Study guide for exam 2
Study guide for exam 2 PHYS 1750
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This 34 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emmanuel Ayanjoke on Saturday October 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PHYS 1750 at University of Toledo taught by Dr. Lawrence Anderson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 148 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Physics in Physics 2 at University of Toledo.
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Date Created: 10/17/15
Study Guide fr Exam 2 Fluis and Fluid dynamics DefiniTion 0f Terms Bose EinsTein CondenseTe A sTaTe of maTTer39 ThaT forms below a cpi m 39TempemT39ure in which all bosons in The maTTeP fall mm The same quenTum STeTe Solid A sTaTe of maTTer 1139 low TemperaTure in which aToms are bound Together in a uniform arrangemenT of ElecTromugneTic forces Liquid A sTaTe of maT Ter eT high TemperuTure wiTh less ElecT r39omagneTic forces binding iT TageTher39 so moms are in a fixed army buT can slide pasT each oThen Eras A sTaTe of meT Ter uT high TempemTure wiTh very li TTle or no elecTromagneTic force binding iTS molecules TogeTher39 Plasma A sTaTe of maTTer in which many of The elecTrons wander around freely among The nuclei of The aToms Plasma cannoT be seen buT can be felt When a meml is heeled and Turns red The energy form of heuT fel T on Top of The 11er is plasma For insTance The boi ling ring of an elecTr39ic keTTle DenSiTy This is simply The mass quenTiTy of sTqumaTTer39 of an objecT39 occupied by a Specific velurne of ThaT object DensiTy is Moe39le censTanT excepT under high pressure For example The densiTy of gases vary under high pressure DensiTyz musevoiliume SI uniT is kgma p mV where m is mess and v is volume TemperogTure The degree of hoTness or coldness of on body IT is direchy proporTionol To The overer kineTic energy per porTiclfe of o subs ronce SI uni T Kelvin K Pressure This is simply The force per uniT oreo exerTed on an object SI uniTs of energy are Poscol Po Nrnz and fma IT is o funcTion of densiTy of TemperoTure P PUD Under all buT exTreme condiTions of low densiTy These variables are iSotropic scalars quotIsoTropicquot in This conTexT means having The some prorperTies in oil direcTions ConTinuiTy equoTion is on equoTion ThoT describes The TronsporT of o conserved quonTiTy Moss energy momenTum and oTher noTurol q uonTiTies ore conserved under Their reSpecTive approprioTe condiTionsg Therefore They can be described using conTinuiTy equoTion ernoulli39s TequoTion sToTes mm for on inviscid flow inviscid ow is The flow of on ideal fluid ThoT is assumed To have no viscosiTy of o non conducTing fluid an increase in The speed of The fluid occurs simulToneously wiTh o decrease in pressure or o decrease in The fluid39s poTenTiol energy Pressure is defined as force per uniT oreo IT is usually more convenienT To use pressure roTher Then force To describe The influences upon fluid behavior ViscosiTy is defined as The exTenT To which fluids resisT flow Diffusion refers To The process by which molecules inTermingle as o resulT of Their kineTic energy of random moTioni TurbulenT flow This is on flow in which fluid undergoes irregular flucTuoTions or mixing Laminar flow This is a flow in which fluid moves in smooth paths or layers Formula Bank Ideal gas equation of sTa re P cansfunf rT Hydrostafic equilibrium P Ra mas rghliquid pghsaw I Where The heights are the Thicknessesi of The layers of liquid and solid above the poin l where The pressure is To be deferminedi Hydrosfe c equilibrium in u compressible gas like air P Po e z H Where H RT and M is The molecular weigh r of The gas in modules Im er and P0 is ihe pressure at The hei39ghf z 0 Where 0 density in kgm3 T Temperafure in kelvin pressure in pascals Pa newionsmz V volume in m3 M a small piece of surface area in m2 h heighf of ver39fi39cal column of fluid above poinil in ques rion H scale heighi heighf over which The pressure drape a fecmr of e aboui 7500 m for our atmosphere ATM one standard aTmosPhere of pressure 101300 Pa PracTice problems 41 A layer of oi I 150 mm Thick is placed between Two microscope slides Researchers find Than a force of 55010 4 N is required To gillide one over the aTher at a speed of 100 cms when Their conTacT area is 600 6mg What is fhe oi viscosify What type of oil mighf H be f x K it Avis A small artery has a length