Test #1 Study Guide
Test #1 Study Guide PSYC 2014
Popular in Cognitive Psychology
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Lowe on Saturday October 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2014 at George Washington University taught by Dopkins, S in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 142 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/17/15
Thursday October 15 2015 Cognitive Psychology Review Sheet for Test 1 What is Cognitive Psychology How is empiricism related to rationalism How do these points of view differ Relationship Both are ideas of human knowledge Differ Empiricism is the idea that humans are born with no information about the world and learn about the world through observation as they grow up John Locke s idea Rationalism is the idea that humans understand the world by reasoning from basic principles The basis for human understanding is those ideas that you have at birthin the womb Rene Descartes How do ideas originate according to rationalism According to empiricism Empiricism All ideas come from experiences Discounts any ideas that are innate and says that all ideas must come from experience and evidence Rationalism The only valid ideas originate from God are innate and they are put in your mind before you are born by God Also that ideas can come from imagination and through sensory experience but these are not valid What role does neurological disease play in cognitive neuroscience Cognitive Neuroscience is more concerned with what is going on in the Brain versus the Mind which is what we are concerned with as cognitive psychologists Thursday October 15 2015 Neurological disease allows cognitive neuroscientists to see what areas of the brain are involved in certain functions by showing what functions stop working when certain brain areas are affecteddamaged Brain and Cognition How is a neuron limited in the neurons to which it can send messages A neuron can only send a message to the neurons which it is directly connected to it has a very limited audience How many kinds of neural messages can a single neuron send A single neuron can only send ONE kind of neural message excitatory or inhibitory depending on what kind of neuron it is If it is an inhibitory neuron sends inhibitory message If it is an excitatory neuron sends excitatory message If neuron A sends an inhibitory message to neuron B what determines whether neuron B sends an inhibitory or excitatory message to neuron C If neuron B RECEIVES more excitatory messages from other neurons it will SEND a message to neuron C If neuron B RECEIVES more inhibitory messages from other neurons it will NOT SEND a message to neuron C What role does a neuron play in deciding whether or not it sends a neural message The neuron itself does not decide anything it is told by other neurons whether or not to send a message If a neuron receives more excitatory messages it will send a message If a neuron receives more inhibitory messages it will not send a message Neuron A receives many more excitatory than inhibitory messages and sends an excitatory message What will happen if neuron A receives many more inhibitory than excitatory messages If neuron A receives many more inhibitory messages than excitatory messages it will send NOTHING This is because when it does receive more excitatory messages it sends an excitatory message meaning it is an EXCITATORY neuron and that is the ONLY kind of message it can send Thursday October 15 2015 Immediately after receiving a number of inhibitory messages neuron A sends an excitatory message What two things must be the case 1 Neuron A must be an excitatory neuron because that is the only way it could send an excitatory message 2 Neuron A must have received an even greater number of EXCITATORY messages than inhibitory messages because of the fact that it sent a message How does the process whereby a neuron sends a message differ from an electrical process A neuron sends a message to another neuron using neurotransmitters which are chemicals This means that one neuron stimulates another neuron using chemicals Contrast contralateral connections and lateralization 2 TOTALLY DIFFERENT THINGS Contralateral Connections sensorymotor connections from the left side of the body connected to the right side of the brain and vice versa Ex Your left brain controls the movement of right armIegfingerseyeetc Lateralization more complex function language creativity etc are centered on one side of the brain Right side space emotion creativity etc Left side language logic sciencemath etc How does the corpus callosum make possible the lateralization of cognitive function The corpus callosum connects both sides of the brain and allows them to communicate For example if the corpus callosum is severed split brain the brains can still communicate slightly and by watching each other the brains can work off info from the other side Why do the symptoms of nonfluent aphasia and neglect make sense given the areas of cortex damaged in both cases Thursday October 15 2015 NonFluent Aphasia patient speaks with much difficulty and with only a few function words they know what they want to say but have struggle in actually trying to put the words into a coherent sentence The damaged area is the space in between the auditory cortex and the motor cortex in the frontal lobe Damage to this area makes sense because the motor cortex is involved in controlling the motor movement of the mouth and also processing grammar and the auditory cortex is involved in listening to yourself speak and so it is challenging to form words Neglect patient ignores the left side of their