Midterm 1 Study Guide - MUS 360
Midterm 1 Study Guide - MUS 360 MUS 360
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alex Tucker on Friday October 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MUS 360 at University of Oregon taught by Kajikawa L in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 131 views. For similar materials see Hip-Hop: Hst, Cul, Aes >1 >AC in Music at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/16/15
MUS 360 Day 1 JayZ D evils 1996 produced by DJ Premier friends turning against each other political problems incarceration antireligious and never prayed to God I prayed to Gotti JayZ talks about his hood grafitti art background beat from Go Back Home by Allen Toussaint rap s meter is something you actually hear 2 things make up meter beat sets framework for MC for their delivery flow rhythm that MC adds to the beat 92815 New York in the 1970 s Deindustrialization amp Youth Culture 93015 quotGhetto Bros Power 1972 RampB 12 bar blues quotThis album contains a message a message to the world from the Ghetto Brothers If the Ghetto Brothers dream comes true the little people will be little people no more and make their own mark on the world New York Manhattan The Bronx Brooklyn Bronx uptown birthplace of hiphop quotA Symbol of America s Woes recession amp restructuring loss of manufacturing jobs 240000 defunding of public services white ight from urban areas NYC was on brink of bankruptcy in 1975 US as a whole was facing high unemployment amp in ation Bronx made 12 as much as other NY workers amp 40 than other Americans quotLadies amp Gentlemen the Bronx is burning TV sports announcer Howard Cassell 1977 World Series More than 30000 res CrossBronx Expressway Overseen by urban planner Robert Moses Main construction 19591963 Provide means to get through the Bronx as fast as possible when driving 60000 homes destroyed 170000 relocated poorest black amp Puerto Rican residents stranded racial diversity in neighborhoods undesirable Important places Bronx River Project 1520 Sedgewick completed in 1967 important to hiphop Bronx gangs Gangs created hiphop allowed adolescents a safe place Youth Pop Culture Genre Lang Comm Salsa Span Latino RampB Funk Eng African American Reggae Eng Jamaican Salsa Funk amp Reggae are all informed by common musical ancestry New York in the 1970 s Deindustrialization amp Youth Culture 93015 AfroCaribbean approach to rhythm amp musical organization Rhythmic cycles Groove Soul Funk James Brown Symbol of independence difference Distinct sound Relentless performer Funky repetitive grooves Selfdetermination I Don t Want Nobody To Give Me Nothing Open Up The Door I ll Get It Myself Give It Up Or Turn It Loose Live Video 1969 Say It Loud I m Black amp I m Proud Puerto Rican History US colony since 1898 PR s have US citizenship but don t have rep in government Many move to US in first 12 of 20th Century New York Spanish Harlem in search of work Today more Purto Rican Americans in US than PR Clave rhythmic key of song underlying rhythmic pattern around Which the musicians organize amp coordinate What they play Jamaica Former British colony 1655 1962 Plantation economy W White planter class amp poor black majority African music amp culture discouraged but problack neoAfrican musical culture arises in reggae music of 1970 s Sound system group of DJ s selectors engineers amp MC s toasters playing pre recorded music Important part of Jamaican cultural history Start of clubs MUS 360 Discussion 1 10215 History Culture Aesthetics Events Tradeons beats People Stereotypes observable Movements Way of living qualities PoHUcalEsues ReHgknw rnoodtone Race n gar y language x Locatk fv n a me lt3rk ns quotSame Lovequot Macklemore History Culture Aesthetics Bible happy beat Oppression intriguing intro religion forward movement rnoUvannal trunwpets n xof eeveme shnpke casualtone Seattl e Hip Hop Race gender Discussion 2 10915 quotRapper s Delightquot was astonishing to me not because the artists were rapping and not singing What was remarkable about it was that it was 15 minutes long Whenever they played quotRapper s Delightquot on the radio which was all the time they played the entire 15 minute version which was unheard ofquot Bill Adler critic Boston Herald Listening to Rapper s Delight 1979 Introduce rappers Simple lyrics Rockin the party References to NYC Culture Accessible ashy lyrics Upbeat Alliterations Groove change 16 bar repeated groove Vocal percussion scatting Bass Melodic rhythmic Claps rhythm meter Audobon 1978 Year before RD Hip hop wasn t a known genre Harder sound Instruments watered down bass amp drums only Imperfections Background noise Loop changes little adjustment by DJ Lots of repetition DJ has power Constant change Similarities Lyrics