MIDTERM: Chapters 1-3 Study Guide
MIDTERM: Chapters 1-3 Study Guide PSY 201
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Kasashima on Saturday October 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 201 at University of Oregon taught by Dassonville P in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 541 views. For similar materials see Mind and Brain >3 in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/17/15
Chapter 1 Terms to Know 0 Pychological Science scientific study of the mind brain and behavior It uses objective measures to determine natural laws that govern activities of the mind and behaviors it produces 0 Biases in psychological reasoning 0 Confirmation bias ignoring evidence that doesn39t support your beliefs 0 Failure to judge source credibility when sources refer to expertise vs evidence 0 Misunderstanding statistics going with your gut 0 Seeing relationships that do not exist making something out of nothing 0 Inaccurately using relative comparisons word choice matters 0 Hindsight bias Accepting afterthefact explanations O Heuristics Taking mental shortcuts O Selfserving bias failing to see our own inadequacies 0 NatureNurture Debate Argument concerning whether psychological characteristics are biologically innate or acquired through experience 0 MindBody Problem Are the mind and body separate and distinct or is the mind the physical brain39s subjective experience What is the difference The brain is the physical meat the mind is the outcome of the mental activity 0 Dualism the belief that the world is composed of two separate substances mental substance soul and physical substance body gt Plato believed that the body is from the material world and the soul is from the world of ideas and is therefore immortal gt Descartes formed the argument for dualism that the external soul controls the body through the pineal gland O Monism the belief that the world can be explained by only one category of substance gt Hippocrates believe that the brain is the seat of thoughts and emotions gt Aristotle believed that the heart is the seat of emotions Valentines day and the brain isjust a quotcooling organquot gt Hobbes amp Materialism nothing exists except matter and energy All human thought and behavior can be explained in terms of physical processes in the brain 0 Phrenology study and feeling of the structure of the skull to determine someone39s character and mental capacity NOTAVALID PROCEDURE 0 Franz Gall founder of phrenology gt Believed that brain is the organ of the mind Monist view gt The size of a region in the brain is a measure of its power gt The shape of the brain is determined by development of various organs gt Skull takes its shape from the brain so the surface of the skull can be read to describe one39s character 0 Modularity of mental function mental functions can be divided into separate categories or independent processes 0 Localization of function bumps may not reveal what phrenologists thought they did but there is still some evidence that certain areas of the brain contribute to certain tasks 0 Broca39s aphasia when one has difficulty speaking but can comprehend gt Occurs when there is damage to a patient39s left half of the brain left inferior frontal gyrus Still able to write 0 Wernicke39s aphasia sometimes called quotJargon Aphasiaquot because patients can speak but the content is meaningless cannot comprehend gt Associated with damage to the superior temporal gyrus Cannot read and write 0 Introspectionism study of conscious mental events by quotlooking withinquot observing and recording one39s thoughts and experiences 0 Wilhelm Wundt reasoned that mental events take time and the times can be measured 0 Limitations gt Variability one person39s impressions are different from another39s gt Verification misperceptions can39t be detected and disagreements cannot be resolved gt Relies on consciousness Many interesting mental events are unconscious 0 Structuralism Tichener Uses introspectionism to break apart and examine individual components of conscious experience Breaks down conscious experience to different sensations 0 Limitations gt Consciousness is notjust the sum of its parts 0 Functionalism concerned with the adaptive function of mind and behavior 0 William James O Evolutionary theory views the history of a species in terms of the inherited adaptive value of physical characteristics mental activity and behavior 0 Adaptations the physical characteristics or abilities that increase the chances of survival and reproduction and are therefore are more likely to be passed on to future generations 0 Natural selection the idea that those who inherit characteristics that help them adapt to and survive in their particular environments are more likely to survive 0 Gestalt theory based on the idea that the whole of a personal experience is more than the sum of its parts 0 Psychoanalysis developed by Sigmund Freud Attempts to bring the contents of the unconscious into conscious awareness so that conflicts can be resolved 0 Behaviorism emphasizes the study of observable environmental effects on behavior 0 BF Skinner O Skinner Box operant chamber displays operant conditioning Trained mice to hit a button in order to receive food 0 Limitations