visual world unless prompted to focus on that area The damaged area is the space in between the touch cortex and the visual cortex on the right side of the brain This makes sense because the touch cortex is involved with touch which is important for spacial ability because you act within the space you re in and the visual cortex makes sense because you are looking at the world you re in and ignoring half of it o How has thinking changed recently regarding plasticity of function in the brain Previous thinking was that the brain areas are in charge of specific functions and if that area is damaged the individual will lose thatthose functions permanently Recent thinking is that the function of various parts of the brain can change after you re born If one area of the brain is damaged the functions affected can be taken on by another part of the brain EEG is better than PET and fMRI for what purpose EEG is better at answering the WHEN questions of the brain It shows you the signals in the brain versus where in the brain the signals are occurring PET and fMRI are better than EEG for what purpose PET and fMRI are better fir the WHERE questions of the brain These technologies show you what area of the brain that is functioning Thursday October 15 2015 What advantages does fMRl have over PET The fMRl does not need the patient to have a shot of a radioactive substance to be able to see the structures of the brain where as the PET scans do Obviously any radioactive substances are not great in the body and so the fMRI is better to use How does rTMS differ from EEG PET and fMRI rTMS influences electrical activity of the brain area using magnetic stimulation Used in various ways to see what areas of the brain are involved in specific func ons It is different from the other types of scans in that it is used in debilitating certain areas of the brain by putting a lot of electrical current in and seeing what functions are affected How do the spatially lower and higher parts of the brain differ in function Higher areas of the brain are more evolved and higher functioning Emotion frontal lobe etc Lower ares of the brain are more functions needed to survive Breathing heart beat etc What is the functional advantage of lateralization of function in the brain Takes less time to performthink because all the neurons for a specific function are in the same place Ex More efficient for language to be on one side of the brain versus on opposite sides of the brain Attention Contrast the whole and partial report procedures Whole Report Procedure 8 is presented with an array of letters and the subject is tasked with reporting all of the contents About 33 recalled Thursday October 15 2015 Experimenters realized they were doing this all wrong because the time it takes to report that much information is too long for it to remain in someone s sensory memory Partial Report Procedure 8 is presented with an array of letters and the subject is tasked with reporting one row s contents About 75 recalled We infer from this that 75 of the contents of the entire array of letters are in the sensory memory Why can t subjects remember as much of an array with the whole report procedure as with the partial report procedure The time it takes to recite the whole report exceeds how long the information can stay in the patient s sensory memory If a subject is presented with an array consisting of letters and numbers why can t one use a signal to ask the subject to recall just the letters The 8 doesn t have enough time to interpret the input s content before it leaves their sensory memory and so the subject cannot recall just letters or just numbers Why does performance with the partial report procedure decline as the interval increases between the presentation of the array and the row response signal The longer the time between presentation and recall is time that the array of letters are going to be slipping from the person s sensory memory So if the E waits too long the person s once remembrance of the array is deteriorating because the sensory store is less than a second What evidence do we have that the sensory store is precategorical Precategorical Storage information is stored in the sensory memory before it is categorized on the basis of longterm knowledge We know this because you cannot remember just letters or just numbers in an array flashed before you Because it was presented too quickly for you to recognize the image as a letter or a number If a subject recalls 50 of the bottom row of an array with the partial report procedure how much of the array is present in sensory store Thursday October 15 2015 39 5000 This is because we infer based on how much an S remembers of one row that that is how much they remember of the whole array Contrast preattentive or focused attention processing PreAttentive Processing the ability to focus on relevant stimuli when a lot of stimuli is present Can be so quick that the person is unaware of all the other stimuli that have been excluded Focused Attention Processing processes by which the attentional system reply processes the stimuli in the environment Heavily process objects in your environment What is the role of feature detectors in preattentive processing Feature Detector signals whenever a certain feature is present in the perceptual input The feature detector notices a specific feature that would signal to you a specific important object What is the role of feature detectors in focused attention processing Feature detectors will help you identify all of the objects in your world What is the point of the shadowing that occurs in the dichotic listening task