are simple Rely on percussion bass Groove changes Multiple MC s Similar ow Same words Intros Same topics Discussion 2 10915 Differences Q AB Cleaner imperfection Emphasis on MC s BBoys catering to them 3 MC s DJ emphasis live band in studio 4 MC s borrowing Good Times loops prerecorded appeal to commercial success specific audience Kool Herc BBoys amp Birth of Hip Hop 10515 Day 3 Families of Resemblance Genre Lang Comm Salsa Span Latino RampB Funk Eng African American Reggae Eng Jamaican Salsa Funk amp Reggae are all informed by common musical ancestry AfroCaribbean approach to rhythm amp musical organization Rhythmic cycles Groove DJ Kool Herc Clive Campbell b 1955 Kingston Jamaica Family immigrates to US When he was 12 yo Move to Sedgewick completed 1967 Disco Had parties in apartment to make money 25 female 50 male term derives from French discotheque late 60 s early 70 s US dance clubs hire DJ s to mix records Becomes important to gay amp racially mixed communities 1975 1980 hits mainstream amp dominates pop charts DJ Mixers amp Turntables Technics 1200 Series Panasonic Japan Gemini Mixer W crossfader Helped transition from end of one song to stat of next New York Disco DJ s Larry Levan 1954 1992 David Mancuso 1944 Frankie Nuckles 1955 2014 Francis Grasso 1949 2001 Music Producers Tom Moulton 1940 Mid 1970 s created first extended dance mix versions of songs designed for club play Saturday Night Fever 1977 Kool Herc BBoys amp Birth of Hip Hop Day 3 10515 Top selling album in history until Michael Jackson s Thriller Film amp album crossell Height of Disco 1977 1980 1979 200 discoonly stations 1980 1St Grammy for Disco Music Glamorous Disco Club in Manhattan NYC Secluded club mostly White Hard to get in Had to have money Hip Hop s Birthday Kool Herc had a party amp put up yers 42 years ago began isolating amp repeating the break on records for dancers in uenced other DJ s including Afrika Bambaataa amp Grandmaster Flash Breakbeat 2 definitions Part of song Where all instruments except percussion stop Part of song Where certain elements are suddenly removed from a groove song takes its clothes off The Freshest Kids hip hop is a culture rap graffiti art bboysgirls Hip hop always challenges What people think adolescents are capable of Multimillion dollar industry Classic BBoy Records The BBoy Canon Artist Song Year Break James Brown Give It Up Or Turn It Loose 1969 Drum break 425 Funky Drummer 1970 Drum break 533 Incredible Bongo Band 1972 Guitar chords 50 Babe Ruth Bongo Rock 1972 Morricone theme 325 J immy Castor Bunch The Mexican 1972 Percussion break 2 10 Marvin Gaye Its Just Begun 1972 Opening ending Bob James T Plays It C001 1975 Opening bells drums Take Me To the Mardi Gras DJ Kool Herc s MerryGoRound Kool Herc BBoys amp Birth of Hip Hop Day 3 10515 Used 2 turntables amp a mixer could extend break sections indefinitely Circular repetitive form of hip hop owes its existence to funk grooves amp breaks that DJ s looped for fan pleasure DJ Grandmaster Flash is credited to this Apache 1972 National Anthem of Hip Hop Kool Herc examples Missy Elliot s We Run This 2009 amp Nas Made You Look 2006 Soundtrack for The Thing With Two Heads 1972 Released on Viner s Album Bongo Rock 1972 Michael Viner s Incredible Bongo Band Michael Viner 1944 2009 King Ericson 1942 Tim Gordon 1945 Perry Botkin 1933 Comprised of studio musicians who recorded anonymously after hours amp never toured Tight brass charts Psychedelic guitar riffs Funky keyboard vamps Heavy percussion Babe Ruth First Base 1972 British Progressive Rock Jenny Hahn Vocals Alan Shacklock Guitar Arranging Takes theme from For A Few Dollars More Bob James Two 1975 b Dec 25 1939 fusion jazz keyboard player pioneer of smooth jazz Blackout of 1977 It s funny cause I have a theory You know what Before that blackout you had maybe five legitimate crews of DJ s After the blackout you had a DJ on every block That blackout made a big spark in the hiphop revolution DJ Grand Wizard Theodore Sugar Hill Records amp the Birth of Rap Songs 10715 Day 4 Apache 1972 soundtrack for quot The Thing With Two Headsquot 1972 Blackout of 1977 Large scale looting All equipment was stolen 1978 Billboard Magazine takes notice of BBeats bombarding Bronx DJ s started taking old RampB records Example of industry taking notice Coke La Rock b 1955 Began rapping w DJ Kool Herc Credited w being 1st MC Breakbeats BobJames quotTake Me to the Mardi Grasquot 1975 The Whole Darn Family quotSeven Minutes of Funkquot 1976 DJ Grandmaster Flash b 1958 quotThe problem according to Saddler was that Herc would literally pick up the needle and drop it on the vinyl rst on one turntable and then on the next taking a chance that he would land on the breakquot Quick Mix Theory Looked up to Kool