gt Insufficiency cannot fully account for things such as creativity or the complexity of human behaviors gt Limited science to only observable things 0 Cognitive Psychology study of mental functions such as intelligence thinking language memory and decision making 0 Cognitive Neuroscience study of neural mechanisms that underlie thought learning perception language and memory 0 Social Psychology study of how people influence other people39s thoughts feelings and behavior 0 Levels of analysis 0 Biological how the physical body contributes to mind and behavior 0 Individual individual differences in personality and the mental processes that affect how people see the world 0 Social how group contexts affect how people interact and influence each other 0 Cultural how people39s thoughts feelings and actions are similardifferent across various cultures Questions 1 What are some specific examples of the biases in psychological reasons that you have encountered A When there are advertisements about a product on TV and they keep referring to an authoritative figure instead of giving evidence that a product works source credibility When I get an iClicker question wrong and then see the right answer I think quotI knew thatquot hindsight bias 2 What is the difference between monist and dualist viewpoints A Dualists believed that the mind was separated from the body but monists believed that they do not exist separately 3 How did Descartes dualistic theory explain how the soul could communicate with the body A He believed that the external soul controls the body through the pineal gland 4 In what way way Gestaltism a backlash to Structuralism A Gestaltism was based on the idea that the sum of the whole is more than just the parts while structuralism was based on the idea that experiences can be broekn down into basic parts 5 How can apparent motion be used to demonstrate the limitations of structuralism A An example of apparent motion phi the idea of the ball quotbouncingquot Gestalt view vs two dots just being shown rapidly in two different locations structuralism view With structuralism all they believe is a dot shown in two different spots vs something more meaningful like a ball bouncing 6 In what was was Behaviorism a backlash to Introspectionism A It was a backlash to introspection because introspectionists study unobservable mental effects while behaviorism aims to study observable environmental effects 7 What are some of the problems of Introspectionism Structuralism and Behaviorism that limit their effectiveness A Limitations oflntrospectionism Variability one person39s impressions are different from another39s verification misperceptions can39t be detected and disagreements cannot be resolved relies on consciousness Many interesting mental events are unconscious Limitations of Structuralism Consciousness is notjust the sum of its parts Limitations of Behaviorism Insufficiency cannot fully account for things such as creativity or the complexity of human behaviors limited science to only observable things 8 How do Cognitive Psychology amp Cognitive Neuroscience treat the mindbody differently than does Behaviorism with respect to the quotblack boxquot of the mindbrain A Cognitive science uses behavior to infer what was going on inside the quotblack boxquot and uses knowledge of what is going on in the quotblack boxquot to help understand the constraints on conscious experience and behavior and considers mental processing as the software of the mind Cognitive neuroscience uses behavior to infer what is going on inside the brain and uses knowledge what is going on in the brain to help understand the constraints on conscious experience and behavior and considers the brain as the hardware of the mind 9 Which principles of phrenology apply to modern cognitive neuroscience Which do not apply A There are parts of the brain that function for certain tasks but feeling lumps on the skull cannot determine personality 10 How do modern behaviors reflect the evolutionary pressures of our ancestors A Each generation changes in one way or another because our society culture and surroundings are always changing so we have to learn how to adapt Modern behaviors l 1 How do cultural norms affect mental processes and behaviors A There is always a certain way people are told to act or not to act in a certain culture that affect our minds what we think and also how we behave 12 How do the biological individual social and cultural levels of analysis in psychology differ A Biological how the physical body contributes to mind and behavior Individual individual differences in personality and the mental processes that affect how people see the world Social how group contexts affect how people interact and influence each other Cultural how people39s thoughts feelings and actions are similardifferent across various cultures Chapter 2 Terms to Know 0 Scientific method a systematic procedure of observing and measuring phenomena Used to achieve the goals of description prediction control explanation Theory gt hypothesis gt research gt data 0 Theory An explanation or model of how a psychological phenomenon works Based on empirical evidence 0 Hypothesis A specific testable prediction narrower than the theory it39s based