Dichotic Listening Task the S has on headphones and there is a different conversation being fed into each ear and is then asked to repeat back one of the conversations called shadowing only supposed to pay attention to only one The point of the shadowing is to see how much of the conversation the S is understanding and hearing in the presence of the other conversation What is the functional value of automatic processing It allows you to pay attention to something else while doing something specific but alerts you when there is an important change They produce decisions that are not consciously controlled Thursday October 15 2015 Ex You are able to drive and change the radio station at once Your automatic process allows for this and will alert you to a dramatic change in your environment deer running in front of you How does the Stroop effect demonstrate automatic processing Stroop Effect 8 shown written names of colors written in either the same color as the word says or in a different color as the word says and they are asked to name the color of the word The automatic word is to read what the word says even though that is not what you were asked to do How does the attentional blink demonstrate the limitations on human attentional capacHy Attentional Blink difficulty in detecting a search target immediately after detecting a search target Ex If given a task to say when you see G and when you see an X you are less likely to notice one of them if flashed right after the other one This shows limitations because the human brain is only able to refocus itself after about a half second delay How does the repetition blindness demonstrate the limitations on human attentional capacHy Repetition Blindness decrease in the ability to perceive repeated stimuli during a rapid serial presentation of items Ex lf letters are flashed at you quickly and two consecutive B s are flashed you may remember only seeing one B This can allow us to miss things that could have been important How does the change blindness demonstrate the limitations on human attentional capacHy Change Blindness difficulty in perceiving change across successive views of a scene because attention not focused on relevant part of the scene This is limiting because it shows that when we are focused we tend to only focus on a specific thing versus noticing everything Thursday October 15 2015 How does the inattention blindness demonstrate the limitations on human attentional capacity lnattention Blindness failure to notice stimuli when the focus of attention is elsewhere Ex Driving and talking on the phone simultaneously Contrast the attentional blink and inattention blindness The attentional blink is when you are shifting focus whereas inattention blindness is when you are doing two different things at once and you cannot notice certain stimuli Contrast the attentional blink with repetition blindness The attentional blink is when you are shifting focus whereas repetition blindness is when you are unable to notice something happening twice Contrast the change blindness and inattention blindness Change blindness is when it is actually hard to SEE the stimuluschange whereas inattention blindness is when you don t notice stimuluschange because your attention is elsewhere How is hemispheric neglect different from blindness Hemisphere Neglect an attentional disease in which individuals are only able to see half of what they should be able to see Blindness is when you are just not paying attention to something and hemisphere neglect is when your brain literally neglects an entire side of your visual field Pattern Recognition Why is it reasonable to group visual features according to the principles of proximity similarity and common fate if one wishes to end up with bundles of features corresponding to objects Gestalt Principles how we group objects together 9quot f h Law of Proximity elements that are close together will be 6 grouped together 39 quot quotquotquot O quot o Makes sense because in our world objects tend to be all in one place and so we should group them Thursday October 15 2015 Ex a face you don t want to just see an eyemouthnoseetc you want to see it all together to make up a face Law of Common Fate elements that move together will be grouped together This is beneficial in real life because you don t want to see say a group of dancers dancing together and not notice that they are all moving together Law of Similarity elements that are similar will be grouped together You can see that the dog even though it is not outlined because we group together the black dots This is beneficial in real life because you want to be able to group similar objects together such as a square you recognize the 4 similar lines and group them together in the shape of a square Contrast topdown and bottomup processing in pattern recognition TopDown Processing identifying objects by actively looking for them BottomUp Processing identifying objects using their components a prototype or a template Contrast the template matching and the prototype matching accounts of pattern recognition Prototype Matching identifying an object by looking for something that looks RELATIVELY THE SAME as the object in your memory Ex E written in different fonts Template Matching identifying an object by looking for something that EXACTLY matches the object in your memory Ex The BurgerKing logo Contrast the template matching and the recognition by components accounts of pattern recognition Recognition by Components we identify an object based on looking at the 3D subobjects called geons that make up the full object Ex Breaking down a briefcase into a 3D