Herc but thought his mixes were sloppy quotIf you looked at the crowd in that moment between the songs everybody fell off the beat for a few seconds They d get back on it again but in those few seconds you could see the energy and the magic start to fade from the crowdquot Sylvia Robinson 1936 2011 From NYC Record producer label executive for Sugar Hill Records Grandmaster Flash amp The Furious 4 MC s Audubon Dec 23 1978 Group DJ Rappers Grandmast Melle Mel Cowboy Kid Creole er Scorpio Sugar Hill Records amp the Birth of Rap Songs 10715 Day 4 DJ Techniques Rapper Techniques quotQuick Mix Call amp response Theoryquot Rhyming quotClock Theoryquot Boasting about group Scratching amp DJ Records used during 30 min performance highlighted red rst 10 minutes Dynamic Corvettes Funky Music Is The Thing Part IIquot 1975 Duke Williams amp The Extremes quotChinese Chickenquot 1973 All Dyrections quotOn Top Of Itquot 1973 Pleasure quotLets Dancequot 1976 John Davis amp The Monster Orchestra quotI Can t Stopquot 1976 David Matthews quotMain Theme From Star Warsquot 1977 The Blackbyrds quotBlackbyrds Themequot 1974 Sugarhill Gang quotRapper s Delightquot 1979 Members Big Bank Hank Master Gee amp Wonder Mike Released Sept 16 1979 Reached BilboardTop 40 in Jan 1980 Music based on Chic s quotGood Timesquot 1979 not sampling Produced by Syliva Robinson Sugar Hill Records Fatback Band quotKing Tim lllquot PersonalityJock released July 25 1979 From The Disco To The Street 101215 Day 5 1st Recorded song w rap Fatback Band quotKing Tim lllquot July 25 1979 Love DeLuxe quotHere Comes That Sound Againquot 1979 lntro of Rapper s Delight comes from HCTSA Grandmaster Caz Cassanova Fly Loaned book of rhymes to Big Bank Hank Sugarhill Gang Member of Cold Crush Brothers In Macklemore s Downtown Big Bank Hank uses his name in Rapper s Delight DJ Eddie Cheeba quotI heard Rapper s Delight on the radio l was mad when rst heard it These people came from out of nowhere We were making so much money from DJing that making records just wasn t our thing We couldn t see itquot DJ Hollywood quotHollywood and Starski you would always hear them say 39hiphop dahippitdahippittodahiphipahop ya don t stop and shit like that they started itquot Eddie Cheeba Bobby Robinson b 1917 Not related to Sylvia Robinson Enjoy Records From Bronx Grandmaster Flash amp the Furious Five 1979 quotSuperrappinquot released on Enjoy Records based on breakbeat from Whole Darn Family s quotSeven Minutes of Funkquot quotThe Breaksquot 1980 Kurtis Blow How is this recording both similar to amp different from live hip hop performances What is the double meaning of quotthe breaksquot in this song Comments Call amp response party beat breaks hard times of life no DJ not bragging Charlie Ahern talking about the in uence of early commercial rap Filmmaker of Widstye From The Disco To The Street 101215 Day 5 quotNobody was dancing Period Rap became the focal point MCs were onstage and people were looking at them This is 1980 In other words hip hop is dead by 1980 It s truequot Uptown Downtown Connection In the early 805 a of meetings amp collaborations between Uptown Bronx DJs MCs amp Downtown dancers club owners artists amp lmmakers helped spread hip hop culture across New York US amp eventually the world Wildstyle 1982 Charlie Ahern Blondie Rapture 1981 Debbie Harry amp Chris Stein Afrika Bambaataa amp the Soulsonic Force quotPlanet Rockquot 1982 Afrika Bambaataa Planet Rock 1982 quotNo work or play our world is free Be what you be Just be covered in many music styles uses drum machine rst sample in rap Fairlight CMI quotORCH 5 Orchestral sample that was shipped w every Fairlight CMI as a quotstockquot sound Sampled from the loud chord opening quotInfernal Dance ofAl the Subjects ofKatchei in lgor Stravinsky s ballet The Firebird Roland TR808 Drum machine Released 1980 Still used today Trans Europe Express United States front cover 1977 Kraftwerk Sampled in Planet Rock quotThe Messagequot 1982 quotDon t push me cause I m close to the edge I m trying not to lose my head Uh Huh huh huh huhquot Ed quotDuje Booteequot Fletcher Melle Mel Sylvia Robinson Black America c 1983 30 mil Searching for work black employment rate 22 Kid Creole Mel s younger brother From The Disco To The Street 101215 Day 5 quotWhen it came to 39The Message we were like 39What in the hell is this What are we doin with this It s slow it s plodding the hook what is it We was used to all of the break records but Sylvia had a concept of us doing that song and she felt that we would be perfect for it because we came from the inner city We was afraid of the song because we didn t think that it would work We were surprised like hell it worked like a charm Matter of fact it worked so good that the next 50 millions