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PSYCH 111- Study Guide for CH 7&4

by: Alisha Ellis

PSYCH 111- Study Guide for CH 7&4 Psych 111

Marketplace > Brigham Young University - Idaho > Psychlogy > Psych 111 > PSYCH 111 Study Guide for CH 7 4
Alisha Ellis
GPA 2.9
Introductory Psychology
Brother Marrot

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About this Document

This is a Study guide for chapter 7&4. It is just a combination of the notes I posted. I hope it helps with last minute studying over the weekend.
Introductory Psychology
Brother Marrot
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alisha Ellis on Saturday October 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 111 at Brigham Young University - Idaho taught by Brother Marrot in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 121 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Brigham Young University - Idaho.


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Date Created: 10/17/15
PSYCH 111 Notes Bro Marrott Chapter 4 Sensation amp Perception needs attention It is easy to block out what you are not focusing on You in a bad mood you only think of bad thinks 30 long to do homework when you are on your phone The way you see things are not always the way it is We don t see the way the world really is The tipping tree sound is a perception If we are not in the forest when a tree falls it makes no sound Sound waves though phone sound is made in our heads Sensation vs Perception Sensation is a electrical signal to the brain Light sound pressure odor or taste Perception you assignment of meaning you are interrupting what you are sensing They work together Sensations sounds of your voice lines on a screen Know something happened Perceptions transforms my words into meaning Transduction when energy is converted into an electrical chemicals signal Gustav Fechner Founder of Psychophysics Psycho meaning mind physics meaning physical world Psychophysics relationship between the mind and world Implementation of psychophysics asking if saw hear felt Light sound touch Absolute Threshold amount needed to be detected 50 of the time The brain is designed to notice Change Perceptual process more efficient in detecting change Just Noticeable difference J ND minimal change to detect the change You know the change that happened This depends on the rst stimulus AKA Weber s law Sensory Adaptation Brain noticing only change You get used to the stimuli it is like it is not there Prolonger stimulation declines signals stop firing Visual Magnetic spectrum Blue is short wave length Green is middle wave length Red is long wave length Physical vs Psychological Dimensions of light Length hue color Amplitude brightness Purity richness of color These three properties constitute physical and psychological dimensions of light Visual Acuity clear Vision Anatomy of the eye Retina is in the back of the eye Transduction is when light comes into the eye hits the retina and then is processed into what we see Cones see in color don t work in dim light Rods see in black in white super sensitive to light Fovea only cones Helps us force in on objects 120 million Rods 6 million cones Blind spot no rods or cones where the optic disc is Perception of color Sir Isaac Newton Color not in things Color is a percetnal process Eyes pick up take to brain 3 types of cones Red long wave lenegh Green medium wave lengh Blue shortwavelength Opponent Process Theory Green competes with red Yellow competes with blue Left Visual fieldhits right side of retina and interpreted on right side of brain Right Visual fieldhits left side of retina and interpreted on left side of brain Set to Area Vl help with primary visual cortex in the occipital lobe Area VI lets you make out edging Ventral pathway the what pathway know things Dorsal pathway the where pathway how pathway uses environment to move around DF damage to ventral what pathway Organize visual perception Gestalt psychology the whole is great than the sum of its past Done automatically Several grouping rules Simplicity quick intrpatation Continvity lines have a continues ow Similaritythings that a simpler are grouped together Proximity things close together are put together Figure vs ground Edges separating objects Ground is the Background Figure the thing with edges Area V1 helps us detect edges Another demonstration Looking at something close look down Looking at something far away look up Monocular Depth cue one eye vision Relationship between distance and size Example of texture Gradient seeing texture as you get closer to something Interposition something is in front of you to determine What is closer to farther away Linear perspective Far away is smaller Illusions of perception Ames room Our brain see this as if they were normal the world isn t as we see it We are susceptible to illusions Symbolic implications of our beliefs Paradigms People don t see things the same way you see it Change blindness Inability to detect change in a visual scene Inattentional Blindness not noticing things that aren t the focus to attention Sensation happens without the perstion perstion can t happen without sensation Perceiving motion Movement is major to perceiving an object Changes its location on the retina Area MT is the brain helps you perceive motion Perceiving Sound Perceiving through sound waves Pitch high or low Loudness intensityamplitude Timbre complexity of sound Bar on pg 119 Outer ear Pinna Auditory canal Ear drum Middle ear Ossicles tiniest bones in the body Inner ear Cochlea trucution acoures looks like a snail Basilar membrane hair cells Area A1 part of the temporal lobe helps us perceive sound Place codehelps in the basilar membrane to determine pitch or frequencies Sound waves determine helps you know where sound is coming from Gatecontrol Theory Pain is stopped from giving signal to the brain PSYCH 1 11 Bro Devon Marrott Chapter 7 Behaviorism John Watson shapes you into what I want you can t choose What is learning Acquired knowledge observation connections experiences of others There are 40 ways we can learn by For this class experience change longlasting in uence on behavior Habituation more you are exposed to some type of stimulus and then after words you are extremely sensitive to it For Behaviorism no study metal activity are useless Only observable behavior John Watson was in uenced by Ivan Pavlov Ivan Pavlov studied Dog s slobber He pared a sound with getting food so just hearing the sound would make the dog slobber for food Classical Conditioning Conditioning a reaction Paring two unrelated stimuli to get a response A amp B A by itself creates a response Pairing A with B then B will create the same response A meat It makes you slobber B bell Unconditioned Stimulus UCS this is what creates a natural response Unconditioned Response UCR a natural response Neutral Stimulus NS something that don t make a response before Conditioned Stimulus CS the NS created a response after it has been pared with the UCS Conditioned Response CR the reaction from the CS Extinction present the CS without the UCS the re ex stops occurring They can lose the connection Systematic desensitization baby steps Slowly face fears Spontaneous Recovery a random occurrence where a CS is presented with the USC after extinction Extinction is not permanent A boy who has conquered his fear of dogs a dog attacks him He is afraid of dogs again Little Albert amp Classical Conditioning Generalization things similar to the CS all create the response A German shepherd attacks me now afraid of all dogs Hairy things He was unable to Discriminate He couldn t distinguish similar but distinct stimuli Fear all in mind Watson wanted to Show that Pavolovian techniques work Emotional responses by stimuli Don t need to understand mental processes Classical Conditioning works on humans Biological Preparedness ice cream or spiders snakes or rodents Your biological make up lets you fear something that fear Operant Conditioning Condition Voluntary Conditioning A type of learning where consequences of behavior determine whether that behavior will be repeated in the future BF Skinner Found radial conditioning BIG Question How do you determine what will increase behavior or not Reinforcements things consequences that decrease a behavior There are different types of reinforcespunishments Positive simply put this is when you add a stimulus to a circumstance Positive Reinforcement you bring something to the table to increase a behavior Positive punishment you bring something to the table to decrease a behavior Operant Conditioning Negative simple put this is when you subtract or take away a stimulus Negative Reinforcement take a way a like Negative Punishment takes away a like Example You go 45 MPH in a speed zone of 60 mph a cop stops you pulls you over and gives you a ticket Positive Punishment should decrease the behavior You are driving your car without putting on your seatbelt The car keeps beeping at you so you put on your seatbelt Negative Reinforcement take a way a dislike Intervalschedules time Rationumber of time a behavior is preformed Fixed Interval reinforces given a set time period Variable interval times to be revoke changes Fixed ratio you provide reinforcement When they do behavior this amount of time get 10 get one free Variable ratio random changes in the amount of behavior required


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