exam 2 Study Guide Exam Topics 0 oxygen FLOW Sunlight energy enters ecosystem C6H1206 and 02 Photosynthesis uses sunlight to make sugars and 02 Cellular respiration ATP Aerobic cellular respiration burns sugars with 02 to C02 amp water extracting energy to make ATP for cellular work C02 and H20 dentify the energy donor ATP and the H shuttle NADPH as the link between light reactions and carbon conversion reactions of the Calvin cycle in photosynthesis Locate light reactions and Calvin cycle to chloroplast grana and stroma respectively a The light reactions of photosynthesis occurs in the Thylakoid membranes also known as the Granum o The Calvin Cycle dark reactions occur in the Stroma Know the source of oxygen produced in photosynthesis o The splitting of H20 into H and 02 and electrons is powered by sunlight o Sunlight also provides the energy to excite electrons to become high energy electrons o The oxygen is what is left over when the water is split essentially a waste product Apply the model of the hydroelectric dam to photosynthetic ATP formation by ATP synthase and identify active and passive transport of H in chloroplasts The ATP synthase turbine o Protons W are pumped from low to high H concentration into the inner thylakoid space pile up like water behind a dam and flow back through the ATP synthase from high to low H concentration where the energy of the H gradient is used to form ATP in the stroma 0 Internal membranes of chloroplasts and mitochondria platform for energy transformations via electron transport chains and ATP synthase turbines these EBIO 1210 Exam 2 Study Guide Exam Topics membranes act like dams behind which protons can be accumulated like water behind a dam Identify active and passive transport of H in chloroplasts The movement of protons through the ATP synthase occurs through passive transport 0 Going from high to low with the gradient The movement of protons through the electron transport chain occurs through active transport 0 Going from low to high against the gradient requires work 0 Releases small amounts of energy from the electrons Lightdriven electron transport force drives the buildup across the photosynthetic membrane of the proton H gradient that subsequently serves to drive ATP formation dentify the following as energyrich states in photosynthesis Excited electrons H gradient ATP and NADPH Sugars Excited Electrons As excited electrons flow through the electron transport chain they give up energy that is used to power ATP formation ATP is used in the Calvin cycle for sugar formation H Gradient Energy from excited electrons is captured to energize the active transport of H from low H in stroma to high H inside thylakoids ATP and NADPH Light energizes electrons again for loading onto NADP the H shuttle NADPH provides high energy electrons and H for the 0H bonds in sugars Predict the relative rates of photosynthesis and respiration in a green leaf 0 Leaf has the responsibility to take care of not only its own energy needs but the whole plant39s energy needs The leaf cannot consume all of the energy that it produces in photosynthesis Leaf needs to provide for the stems and the roots etc and to fuel the actual growth by the mass accumulation Respiration Principles energy flow in ecosystems aerobic cellular respiration EB0 1210 Exam 2 Study Guide Exam Topics Place cellular respiration into the context of energy and carbon flow between producers and consumers identify the overall inputs and outputs of cellular respiration Respiration Carbon source Food molecules with CH bonds Carbon product C02 Heectron H source CH bonds Energy source CH bonds Final energyrich product ATP FLOW Sunlight energy enters ecosystem C6H1206 and 02 Photosynthesis uses sunlight to make sugars and 02 Cellular respiration ATP Aerobic cellular respiration burns sugars with 02 to C02 amp water extracting energy to make ATP for cellular work C02 and H20 Predict changes in the binding capacity of hemoglobin for 02 and 002 o Hemoglobin in the bloodstream transports 02 inhaled by the lungs to body cells that burn the food with 02 to release energy hemoglobin transports the C02 waste produced by the body cell in this burning process back to the lungs to be exhaled o Hemoglobins 02 binding capacity is affected by C02 concentration Muscle releases C02 from cellular respiration into blood fluid which results in a decrease in hemoglobins 02 binding capacity 02 is released from hemoglobin to muscle C02 is taken away from the muscle by blood fluid a Lungs release C02 into the air the drop in C02 concentration in the blood fluid increases hemoglobins 02 binding capacity 02 inhaled by the lungs binds tightly to hemoglobin Place cellular respiration ATP formation into the context of cellular work ThFJONT Electron Transport Chain ADP Phosphate ATP Enzymes EBIO 1210 Exam 2 Study Guide Exam Topics Movement Muscle Building Structure ADP and P are regenerated to ATP in the mitochondria after ATP fuels the NaK pump at the cell membrane in an animal cell N99 Locate glycolysis the citric acid cycle and electron transport to cytosol mitochondrial matrix and inner mitochondrial membranes respectively 0 Glycolysis o