StudyGuideforMidterm1.pdf LIN 001
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verified elite notetaker
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kyle Patterson on Saturday October 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to LIN 001 at University of California - Davis taught by Santiago Barreda-Castanon in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.
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Date Created: 10/17/15
Study Guide for Midterm 1 00 Phonetics gt gt gt VVVV V V IPA The international phonetic alphabet Transcription The act of translating sounds into symbols Vocal tract The entire air passage above the larynx consisting of the pharynx oral cavity and nasal cavity The vocal tract is manipulated in various ways to produce different speech sounds Consonants Speech soundsphones that are made with an obstructionconstriction in the vocal tract Vowels Speech soundsphones produced with a relatively open unobstructed vocal tract and almost always voiced Articulation The motion or positions of some part of the vocal tract with respect to some other surface of the vocal tract in the production of a speech sound Vocal folds folds of muscle in the larynx responsible for creating voiced sounds when they vibrate Glottis The space between the vocal folds Voiced sound sounds made with the vocal folds vibrating Voiceless sound sound made without the vocal folds vibrating Place of articulation the place in the vocal tract where constrictions are made to produce speech sounds Manner of articulation refers to how the airstream is modified by the articulators in the vocal tract to produce a sound Places of Articulation of English Glottis the space between the vocal folds Determines whether sounds are voice or voiceless When it s open sounds are voiceless When it s nearly closed sounds are voiced When it s partially open sounds are whispers 0 Also produces h as in quothistoryquot and as in quotghQhquot that pause before you pronounce the vowels Bilabial Lips produces sounds by bringing both lips together 0 p as in quotEatquot b as in quot atquot 0 m as in quotMattquot o w as in quotwillquot 0 Hill as in quotwhatquot Labiodental produces sound with the lower lip against the upper front teeth 0 f as in quotEitquot o v as in quotyictorquot lnterdentals Tip of the lounge protruding between the front teeth 0 6 as in quot anksquot 6 as in quot eyquot Alveolar makes sounds with the tip of the tongue at or near the alveolar ridge just behind upper front teeth t as in quotlapquot d as in quotQayquot s as in quotgitquot 2 as in quotZapquot n as in quot apquot III as in quotloosequot J as in quotI39edquot Postalveolar sounds are made a bit further back right in the front of the hard palate 39 II as in quotlea quot 3 as in quotmeasurequot 0 ltT as in quotQurQquot lai as in quotjugggquot Palatal sounds are made with the tongue near the center of the hard portion of the roof of your mouth aka the hard palate 0 j quotyesquot Velar produced at the soft part of the roof of the mouth behind the hard palate aka the Velum k as in quotKingquot 0 g as in quotgirlquot 0 as in quotSimquot manners of articulation of English voicedvoiceless Stops Consonants with a complete closure at some point along the vocal tract 0 b d g p t k and l Nasals Stops performed with a lowered velum so that air passes through the nasal cavity o m n In Fricatives involve a partial obstruction at some point of the vocal tract This results in an increase in pressure and velocity which results in turbulent air causing a hissing sound 0 v z3 6 f s 6 III and h Affricate a stopfricative sequence made at the same place of articulation 0 lagl and ET Liquid involves less closure than stops and fricatives but more than a vowel Typically louder than other consonants but quieter than a vowel 0 J and Glides made with only a slight closure of the articulators such that if the vocal tract were any more open the result would be a vowel sound 0 NW W and J Flap similar to a stop but FASTER It involves a quick and complete obstruction of the oral cavity La le or Writer these are aveoar aps gt o Phonology the study of speech sounds as mentalpsychological objects gt Distinctiveness A phonetic characteristic of a sound is considered distinctive when it can change the meaning in a language gt Phoneme A class of speech sounds indenti ed by native speakers as the same sound Phonemes are written between slashes such as t or b gt Allophone One of a set of nonconstrastive realizations of the same phoneme Allophones are written between brackets such as t or b Metaphor If is a phoneme than quotcrowquot quotdove and seagull are alophones gt Minimal pair two words that differ only by a single sound in the same position and have different meanings Bit vs it Allophonic variation Free variation Two or more allophones are interchangeable in the same context Complementary distribution Two or more allophones alternate but each one only appears in a speci c context Natural classes Group of phonemes in a language that share certain phonetic characteristics Syllable a single unit of speech Nucleus the core of the syllable usually a vowel but not always Onset the consonants to the left of the nucleus Coda the elements to the right of the nucleus Rhyme the nucleus and the coda of a syllable together as a unit Phonotactics the knowledge people have regarding allowable phoneme patterns in their language Speakers may have a hard time producing sound sequences that are not phonotactically valid or common in their language 0 For Example Spanish speakers may say quotEspritequot or quotEspacequot instead of quotSpritequot or Space 0 This is because while they can pronounce quotspquot in their language Spanish phonotactics do not use quotspquot at the onset of syllables Coarticulation a situation in which a segment takes on some of the properties of an adjacent segment Adjustment of articulation of a segment to accommodate the phonetic environment it is produced The plural form of dog is commonly pronounced quotdogzquot instead of quotDogsquot The plural marker s changes in voicing to match the preceding stop Phonological rules describes the relationship between a phoneme and its allophones and the conditioning environment in which the allophone appears The rules are not set in stone and merely serve to explain patterns of alanguage EX The plural marker s changes in voicing to match the preceding stop Hence Dogs is pronounced with a 2 because g and z are both voiced sounds Dock becomes Docks and is pronounced with a s because k and s are both voiceless gt Solving Phonological Problems these problems are proposed in 2 general ways 1 Are sounds A and B phonemes or aophones Look at the dataset given to you don t think too hard about translations and try to nd at least one minimal pair If there is a minimal pair you can say that the sounds are in contrastive distribution and therefore separate phonemes If there are no minimal pairs you can say the sounds are in complementary distribution and therefore aophones of the same phoneme 2 State the ruleenvironment relating sounds A and B Look for patterns in the context of the sounds given Do they all occur before or after vowelsconsonants Do they all occur at the beginning or end of words The patterns you nd can be described as the environments these sounds occur in
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