on 0 Research A scientific process that involves careful collection of data 0 Data Results of an objective and verifiable test of a hypothesis 0 Replication Repitition of a research study to confirm the results 0 Descriptive studiesresearch involves observing behavior to describe that behavior objectively and systematically 0 Case studies A descriptive research method that involves close examination of a specific unusual person or organization 0 Observational studies 0 Reactivity occurs when knowledge that one is being observed alters the behavior that is being observed 0 Observer bias errors in observation that occur because of an observer39s expectations 0 Experimenter expectancy effect actual change in the behavior of group being observed due to the expectations of the observer 0 Selfreport methods Methods of data collection where people are asked to provide information about themselves surveys or questionnaires 0 Correlational studies research method that describes and predicts how variables are related 0 Directionality problem when researchers find a relationship between two variables but cannot determine which variable may have caused changes in the other variable ex Does less sleep cause more stress OR does more stress cause less sleep 0 Third variable problem confound problem that occurs when researcher cannot directly manipulate variables and therefore cannot be sure that another variable isn39t the actual cause of the differences ex Texting while driving gt dangerous driving risk taking gt texting while driving and risk taking gt dangerous driving risk taking is the 3rd variable 0 Experiment a research method that tests causal hypotheses by manipulating and measuring variables Control group participants in an experiment who receive no treatment or a treatment unrelated to the variable being investigated 0 Experimental groups participants in an experiment who receive treatment Independent variables variable that is manipulated Dependent variables the variable that gets measured and is dependent on the independent variable Confound a third factor that affects a dependent variable Population Everyone in the group the experimenter is interested in Sample A subset of the population 0 Random sample choosing people from the population at random so you have a more diverse group of people to test 0 Convenience sample choosing people from the population who are easiest to reach 0 Selection bias unintended differences between participants in different groups could be caused by nonrandom assignment to groups Institutional review boards IRBS groups of people who review proposed research to ensure that it meets the accepted standards of science and does not harm the physical and emotional wellbeing of research participants Informed consent If a study has any risk participants MUST be informed before they agree to participate Construct validity The extent to which a variable measures what it39s supposed to measure External validity The degree to which the findings of a study can be generalized to other people or situations Internal validity The degree to which the effects that are observed in an experiment are due to the independent variable and not confounds Reliability vs accuracy 0 Reliability degree to which a measure is stable and consistent over time 0 Accuracy degree to which an experimental measure is free from error 0 Descriptive statistics statistics that summarize data collected in a study 0 Central tendency a measure that represents the typical response or behavior of a group as a whole 0 Mean the arithmetic average of a data set 0 Median the number that falls exactly halfway between highest and lowest values in a data set 0 Mode the number that occurs most often in a data set 0 Variability how widely dispersed the values are from each other and from the mean 0 Range largest valuesmallest value 0 Standard deviation average difference between each score and the mean score 0 Correlation measures the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables Ranges from I to 1 0 Causation the extent to which one thing causes another thing to happen 0 nferential statistics a set of assumptions and procedures used to evaluate the likelihood that an observed effect is present in the population from which the sample was drawn Questions 1 What are the goals of psychological science A Description Detail or catalogue mental processes and behaviors to understand information better Understanding Develop explanations theories of how the mind works Prediction Use theories to predict behaviors and thoughts then test to see if they39re correct Application Apply theories to influence behavior and thought 2 Describe how the scientific method can be used to gain an understanding of some psychological issue A When there is a psychological issue first a theory is made then a hypothesis then research is done and then when you receive and collect data it gives you a better understanding of that issue 3 What makes for a good theory A A good theory needs to be falsifiable possible to test hypothesis and prove it39s incorrect so then it can be revised and has to provide a wide variety of testable hypothesis It should also be simple 4 Describe the steps in an experiment A Steps in an experiment 1 