Cytosol o The Citric Acid Cycle 0 mitochondrial matrix 0 Electron Transport 0 inner mitochondrial membrane ldentify the H shuttle NADH as the link between carbon conversion reactions glycolysis and citric acid cycle and mitochondrial ATP formation in cellular respiration 0 Energy is extracted from CH bonds by transfer of highenergy electrons H to NADH and then into electron transport to make lots of ATP 0 In the citric acid cycle highenergy electrons are extracted from the remaining CH bonds until only Co2 is left 0 Glycolysis breaking sugar in the cytoplasm o by direct synthase 0 Citric Acid Cycle takes place in the Mitochondrion o by direct synthase 0 Electron Transport Bound to the inner membranes of the mitochondria o by ATP synthase dentify the terminal electron acceptor of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and its essential role in energy metabolism 0 Oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor 0 Oxygen wants the electrons very much these are lowenergy electrons Oxygen serves as the quotterminal electron acceptorquot in mitochondrial respiration oxidative phosphorylation without oxygen ATP levels drop quickly and we die 0 decided in the mitochondria if it does not work you die EBIO 1210 Exam 2 Study Guide Exam Topics ldentify the following as energyrich states in cellular respiration CH bonds in food molecules NADH H gradient ATP the 0H bonds in food molecules the H electrons W in NADH the H gradient across the mitochondrial membrane the ATP formed Relate the link between mitochondrial electron transport and ATP synthesis to the model of the hydroelectric dam and identify active and passive transport of H in mitochondria High energy electrons from food are fed into the electron transport chain Electrons give up energy while flowing through the electron transport chain this energy is captured to energize active transport of H from low H in the matrix to high H in the space between the membranes H flow from high concentration in space between membranes to low H concentration in the matrix energizes ATP formation in the ATP Synthase turbine acts like a water driven mill grinding grain Protons are pumped from low to high concentration into the intermembrane spacepile up like water behind a dam and flow back through the ATP synthase from high to low concentration where the energy of the H gradient is used to form ATP in the matrix a The movement of protons through the mitochondrial ATP synthase occurs via 0 passive transport a The movement of protons from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space occurs via 0 active transport Relate heat loss in metabolism to energy flow through ecosystems Sun gt Energy enters the system as sunlight gt Solar energy is converted to chemical energy by producers via photosynthesis gt Chemical energy from food used by consumers to power body functions gt energy leaves the system as heat a inflow of light energy a chemical energy food to consumers cycling of nutrients o outflow of heat energy EBIO 1210 Exam 2 Study Guide Exam Topics Explain why mitochondria generate heat as a form of energy in endothermic organisms and how the uncoupling protein enhances heat generation 0 The mitochondrial uncoupling protein provides a channel across the membrane through which protons H flow back downhill without making ATP releasing all energy as heat The effects of the uncoupling protein 0 No ATP is produced by the ATP synthase 0 Glycolysis and the citric acid cycle continue to run 0 Electron transport continues to run and the energy of high energy electrons is released as heat Explain why uncouplers cyanide and carbon monoxide can be deadly The effects of cyanide or carbon monoxide o No ATP is produced by the ATP synthase 0 Electron transport stops 0 The Citric Acid Cycle stops Know which macromolecules can be used as fuels in cellular respiration The cellular respiration pathway breaks down amp interconverts I o carbohydrates 0 fats 0 proteins Comparisons Comparison of photosynthesis amp respiration Place photosynthesis and cellular respiration into the context of energy and carbon flow between producers and consumers identify the overall inputs and outputs of photosynthesis and cellular respiration Photosynthesis Carbon Source C02 Carbon product Sugar CH bonds H electron H source Water H20 EBIO 1210 Exam 2 Study Guide Exam Topics Ultimate energy source Sunlight Final energyrich product Sugar CH bonds FLOW Sunlight energy enters ecosystem C6H1206 and 02 Photosynthesis uses sunlight to make sugars and 02 Cellular respiration ATP Aerobic cellular respiration burns sugars with 02 to 002 amp water extracting energy to make ATP for cellular work 002 and H20 ldentify the roles of oxygen and water in photosynthesis and cellular respiration o The oxygen produced in photosynthesis comes from H20 water ldentify the principal roles of ATP NADPH and NADH in photosynthesis and mitochondrial respiration Electron Transport Chain Electrons are stripped from food molecules and shuttled by NADH Stepwise release of energy is used to make ATP Hydrogen electrons and oxygen combine to produce water H20 NADH reactive unstable doesn39t want the electrons