of 111104 m and a radius of my If The pressure drop across The arTery is kPa what is The ow raaTe Through The artery Assume fhc The Temperature is 37 C TI 5 Li 5 r I mud 7725Xi9 g H Hyquot 4 343 KM 3 Gas Kinetic Theory Definition of terms Equation of state is an equation showing the relationship be lween the values of the pressure toluner and temperature of a quantity of a particular substance Kinetic theory of gases states that the particles in a gas move freely and rapidly along straight lines but often collide resulting in variations in their velocity and direction Formula bunk Equation of state for ideal gas PV nRT P1 NkT p 1090 R perM Average kinetic energy per particle Er 32 k T Average energy per degree of freedom E 12 kT Root mean square velocity Vrms til3ki39lm tad940 T M Where p density in kgm3 T 2 temperature in kelvin P pressure in pascals Pa newttmsrn2 volume of gas under consideration in no3 NA Avogadro39s number a 6022 X111123 particles N number of particles in volume V M atomic or molecular mass of individual article m kg mass of individual particle n number of moles NNA R gas constant 8314 J mol K k Boltzmann s constant 1381 x l rn2 kg 52 K Er mean kinetic energy per particle Vrms VV2 2 root mean square velocity average magnitude of velocity per particie Pracfice problems 32 The number density of gas Moms air a car rain location in ihe Space above aw planet is ubou l 10mm H m S and The pressure is 2754 Nmz in This Space Whai is The Temperature There a I 31939 Some incandescenf light bulbs are ned wifh argon gas Who is WM furl argon a roms new The filament assuming Their Temperature is 2500 K 250 civic g r PI Ufm b HeuT and H eaT Transfer De niTion of Terms Heart is The energy in a process of Transfer beTween a sysTem and iTs surrounding oTher Then as work or mm The Transfer of magTTer Specific heuT capeciTy is The amaunT of heart required To change a uniT mass or uniT quunTiTysucl1us mole of a subsTunce by one degree in Temperature SI uniT illkg K LuTenT heeT is energy released or absorbed by a body during a consTenT TernperuTure prucess An example is u sTuTe of muTTer change such as ice melTing or quer bailing LuTenT heeT of fusion is The emounT of heuT required To comerT a solid If its melting point info a liquid wiThouT an increase in TemperaTure Conduciion is The flow of inTernul energy from a region of higher Temperature To one of luwer Temperature by The inTerecTien of The udjacenT parTicles ConvecTion is heuT Transfer by muss moTibn of a fluid such as air or quer when The heeTed uid is caused Te move away from The source of heel carrying energy wiTh i39l39 Radiuiion Hem rediaTibn is The Transfer of imernal energy in The form of elecTromagneTic waves Formula onk Heating without a phase change at mae39l39 Specific heat capacity for ideal gas CV fZ R Cp CV R Heat absorption or release in phase change 0 2 mL Conduction heat transfer ag t KA T s watts Jls A cross section area of conductor Radiation heat transtr laat 0A T lL watts A surface area of radiator Where p density in kgm3 T 2 temperature in kelvi n P pressure in pascals Pa nativitonsm2 Q heat energy added or extracted in joules kg mass of material heated in kg 3 a specific heat capacity in lkg K sometimes kitkg K C 3 Specific heat capacity in Jmol K Cu at constant volume CP at constant pressure i latent heat coefficient in lkg or kJkg R gas constant 8314 lmol K f number of degrees of freedom of motion a conduction coefficient in Ms m K 5 Stefan s radiation constant 2 0 5670 xl S Wm z K flI Prac ce problems 63 A large body of lava from a volcano has stopped flowing and is slowly cooling The imamor of me lava is at IZDOQC its surface is at 450 C and The surroundings are air 270 6 a Calcul a re the mm at which energy is Transferred by radialion from 100 m2 of surface lawn mm The surroundings assuming The emissivity is 100 b Suppose heat conduction To The surface occurs air The same mm What is The hickness of The lava between The 450 C surface and The 12009 inferior assuming That The law39s conduc vify is the same as That of brick Q Can C u aifel39f m Candp c quotdampj c319 b dia O e y A g 000 ng d 395 3 5n a 0 FF f f 7191 1 mgquot 0 L1 loe i i39f fj Laws of Thermodynamics Definition of terms Zeroth tom of Thermodynamics sttes that two Thermodynamic systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third then they are in thermal equiiibriam with each other Therefore