Form a theory 2 Form a specific hypothesis 3 Design a test of the hypothesis A Variables A variable dimension that can be objectively measured a Independent variable the manipulated variable hypothesized to be the cause of the predicted effect b Dependent variable the measured variable hypothesized to be affected by the independent variable Perform the test and observe results collect data Critical evaluation of the results analyze and interpret the data Revise the theory if necessary N991 Communicate findings in scientificjournals and presentations 5 Given a description of an experiment be able to identify the independent and dependent variables A The independent variable is the manipulated variable hypothesized to be the cause of the predicted effect The dependent variable is the measured variable hypothesized to be affected by the independent variable 6 How does random selection prevent selection bias A If a random selection is chosen the researcher does not know who is going to be in that sample so selection bias is prevented 7 Given data from an experiment be able to interpret them 8 Explain how the scientific method is selfcorrecting A It is selfcorrecting because if the test results do not prove the theory is correct the theory is then revised until it is correct 9 What does a negative or positive or zero correlation imply about the relationship between two variables A A negative correlation means that two variables move in opposite directions ex the more people exercise the less they weigh A positive correlation is when two variables either both increase or both decrease together ex people with higher ACT scores have higher GPAspeople with lower ACT scores have lower GPAs A zero correlation is when one variable is not related to the other variable zero correlation between gender and intelligence 10 Why does a correlation not imply causation A Correlation does not imply causation because there could be a third factor a confound that plays a role in the other two Even if there is a causal relationship its direction is often uncertain It could be a random relationship that only appears correlated I 1 What is the difference between descriptive and inferential statistics A Descriptive statistics are actual numerical data sets while inferential statistics is a set of assumptions Chapter 3 Terms to Know 0 Neurons information processingtransmitting cells of the nervous system 0 Dendrites Branchlike extensions of the neuron that detect information from other neurons 0 Cell body soma Site in the neuron where information from thousands of other neurons are collected and integrated 0 Axon long narrow outgrowth of a neuron by which information is transmitted to other neurons 0 Synaptic terminals At the end of the axon 0 Terminal buttons At the ends of axons Small nodules that release chemical signals from the neuron into the synapse 0 Synapse Gap between the axon of a quotsendingquot neuron and the dendrites of a quotreceivingquot neuron 0 Synaptic cleft The space that neurotransmitters travel across to get to the postsynaptic neuron Presynaptic neuron the neuron that is transmitting the information to other neurons Postsynaptic neuron the neuron that is receiving the information from the presynaptic neuron Cell membrane the fatty barrier covering the neuron Intracellular fluid fluid inside the cell membrane Extracellular fluid the fluid outside the cell membrane ons sodium potassium Resting membrane potential 70 mV 0 Diffusion forces move ions from an area of high concentration to low concentrations 0 Electrostatic forces two ions with positive chargenegative charge will repel but one ion with a positive charge and one with a negative charge will be attracted O Sodiumpotassium pump pumps 3 Na sodium out of the neuron for every 2 K potassium into the neuron Action potentials a brief sudden reversal of the membrane potential It moves like a wave down the axon Vesicles stores neurotransmitters that are then released from the synaptic terminal to the receiving neuron Neurotransmitter a molecule that carries the neuronal signal across the synaptic cleft Exocytosis when neurotransmitters are released from the presynaptic cell into the synaptic cleft and then into the postsynaptic cell Postsynaptic receptor receptors on the postsynaptic neuron that receives neurotransmitters Neurotransmitter dependent ion channelreceptor O The neurotransmitter is like the keythe receptor is like the lock Excitatory postsynaptic potential EPSP depolarization necessary to generate an action potential Inhibitory postsynaptic potential IPSP hyperpolarization Reuptake neurotransmitter is pulled back into the presynaptic neuron for reuse and thereby stopping its activity Deactivating enzymes when an enzyme destroys the neurotransmitter in the synapse Voltagedependent ion channels programmed to open only for a certain period of time Myelin Fatty substance produced by glia to insulate long axons Nodes of Ranvier small gaps of exposed axon between the segments of myelin sheath where action potentials take place Multiple sclerosis autoimmune disease in which the body39s immune system attacks myelin as it would a foreign invader 0 Causes abnormal timing of action potentials in affected neurons leading to sensory motor