that much these are high energy electrons OOOO H20 unreactive stable oxygen wants the electrons very much 0000 these are low energy electrons Compare the mechanism of ATP formation in photosynthesis and mitochondrial respiration EBIO 1210 Exam 2 Study Guide Exam Topics ATP is produced by both mitochondria and chloroplasts Sugars are made only in the chloroplast Oxygen is made only in the chloroplast Carbon Dioxide is made in the citric acid cycle The energy released by electrons flowing along the photosynthetic or mitochondrial electron transport chain is DIRECTLY converted to the energy of an H gradient Compare the location of the electron transport chainATP synthase and carbonconversion cycles in photosynthesis and mitochondrial respiration a Carbon conversion cycles Calvin Cycle amp Citric Acid Cycle does not require direct association with membranes in either mitochondria or chloroplasts Comparisons continued Comparison of aerobic respiration with fermentation in muscles amp in microbes links to industry amp health View topic below Compare and contrast anaerobic and aerobic respiration with respect to location speed energy yield and the involvement of oxygen 0 Only when oxygen is present can glucose be burned completely in the mitochondria for highest ATP energy yield 0 O2 present 0 Aerobic oxidative respiration o 32 ATP 0 No O2 present 0 Anaerobic respiration fermentation 0 Only 2 ATP Reate fasttwitch and slowtwitch muscle fibers to anaerobic and aerobic respiration respectively a Fasttwitch glycolytic fibers for sprint use glycolysis 0 quick but does not provide much energy 0 fermentation or Anaerobic respiration o Slowtwitch oxidative fibers with many mitochondria for extended exercise use oxidative respiration o slower but yields much more ATP energy 0 Aerobic oxidative respiration EBIO 1210 Exam 2 Study Guide Exam Topics 0 contain myoglobin for oxygen storage blacklooking meat more myoglobin I diving mammals like whales or seals Different human muscle fibers use different metabolism fermentation vs aerobic respiration ldentify the role of the environment including diet in the regulation of energy storage versus energy utilization in cellular respiration Humans o metabolism is highly dynamic and highly responsive to the organism s environment in all living organisms eg animals plants and microbes 0 Energy stored as fat 0 Sugars and some starches 0 Saturated fats 0 Low fruitvegetables 0 Energy burned 0 Slowly digested carbs o Unsaturated fats 0 High fruitvegetables Plants do it too They activate only those pathways that are needed in a given environment Not all of an organism s genes are expressed and not all proteins are made at all times to save energy Low demand for sugars by the rest of the plant when plant is not growing 0 Energy stored as starch in leaves 0 Little sugar buildup in leaves 0 Energy burned in growing parts of plant 0 Sugar produced in photosynthesis is moved to the plant s growing parts EBIO 1210 Exam 2 Study Guide Exam Topics Microbes do it too They too activate only whateve pathway is needed in a given environment a When glucose is available in the environment the pathway for glucose utilization is activated by gene expression of the necessary enzymes 0 When lactose but no glucose is available in the environment the pathway for lactose utilization is activated by gene expression of the necessary enzymes Connections 1 ldentify the role of photosynthesis in the production of oxygen and ozone and in the evolution of multicellular terrestrial life as a 002 sink and as a producer of food fuels and materials Oxygen o photosynthesis is the source of 02 o no other source of oxygen 0 without this 02 multicelled organisms that depend on aerobic respiration would not have arisen and life would be restricted to singlecelled bacteria Ozone Layer 0 without 02 in the atmosphere the ozone O3 layer would not have former 0 O3 shields against the most intense ultraviolet UV radiation which contributed to allowing the evolution of life into the terrestrial environment Carbon Dioxide 002 The same 002 that was fixed by photosynthesis over the course of millions of years is now released over a few decades Plants are a sink for 002 very important with regard to climate 002 is a greenhouse gas traps heat in Earth39s atmosphere 0 atmospheric 002 levels show annual winter increases and summer decrease due to changes in photosynthetic activity Renewable energy one candidate biofuels The idea behind biofuels CoZ fixed one year burnt as biofuel the next year 0 ideally no net increase in 002 Food EBIO 1210 Exam 2 Study Guide Exam Topics The sugars in turn are the source of thousands of compounds within plants including major components within plants including the major components of the world s food supply Calvin Cycle gt G3P gt Glucose gt Cellular RespirationStorageCellulose Food 0 Fibers 0 Materials 0 Plants are a source of materials Cell walls provide structural support for the plant and also provide fibers and building materials for humans insects birds and many other organisms ASPB o Fuels 0 Source of fuel and energy Wood and peat from living plants Coal oil and natural gas from plantsalgae