heat is oniy transferred if there is a temperature difference Second law of Thermodynamics In any cyciic process the entropy will either increase or remain the same It explains that the entropy of an isolated system always increases and it is often called the law of increased entropy First Law of Thermodynamics states that the total energy of an isoioted system is constant energy can be Transformed from one form to another but cannot be created or destroyed Adiabatic a thermodynamic process taking place without loss or gain of heat Isothermal a thermodynamic process in which the temperature of the system remains constant T temperature in kelvi n P 2 probability of microstate i Q heat energy added or extracted in joules S entropy in jouleskelvin V volume of gas n total number of moles Lb fractional number of moles of material a b R gas censtant 83141 mnl K k Boltzmann constant 1381 XIO B lK Practice Problems 11 A helium filled toy balloon has a gauge pressure of 0200 atm and a valume of 100 How much greater is the internal energy of the helium in the balloon than it would be at zero gauge pressure 43 C3 l C 3amp5 47 a On a melee dayquotr a cer rnin house loses 5a0 er108 Jquot of leaf To The outside abou l39 5001000 Btu What is fhe mm change in entropy due To this heat lmnsfer alone assuming an average indoor Temperu lure of 21 C and an average oufdoor39 Temperalum of 5009 C b This large change in entropy implies a large amount of energy has become unavailable 1390 do work Where do we find more energy when such energy is lost 1390 us a 3 Ellei moa 2 MO What is the decrease in enfmpy of 250 g of water That condenses on a bathroom mirror QT c Temper39m ure of 350 C assuming no change in Temperature and given the Infant heaf of vapnrizafion To be 2450 kJkg a a Lgr a if X 9 C c e Harmonic Miatioa Definition of Terms Harmonic molion is an oscillatory motion under a retarding force propr39l39ianal To The amouni of disPlacemen39r from an equilibrium posiiion Circular moiion is a movemenl of an object along The circumference of a circle or rol39al39ion along a circular path Angular speed is defined as The lime rate of change of angular displacement Angular disPIacemen l is The angle in radians degrees revolutions Through which a paint or line has been rofa red in a Specified sense aboul a specified axis Angular acceleralion is a quanii39lrafive expression of ihe change in angular velocil39y39 I hal39 a spinning ofbjecl undergoes per unit Time It can also be called roTa l i39onal acceleration Cenfripe ral acceleration is The velocity change with respect To Time Thai is conslan39l39 when an objeci39 undergoes circular moi ion Fools abouiquot ceni39ri39pefal mo l ion An objec r moving in a circle is accelerling Accelerating objecis are objecls which are changing Their velocii y eil her The Speed ie magnitude of The velocil39y vecfor or The direciion An objecf undergoing uniform circular moTion is moving with a constan l39 Speed Nonel39heless ii is accelerating due l o ifs change in direction The direction of the acceleration is inwarde Cm sawaq b 01 WWQL w m Q Of KW Ski 12 w WM e g V 7 u 2 Of m 5 f K 5W imi Cm 39 i f r ix f zb f gwm UP fem H w Ur all Ela figa I Cifcgjimf i m 2 39 a if l s MM 0 c a uquot 339 e E i quot39 4 i n t F 1539 M acca e 750 n Ebodud m 5 1 r 3r 2mvoim o 51 gular ageefam m a I em a 1 is m a v NC i w 3qu 7 7 i i d u Eg ad 9b EU dej f a TM CQ quotpaw Cantu Hi CEPCQE mDuMq Pagliaea f i J A 9 wAt quot r 4quot IA 39 77 MN Ma am fer t CL 3 I I I quotLWrygiu EEk nr E 1 I i Quag en39g maff C1 harm0115 050 f f 7Q Xmg mt a Xodlco Cm i M H accerewa on f dong 95 Q1575 B p Had a i wm hb n I nq iw u crrf Ll f d J 1 J k 1 Spring Can 3mm 10d 39l f If EWE m M F hwigo ogfl dap qce rudimg WPE cuplL 7 E2 WI I 9 wa9 CaL h 0 E faL Ida m E 39 dryquot Ambv Arrquot n l 1 f N 7 L Wg w mat imcvemw t a bag aft 0 A hm gm m QM Em 3 EDDmi 91 DO wgmiw Q Glac i Pmc ce problems 39 At what posiiilons is fhe speed of a simpie harmonic osuilla rar half iis maximum Thai is what values of x give v in max 2 where is The amplitude of The motion 37 A Whaf is The maximum velocii39y of an 850 kg person bouncing on a bathroom scale having a force constant of 150106 Nrn fhe amplimde of The bounce is 0200 cm bWha139 is The maximum energy s ror39ad in The spring 1 9143 MO kin Waves DefiniTilon of Terms Waves are any regularly recurring evenT such as surf coming in Toward a beach ThaT can