Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide Phil 1051
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by email@example.com Notetaker on Saturday October 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Phil 1051 at George Washington University taught by Cameron Bassiri in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 140 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Philosophy in PHIL-Philosophy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/17/15
MID TERM REVIEW PHILOSOPHY 1001 PLATO Euthyphro Piety Socrates and Euthyphro o Socrates is aware of his own ignorance All I know is that I know nothingquot 0 Logic goes around in a circle Question of what do the gods give back to us 0 Point was to define piety and impiety I Piety is duty to being honorable being faithful to gods 0 The dialogue continues because E doesn t give Socrates what he wants For Socrates definitions must be universal concrete and logical Truth is meant to be permanent that is what makes it true 0 Socrates s interrogation might have been an excuse to make a point to excuse his prosecution He was being prosecuted for teaching young men philosophy and corrupting then and for disowning the old gods 0 E is prosecuting is father for murdering a murder Gods are basically protected by divinity chance for being divine o Socrates goal is to find what is true something that will stand on its roots 0 Piety I 1 prosecuting an unjust individual p 11 problem with it that it is only one example doesn t apply to everybody I 2 what is pleasing to the gods is pious p12 no longer just individual or particular what if the gods disagree with each other the source that we are looking to disagrees I 3 Piety is what the gods love and impiety is what all the gods disagree p15 changes everything I 4 science of prayer Dialogue dia through logue logic 0 O Phaedo Less objective For the sake of simplicity we are taking the reading literally Less science more speculative Socrates was talking about if you die a philosopher you ll become a god Soul rules the bodyquot 0 soul is immortal abstract invisible intelligent unchangeable master uncompounded your soul does not disperse it can t be broken down any further that is what separates the body and the soul souls have no spatial notion it doesn t occupy space 0 body is mortal concrete visible ignorant changeable slave compounded can me broken down body is like a prison According to Socrates soul carries knowledge from previous lives How is the previous notion of perception possible 0 Is knowledge born with you or acquired through experience I Now you have these truths but you don t know how to act upon them how would we deal with it I How would you perceive anything as true Death is a good thing in this model either it is a long sleep or is a chance to expand their philosophies He s not afraid he s ready to move on and drink the poison Paradox 9 he s pure when he drinks poison Where does knowledge come from Socrates glorifies the process of figuring outquot about the universe but the actual answer is not necessary important as its process Interpretation is everything regardless if there is an answer The attempt to link everything together sounds very contemporary the person who linked everything together with water Note that in the text soul is feminine Whole text is about the process of recollecting Used geometry as examples Main thing about the lyre relates to equality If we didn t have a notion of equality we were not going to be able to recognize equality Perceived inequality constant and it must have already been the case perception plays a huge role in the process of knowledge If you question someone the right way they ll give you the right answerquotpage 47 73 b 1Existence of the soul before birth 0 innate knowledge For example abstract equality o if everybody has the same capability of knowledge because they have the same soul but some chose to act upon the recovery of knowledge Humans share the absolute philosophical knowledge 0 Immortality of the soul 2 existence of the soul after death 0 you are defined by your soul in spite the fact that a soul could only exist in the body If body and soul are opposites if we assume that the body dies the soul can never die Meno Virtue or Excellence How do you live virtuously How do you live excellently 0 Knowledge is recollection Once you know what something is it is universal Slave boy was uneducated and is used as the example to claim that everyone has this knowledge its just a process of bringing it out Process of recollecting he never taught anything he s a guide to the discovery of knowledgequot Are you born with it Or is it natural to your environment o Leads out to only knowledge could be taught o How do you look for virtue if you don t know what it is Meno s opinions are biased and based on his background Meno is giving parts of the definitions but Socrates argues that it can t be it because it does not make it universal The whole has to perceive the parts in order for the parts to perceive them together Virtues is o 1Virtue is subjective page 61 I Social role is different I Virtue can be different I Health and strength if they have the same health and strength there is no essential difference between men and women IN 0 2The ability to rule virtue of men p 62 3Desiring fine things and being able to acquire them 0 4 Divine dispensation p 84 I Can t explain what virtue is o Differentiating between true opinion and knowledge I Differentiate between the knowledge and the belief of what something really is Math example interruption of the dialogue 0 Getting something wrong is part of recollection