altered over time Compare and contrast sucrose starch and cellulose as bases for carbohydratebased biofuels and fats as the basis for biodiesel Renewable energy one candidate biofuels The idea behind biofuels C02 fixed one year burnt as biofuel the next year 0 ideally no net increase in C02 Production of Biofuels yeasts use alcoholic fermentation to convert hexoses from 0 corn starch 0 sugar cane 0 sucrose 0 cellulose into ethanol for fuels BIOFUELS from carbohydrates via fermentation Greenhouse gas emission reduction From corn starch 22 From sucrose 56 From cellulose 91 1 Starch major storage carbohydrate in corn grains or potato tubers EBIO 1210 Exam 2 Study Guide Exam Topics a Ethanol generation using corn starch i starch is easy to convert to hexoses 11 However annual crop high input of fertilizer produced with fossil fuels only small portion of plant mass used m Huge food versus fuel conflict price of corn has more than tripled over the last decade Sucrose major carbohydrate in sugar cane amp sugar beet only 1 step to split sucrose into hexoses for conversion to ethanol a Ethanol generation using sucrose from sugarcane i Sucrose is easy to convert to hexoses u 7 harvests of cane before replanting is necessary m Cane waste is burned for power amp heat iv Still food versus fuel conflict Cellulosic Ethanol a Cellulose makes up the tightlypacked fiber structure of plant cell walls Only some microbes have enzymes to break bond in cellulose cows and termites have microbial symbionts that can 3 plant species with promise for cellulosic ethanol production 1 2 3 Switchgrass Hybrid poplar Miscanthus giganteus Grasses discussed as biofuel crops for quotcellulosicquot ethanol production are C4 plants Rapidly growing tree hybrid poplar discussed as another new biofuel crop is a CB plant When leaf pores stomata open to allow CoZ move in a lot of H20 is lost at the same time Reate the differences between C3 and C4 plants to their ecological advantages and disadvantages C3 plants open their pores more widely Lose 400500 9 H20 per g 002 fixed C4 plants do not open their pores as widely Lose 250300 9 H20 per g 002 fixed Sugarcane possess an additional enzyme in their outer cells that fixes 002 very efficiently under low internal CoZ concentrations use 2 CoZfixing cycles that both use ATP energy EBIO 1210 Exam 2 Study Guide Exam Topics they release the C02 and the calvin cycle refixes C02 efficiently MORE WORK CONSEQUENCES C4 plants do not need to open their leaf pores as widely as C3 plants C4 plants lose less water than C3 plants through their leaf pores C4 plants need more energy from sunlight than C3 plants C3 plants will be more successful in less sunny but moister C4 plants will be more successful in sunnier and drier Advantages of C4 plants C4 plants fix C02 with leaf pores stomata less widely open amp need less water Advantage in sunny dry climates Advantages of C3 plants C3 plants needless energy since they run only one not 2 cycles Advantage in less sunny but moister climates Connections 2 Relate the concepts of glycemic index of different carbohydrates and glycemic load to human health Glycemic index GI rapidity of conversion to glucose Glycemic load GL GI x amount of food consumed High GL gt Chronic elevated blood glucose Low GL gt Balanced blood glucose level High GI 0 Regular soft drinks 0 Candy 0 White bread 0 White rice 0 Baking potatoes 0 Pancakes white flour 0 Bagel white flour 0 sugar or rapidly digested amylopectin starch EBIO 1210 Exam 2 Study Guide Exam Topics Low GI Vegetables Whole fruit Multigrainwhole grain bread Whole grains Sweet potatoes Spicesl o slowly digested amylose starch amp nondigestible cellulose Reate the concepts of glycemic index of different carbohydrates and glycemic load to human health 0 High omega6 o Omega3 fat ratio 0 High GL amp saturated fat 0 Visceral obesity 0 Diets with high GL can lead to chronic high blood glucose level and result in insulin insensitivity lifestylerelated diabetes type 2 0 Chronic high blood GL and even more so fructose also elevates the risk for proinflammatory diseases I Proteins in blood become glycated looks like sugar coat of bacteria this turns on inflammation Cholesterol and cardiovascular disease Inflammation amp plaque result from white blood cell recruitment which is triggered by the presence of glycated oxidized LDL Part genetic problem LDL receptor gene 0 Genetic predisposition for high cholesterol levels in the bloodstream familial hypercholesterolemia caused by insufficient numbers of the receptor for removal of LDL carrying cholesterol from bloodstream Part Dietary problem 0 Dietary saturated fats and trans fats downregulate gene expression of the LDL receptor gene as a result less LDL receptor protein is available in cell membrane to remove LDL from bloodll EBIO 1210 Exam 2 Study Guide Exam Topics 0 Inflammation amp actual plaque result from white blood cell recruitment which is triggered by the presence of glycated oxidized LDL High LDL result of high saturated fat intake Glycation result of chronic high blood sugar Oxidation result of low fruitvegetable antioxidant intake
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