be ThoughT of as a disTurbance moving Through a medium They are characterized by wavelengTh frequency and The speed aT which They move LongiTudinal wave is a wave ThaT is propagaTed in The same direcTion as The di splacemenT of The TransmiTTing medium A Transverse wave is a wave in which parTieles of The medium move in a diree on perpendicular To The direcTion ThaT The wave moves P W aves These are compressional waves ThaT are longiTudinal in naTure They are also called Primary waves The Speed of P waves is greaTer Then oTher waves They are called The primary waves as They are The TirsT To arrive during The eorThquake because of large velociTy SeWaves waves TheT Travel Through The surface of The earTh The speed of surface wave is less Then body waves This is The mesT dangerous and desTrucTive Type of desTrucTive wave due To The long Time period larger ampliTude and low frequency The effecT or sTrengTh of These waves diminish as They move away from The surface l SuperposiTiong simply means whenever Two or more waves Travelling Through The same medium IT The same Time The waves pass Through each oTher wiThouT being disTurbed The neT di5placemenT of The medium aT any poir11 in Space or Time is simply The sum of The individual wave displacemenTs nr H Cd q aha 1 H V r r all r gt 7 gt nL J1 ConsTruchve i nTerference The inTerference of Two or more waves of equal frequency and phase resulfingi in Their muffUral reinforcement and producing a single ampli Tude equal To The sum of The ompliTudes of The individual waves DesTrucTive inTerference The inTerference of Two waves of equal frequency and opposiTe phase resul39l39ing n Their cancellaTion where The negafive displacemenf of one always coincides wiTh The poei rive dis39placemenf of The oTher Phase is defined as The disTance befween The f39ir39sT zero crossing and The poinT in space defined as The origin STonding wave also known as sToTionary wave IT is a wave in a medium in which each poinT on The axis of The wave has on associafed iconsTanT amplifude Beads a phenomenon Tha39r occurs when Two sound waves of differem frequency approach your ear The olTernoTing consTrucTive and desfrucfive inTerference causes The sound is alTernoTively sofT and loud PracTice problems A car has Two horns one emiTTing a frequency of 199 Hz and The oTher emiTTing a frequency of 203 WhaT beaT39 frequency do They produce 1 heath o 1 l 39V ibe t i Q 61 A wave Traveling on a Slinky Thm is S Tretched To 4 m Takes 24 5 To Travel The Iengfh of the Slinky and back again a What is The speed of fhe wave b Using the same Slinky sfr e rchevd 1390 39I39he same length a smnding wave is created which consisi39s of Three Griffinodes and four nodesq A r what frequency must The Slinky be osaiila ring W Sound DefiniTion of Terms Sound a vibration ThaT propagaTes as a Typically audible mechanical wave of pressure and displacement Through a medium Such as air or wafer InTensiTy amounT of energy flowing per uniT Time Through a uniT area ThaT is perpendicular To The direcTion in which The sound waves are Travelling Frequency refers To how offen The particles of The medium vibraTe when a wave passes Through The medium Harmonies A harmonic of a wave is a componenf frequency of The signal ThaT is an inTeger mulTiple of The fundamenTal frequency Le if The fundamenfal frequency is The harmonics have frequencies 21 E 43 eTc Timbre Is The qualify of a musical noTe sound or Tone ThaT distinguishes differenT Types of sound producTion IT is also known as Tone color or Tone qualify The Doppler EffecT is The change in frequency of a wave or oTher periodic evenr for an observer moving relaTive To iTs source Ad39 aia i MTm 31 gamma 3 h JQJquot PEJ SL5 PC w 1 Iquot mg dam g A U W CEMQW em 2 10 c N mmn Wrrgmwcq moaa m a j quotCat 5 if 72quot Urag f m m Hit110 bum m i 7 a 7 MWWSQF 1 I 39 cfb gutira cgnf EQLA w eff I f 7 7 1 quotgm ktw mtg 1 Qcmdgf Prac ce probllems 41 A piano Tuner hears a baa every 200 5 when IisTening 1 0 0 2640eHz Tuning fork and a single piana string Whaf re the We possible frequencies of The sifr39ing 0 7 ismf quot Tm 391 93m if 33 A Spectator at a parade receives an BBB Hz fans from an oncoming rrumpefer who is playing an BSD Hz note A whaf speed is The musician approaching if The speed of sound is 338 ms V i 5quot 391 3 g Q 71quotiii bf39 f8 5m an as E mu wwmm j U a L F 2 2 N WWWWM 39 Mfg
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