rectangle and a 3D handle Whereas template matching is looking at the whole object and matching it exactly to something stored in your memory 10 Thursday October 15 2015 What is the relevance of the word superiority effect to topdown processing Word Superiority Effect 8 can more accurately identify letters if they are presented in context of words than if they are presented alone or in the context on nonwords In the context of topdown processing it relies on knowing what the word says and the Ietter s context within that word How is the recognition of faces different from the recognition of other objects Face Recognition is believed to have its own area of the brain in the pro occipital lobe that controls recognizing faces This is different because a baby who is just weeks old will mimic faces made by others signaling that before they even know they have a face they recognize a face In contrast you don t come out of the womb being able to recognize a briefcase What evidence can be advanced that humans have specialized mechanisms for recognizing faces There is evidence that the Fusiform Gyrus is the area of the human brain that is reserved specially for recognizing faces Disorders such as prosopagnosia capers syndrome schizophrenia and autism have all shown either less function or damage to this area that results in face recognition problems in all these diseases What evidence can be advanced that face recognition involves configural processing Inversion Effect greater effects of inversion on configuration than feature processing When a face is flipped upsidedown humans have a harder time recognizing if the configuration of the face is abnormal which gives us evidence that normally recognizing faces involves recognizing configuration ShortTerm Memory Working Memory and LongTerm Memory Contrast the capacity of shortterm and longterm memory STM is just a few lettersacronymswordsetc 11 Thursday October 15 2015 LTM is essentially unlimited Contrast the duration of sensory store shortterm memory and longterm memory Sensory store is less than a second STM is about 18 seconds for unrehearsed information LTM is forever as long as you have the right cues to remember Contrast the way information is encoded in sensory store shortterm memory and longterm memory Sensory Store information is held in an unanalyzed and uncategorized way STM chunking information has been understood uses rehearsal to keep it in your STM Chunk unit of storage in STM that is meaningful and allows someone to condense things to remember more LTM information is retained in many different forms visual auditory motoric etc usually remember something in terms of its meaning Contrast the duration of shortterm memory with and without rehearsal Rehearsal processing information to keep it active in your STMworking memory Without rehearsal the memory stays for about 18 seconds With rehearsal it can be kept in the STM indefinitely as long as we pay attention to them What is the unit of capacity for shortterm memory Chunk unit of storage in STM How does chunking depend on prior knowledge In order for something to be a chunk it needs to fit together readily as a pattern distinct from the things around it For something to be a chunk it needs to something the person is already familiar with In this way STM relies on LTM because for someone to knowbe familiar with something it needs to be in their LTM 12 13 Thursday October 15 2015 What is the relationship between the BrownPeterson task and rehearsal BrownPeterson Task E reads a set of 3 letters and 3 numbers and then the S is asked to count backwards from 3 s from a random number ex 780 until a timer goes off set to O 10 and 20 seconds Then the S is asked to write down the 3 letters read The relevance of this task in rehearsal is that making the subject count backwards from 780 by 3 s prevents them from rehearsing the information that was just presented to them What is the relationship between the articulatory control process and the phonological store Phonological Loop temporarily maintains verbal information Phonological Store inner ear holds information in the phonological loop It is used basically for you to listen to your inner voice Where the auditory stimuli is stored Articulatory Control Process inner voice maintains information in the phonological loop lt talks to your inner ear Process that automatically refreshesmaintains the elements in the phonological store These 2 things work together to rehearse things in your memory What is the relationship between the inner scribe and the visual cache Visuospatial Sketch Pad temporarily maintains visuospatial information Visual Cache stores information about visual form and color Comparable to the inner ear Inner Scribe rehearses information in the visual cache involved in planning and execution of body and limb movements Comparable to the inner voice What is the relationship between the articulatory control process and the inner scribe Thursday October 15 2015 Both of these processes are in charge of rehearsingmaintaining the information in one s memory What is the relationship between the phonological store and the visual cache Both pf these processes are in charge of storing the information in one s memory How does our theory of working memory WM explain phonological confusions and the wordlength effect Phonological Confusions items are more difficult to retain in working memory if phonologically similar Ex harder to remember a sequence of rhyming words that nonrhyming words because the person confuses them Our theory of WM explains this because when the inner voice is rehearsing this it may confuse similar