and cognitive deficits Doctrine of specific nerve energies particular information represented by an action potential depends on which cell is firing and depends on location of the neuron firing 0 visual neuronvision 0 motor neuronmotor command 0 etc Rate law variations in magnitude of a signal are represented by the firing rate of the neuron Autoreceptors monitor how many neurotransmitters have been released into the synaps Agonist drug that facilitates the effects of the neurotransmitter on postsynaptic cell Antagonist drug that decreases the effects on the postsynaptic cell Glutamate Glutamatergic neurons 0 most common excitatory neurotransmitter O prominent role in learning amp memory by strengthening synapses GABA gammaaminobutyric acid GABAergic neurons 0 most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in CNS 0 agonists have calming effect Acetylcholine Cholinergic neurons 0 release from motor neurons causes muscle contractions 0 Also involved in learning and memory 0 Black widow spider venom stimulates exocytosis causes muscles to contract and can39t release 0 Botulinum toxinBotox inhibits exocytosis causes muscles to relax and can39t contract Dopamine Dopaminergic neurons 0 Parkinson39s disease causes tremors O Feelings of pleasure reinforcement amp reward O Cocaine blocks reuptake Serotonin Serotonergic neurons 0 involved in regulation of mood eating sleep dreaming pain 0 most recognized for regulating mood O Serotoninspecific reuptake inhibitors SSRls inhibits reuptake O Prozac used for depressing O MDMA Ecstasy Molly Electroencephalogram EEG measures electrical signals of neurons 0 Eventrelated potentials ERPs allows researchers to observe patterns associated with specific events Position emission tomography PET method of brain imaging where radioactive glucose or radioactive oxygen is injected into the body and absorbed by active brain areas Functional MRI fMRI can see what parts of the brain are active during certain activities Transcranial magnetic stimulation TMS a brief but intense magnetic pulse that adds electrical quotnoisequot to the neural processing of the cortex under the stimulator to study brain regions Forebrain left and right cerebral hemispheres Cerebellum quotlittle brainquot located at the back of the brain stem essential for coordinated movement and balance Brainstem extension of the spinal cord it houses structures that control functions associated with survival such as heart rate breathing swallowing vomiting urination and orgasm Corpus callosum thick band of myelinated axons that connects the two cerebral hemispheres Cortex gray matter outer layer of cell bodies quotbark of a treequot 0 dendrites and short axons White matter long myelinated axons connects neurons in far locations of the brain Sulcus sulci concavity groove in the cortex Gyrus gyri convexity bump in the cortex Lobes O Frontal thought 0 Parietal touch 0 Occipital vision 0 Temporal hearing Primary motor cortex located in the frontal lobe contains neurons that project to the spinal cord to move the body39s muscles Somatosensory cortex located in parietal lobe main sensory area for touch Vision cortex primary visual cortex located in occipital lobe main destination for visual information Auditory cortex primary auditory cortex located in temporal lobe region responsible for heanng Homunculus quotlittle manquot a distorted map of the body stretched out across primary motor and primary somatosensory cortex 0 shows that sensations are grouped Phineas Gage survived major damage to frontal lobe Caused personality changes Splitbrain patients when the corpus callosum is cut resulting in a patient with two separate quotmindsquot each with its own abilities thoughts and memories The two hemispheres do not recieve information directly from each other Prefrontal cortex frontmost part of the frontal lobes important for attention working memory decision making appropriate social behavior and personality Basal ganglia responsible for movement and reward Hippocampus responsible for memory Thalamus sensory relay station Hypothalamus regulates vital body functions such as body temperature Amygdala important for emotions Central nervous system the brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system all nerve cells in the body that are not part of the central nervous system 0 Somatic nervous system controls voluntary muscle and transmits sensory information gt spinal nerves gt cranial serves 0 Autonomic nervous system controls involuntary muscle the gut gt Sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for quotfight or flightquot gt Parasympathetic nervous system returns the body to its resting state Plasticity property of the brain that allows it to change as a result of experience or injury Phantom limb when an amputee still has the sensation that the amputated body part still exists Questions How can a neuron be both presynaptic and postsynaptic A There are many neurons connected to one another so if a neuron is receiving information it can also be sending information therefore being both presynaptic and postsynaptic 2 How does the segregation of ions across the cell membrane cause a batterylike effect that powers action potentials A The cell membrane has different charges on