songs that we did after that all tried to be like that because the formula workedquot quotNew York New Yorkquot 1983 talking about how tough NYC life is racial pro ling Golden Age of Sampling 101415 Day 6 Thes One of PUTS UO 2011 Came to WOW Hall spoke to class Everything that is hiphop was not originally intended Appropriation Thes One quotWhat Makes Hip Hop Hip Hopquot Hip Hop reappropriation destruction Musical borrowing fundamental element of hiphop culture amp aesthetics Hip Hop is distinct for its overt borrowing of preexisting materials to new ends Arthur Baker b 1955 Producer for Planet Patrol Brooklyn Funk Essentials North End amp Goon Squad Worked w Holland notes Found by Tommy Boy Records Fairlight CMI Computer Musical Instrument 50000 1979 16 KB no space Drum Machine Era Oberheim DMX 1981 Roland TR808 1980 Both have preloaded sounds DJs used this a lot 1983 Pro le Records Columbia quotIt s Like That bw quotSucker MC squot Run DMC breakbeat like quotThe Breaksquot beat is slower in quotlLTquot drum synth like quotPlanet Rockquot Run DMC quotSucker MC squot 1983 Just drums in beat More aggressive No open space Sharp amp has rhythmic jabs No chorus Backlash against Disco quotRap music 39born on the margins of the margins of the music industry quot shallow trendy repetitious vs complexity of art rock quotpoetry of singersongwriters judgments also tied up w race amp gender Golden Age of Sampling 101415 Day 6 Disco Riot 1979 July 12 Detroit Tigers amp Chicago Red Sox DJ gave discounts to people who brought records to burn Blew hole in center eld Cancelled game Called in riot police to stop problems Rick Rubin b 1963 amp Russell Simmons b 1957 DefJam Records 1983 Started in dorm room NYU Rubin s dorm quotWalk This Wayquot 1986 Aerosmith created Run DMC covered Incorporated extra sounds drum machine Rebranding Rap as the New Rock Rick R quotRap records are really black rock and roll records the antithesis of discoquot Bill A quotRappers make rock and roll My notion of rock and roll isn t pegged to a big noisy guitar I think rock and roll has always been about attitude and rhythm its about aggression rebellion sex and a big beatquot JD C quotRun DMC s music is proof that rap can be as 39loud and aggressive Iquot as any heavy metal act Run DMC quotPeter Piperquot 1986 BobJames quotTake Me To The Mardi Grasquot Added drum machine Beastie Boys 1986 Started as punkrock became rap act Jewish MCA Mike D King Ad Rock License to l 1986 Sold over 1 million copies quotFight For Your Right To Partyquot 1986 guitar by Kerry King Slayer intended as parody of quotsome members of our audiencequot according to Mike D fratboys originally recorded w an Oberheim DMX beat but Rick Rubin added live drums Golden Age of Sampling 101415 Day 6 Marley Marl b 1962 Birth of samplebased era in hip hop production Realization that drum sounds can come from breakbeat records themselves not just drum machines Emu Emulator II 1984 10000 20 MB 512 K RAM 8 bit sampling very rough like video game music Emu SP1200 1987 12 bit 10 secs of memory could store 100 patterns loops amp 100 songs diff arrangements Terms for samples repeating a sample in regularized pattern cutting a sample into smaller units that can be manipulated amp rearranged in any desired order Sampling amp Hip Hop Culture Growing popularity of rap music gives rise to criticism of it as quotnot really musicquot based on misunderstanding amp prejudice quotIt s not musicquot based on assumptions about what music is quotit s not originalquot quotit s not melodiousquot quotit doesn t require musical skillquot quotit s not originalquot music is seen as parasitic or quotstealingquot but all music based on something based before rap music doesn t try to hide it quotit s not melodiousquot all rhythm amp repetition no melody just noise but producers devote serious attention towards rhythm amp making the repetition compelling quot ow layering amp rupturequot Tricia Rose Sometimes being NOISY is the point quotit doesn t require skillquot rap musicians don t play instruments but Golden Age of Sampling 101415 Day 6 manipulating samples amp managing different layers in a beat requires skill amp sensitivity Hank Shocklee quotWe believe that music is nothing but organized noise You can take anything street sounds us talking whatever you want and make it music by organizing itquot quotGolden Age of Samplingquot relatively brief period 1986 1991 when producers could make beats w relatively little concern for the implications of copyright law amp sample clearance costs Depended on fusion of musical concepts 1st developed by Bronx DJ s in 1970 s amp new digital technologies that allowed for capture amp manipulation of breakbeats
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