sounds and rehearse one soundword more than the other because it can t tell which one it already rehearsed Word Length Effect short words are easier than long words to remember with working memory Our theory of WM explains this because the longer the word is the longer it is going to take the inner voice to rehearse the stimulus The longer it takes for the inner voice to rehearse the higher the chance of things escaping ones memory before they can rehearse some of the letterswords LongTerm Memory and Pattern Recognition Contrast explicit and implicit memory Explicit Memory memories that are consciously stored and retrieved Implicit Memory past experience influences present behavior in the absence of conscious awareness You are unaware of the past experiences influencing your behavior whereas in explicit memory you are consciously remember that stored information Contrast episodic and semantic memory Both are explicit memory types Episodic Memory memory for events of one s life Semantic Memory memory for conceptual knowledge about the world 14 Thursday October 15 2015 Episodic memory is the memory of actually learning the information whereas semantic memory is just knowing the information Contrast prospective and retrospective memory Both a form of episodic memory Prospective Memory remembering to do things in the future Retrospective Memory remembering things that happened in the past In prospective you are remembering something you need to do like go to the dentists whereas in retrospective you are remembering something you did like that time you went to the dentist How is perceptual memory like procedural memory Perceptual Memory awareness of physically based patterns that are difficult to describe but are effortlessly recalled Ex scent of a rose Procedural Memory stored knowledge that allows the skillful performance of tasks even though individual parts of the task cannot be recalled or explained to others Ex typing These are similar because they both are remembering things that are effortlessly recalled and both the types of actionsmemoriesetc within these memories cannot be fully explained How is the feeling of knowing similar to the tip of the tongue phenomenon Feeling of Knowing feeling that one knows something without being able to recall it TipoftheTongue Phenomenon an item is almost but not quite retrieved temporarily unable to retrieve the information These are similar because they both are cases when one feels as though they know something but can t recall what that information is How is contextdependent retrieval similar to statedependent retrieval 15 Thursday October 15 2015 ContextDependent Retrieval S learns a list of words under the ocean or on the shore and then is asked to recall that list of words either under the ocean or on the shore StateDependent Retrieval S learns a list of words while drinking soda or while drinking alcohol and is then asked to recall the list of words while drinking soda or while drinking alcohol In both types the S remembers better when the conditions at the time of learning the information are the same as the conditions at the time of recalling the information What aspects of memory are and are not disordered in temporal lobe amnesia and Korsakoff s syndrome Temporal Lobe Amnesia Korsakoff s Syndrome amnesia that usually results from malnutrition that results fro excessive alcohol consumption it is associated with damage to the mamillothalamic tract of the temporal lobes How do failures of source monitoring affect eyewitness memories Source Monitoring an unconscious mental test that humans perform in order to determine if a memory is quotrealquot and accurate as opposed to being from a source like a dream or a movie Eyewitness memories can be influenced by the way questions are asked and one can remember things more severely or differently than they actually saw them happen A failure of source monitoring allows one to make a mistake about what they saw How do failures of source monitoring affect recovered memories Recovered Memory upsetting childhood events are remembered after having been forgotten for years Oftentimes these memories that are remembered can be false due to a line of questioning by a therapist or someone teing an individual something to spur on the belief that a specific event occurred A failure of source monitoring allows one to believe that these things did happen when in fact psychologists and others must take caution on the accuracy of these memories How is prior knowledge used in reconstructive memories 16 Thursday October 15 2015 Reconstructive Memory process of assembling information from stored knowledge when a clear or coherent memory of specific events does not exist Prior knowledge will help fill in gaps or help one to use what they think would be the case to make a incomplete memory complete Contrast retrograde and anterograde amnesia Retrograde Amnesia loss of LTM for things that occurred BEFORE the start of the amnesia Anterograde Amnesia loss of LTM for things that occur AFTER the start of the amnesia What are some possible explanations of infantile amnesia 17 Infantile Amnesia almost total lack of memories for events occurring during the first twothree years of life This could be because You re still developing and learning how to code events There is a massive incoming of information when you hit that age preschool age and so all the other stuff becomes less important that happened previously Kids are just hanging out they aren t really paying attention Can t speak yet and so they won t have an inner monologue most important one
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