the inside and outside so when ions leave or enter it changes the charge and powers action potentials 3 How does the sodiumpotassium pump cause the interior of neurons to become negatively charged compared to the extracellular fluid A For every 3 Na ions sodium out of the neuron 2 K potassium ions are pumped into the neuron making the extracellular fluid more positively charged 4 Do the combined effects of diffusion and electrostatic forces push sodium ions into or out of neurons at the resting potential if open ion channels allow them to move across the cell membrane How about potassium A Sodium is pumped out of the cell while potassium is brought into the cell 5 What are the events of a synaptic transmission A Synthesis of the neurotransmitter U Release of the neurotransmitter Neurons bind to postsynaptic receptors IV Inactivation of the neurotransmitter 6 What makes an EPSP quotexcitatoryquot What makes an IPSP quotinhibitoryquot A EPSP is excitatory because they increase the likelihood of a postsynaptic action potential occurring and IPSPs are inhibitory because they decrease the likelihood 7 What happens to the voltagedependent sodium and potassium channels that cause sudden depolarization and subsequent repolarization known as action potentials A They open for a brief period of time 8 How does myelin allow action potentials to travel more quickly down an axon A Myelinated axons contain nodes of Ranvier which are gaps in the myelin along the axons They contain sodium and potassium ion channels and allow the action potential to travel more quickly byjumping from one node to the next 9 How does the firing rate of a neuron encode the intensitymagnitude of a signal A The more a neuron fires the stronger the magnitude is The less it fires the weaker the magnitude is 10 What are some ways agonist drugs can cause their effect Antagonist drugs A An agonist can increase the synthesis of a neurotransmitter increases the number of neurotransmitters by destroying degrading enzymes can release neurotransmitter molecules from terminal buttons and can block reuptake which makes the neurotransmitter stay in the synaptic cleft longer and have a greater effect An antagonists can block synthesis of neurotransmitters causes neurotransmitters to be destroyed blocks exocytosis and can activate an autoreceptor to slow down neurotransmitters A direct agonist binds to a postsynaptic receptor and activates them or increases the effect on them making them have a bigger effect while direct antagonists block receptors and make the effect weaker 11 How it botulism toxin both a weapon of mass destruction and a beauty aid A Too much of it can cause the muscles in the body to relax so much that it is not able to contract and therefore one can suffocate However it is a beauty aid in small doses because of its ability to relax muscles 12 What are some of the shortterm effects of ecstasy and what causes them Longterm 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 effects A Some shortterm effects is that it inhibits serotonin reuptake Serotonin sticks in the synaptic cleft longer and has a bigger effect and it increases the release of serotonin but can also cause depletion of serotonin afterwards that can often take weeks to restore and causes a period of depression Longterm effects are axon withering followed by abnormal regrowth of neurons or no regrowth at all What are the four F39s A Feeding Fighting Fleeing Fing What kind of effects would you expect from damage to the primary motor cortex Primary visual cortex A Damage to the primary motor cortex can cause problems with movement Damage to the primary visual cortex can cause eye problems or the way people see things What did we learn about brain function from Phineas Gage A We learned that there are different parts of the brain each with specific functions He had damage to the frontal lobe and had major personality changes Why can39t splitbrain patients verbally report what they see in the left visual field but can easily find the named object with the left hand A It is because the right hemisphere controls what they see in the left visual field and because the right hemisphere is controlling it they cannot verbally report what they see since the right hemisphere is not linked with language the left hemisphere deals more with language but they can pick up the object with the left hand because the right hemisphere is controlling the left side of the body Why are the hands and lips of the homunculus so damn big A It shows that there are more nerves in those areas Why are the hippocampi plural of hippocampus so damn big in London taxi drivers A The hippocampus deals with memory so since London taxi drivers have to memorize so many routes and streets they have a big hippocampus What is hemineglect and what does it tell us about the function of the parietal lobe A Hemineglect is the failure to be aware of one side of space and is linked to damage to the parietal lobe It shows that the parietal lobe is crucial for responding to new information or alerting stimuli in the environment People who suffer with hemineglect sometimes cannot see anything on the left or right side of their body not even their face
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