o Questioning is guiding the approach to get to the right answer Virtue is not knowledge because it cannot be taught There are no teachers of it there are no students of it Maybe is true belief that comes with the same problems 0 Plato s Republic Book I and 11 What justice is What justice is and who exactly is qualified to rule T is frustrated with Socrates 0 Because if you ruled out everything that something is you are left with nothing Thrasymachus definition 0 1The advantage of the stronger p 61 Socrates argues o 2 The advantage of the weaker I people in power should act for the advantage of their subject Example Doctor should rule for the patient not for himself Socrates argues 0 That if you want the position power so bad you should not be elected because that s how tyrants are formed They want everything that has to do with power 0 On the other hand the moralists that are fit to rule should not want to be elected Book 2 0 Any way that could get away with anything why wouldn t you cheat The only thing that keeps people in line is the fear of getting caught 0 Here justice is determined by the fear of other people to get caught and people condemning you to be immoral selfish 0 His city is founded on basic needs nobody can do it alone and we have lots of needs that have to be taken care of 0 Everyone needs everyone else nobody can survive on their ownquot In this fictitious city the fundamental needs have to be taken care of and after you can get luxuries like olives alcoholquot if you don t have enough resources you go to another community On the other hand you can trade between them dependency and efficiency ourishes 0 Basic needs basic dependency distribution of function and how do these play an important role in society 0 Four elements that are essential Books Three and Four Noble lie o The lie the noble class tells to justify the injustices orders of the world 0 Keeps everybody in some kind of order you might be inclined not to accept something about it But if you just lie the order and community is secure Everyone is born into a metal and there is no social mobility people are stuck with their social classes How do you convince that things have to be in certain positions How do you establish loyalty to one peace of Earth Members of the same community 0 When you are born into a place you are loyal to that place Born gold silver or bronze Noble story the lie is deliberate Its imperfect if the story is connected to a certain gods it is somewhat justifiable Deliberate deception o The exception is a child that has characterizes of gold and could be moved upwards in society 0 There is a corresponding between the micro and macro causing What a city needs to do well 0 Government I Structure constitution law 0 Public infrastructure 0 Water food shelter We get an account of the city and what would be ideally the case There are four things that the city needs to corresponds to different metals in society 0 1 wisdom p83 I the guardians have to have most of the knowledge gold metals I counseling the state 0 2Courage p84 I auxiliariessilver metals I there is civilian courage it sounds like it applies predominantly to the silvers I Courage does not have to do only with the battlefield But the social practice has to do with telling the truth maintaining ideas and less about being strong in the battlefield 0 3moderation I recognizing that goal medals were gold metals On page 86 apply to the ordinary systems It is not like courage and wisdom I Accepting your place in society I Applied to everyone 0 4 Iustice doing what is properly one s ownquot minding one s business The soul for Plato 0 Gold metal reasoning gold I Emphasis in the rational o Desire bronze o Spiritedness silver Books VI and V119 Education 0 Being in the cave vs Being out to the cave I Everyone is in prison and staring straight ahead and in chains The case in the allegory that philosophy starts from ignorance where as philosophical questions arise from ambiguity and the sense out of the cave re ection image of the process of learning Images can be visible intuitively questions political realities may not accept the images and you slowly shows the images Drag them out it is not pure wonder or pure curiosity Kicking and screaming out of the cave Everything begins to change they can begin to fall apart in the sense of philosophical knowledge and that is what education looks like everybody begins in the dark and then you go on gradually to seeing the light knowledge You evolve from making sense of the sense into more intellectual capabilities We begin by seeing things gradually become more knowledgeable Aristotle Physics 0 Student of Plato I Aristotle is holding the ethics Plato is holding the estate I Aristotle is more concrete thinking Plato is more abstract I Aristotle is trying to understand Plato he s a response to Plato individual frame and working through specific insights not physics considered more change and foundation character as opposed to mathematical physics What is nature page 132 I Is more qualitative in the context of the book not so much quantitatively 1 Forms Nature natural objects 2Causes are different ways of explaining things whyhow does it happen this way I motion is continuous I cyclical o Fortune luck and chance Two ways nature can be understood 0 Nature as a whole 0 Things objects nature I What makes a thing a thing I There are two types of objects 0 Things that are there Objects are by nature periodic tablej principals of motion Manufactured objects does not have the principle of motion because it is depended in what they are made of 0 House would be considered a manufactured object Some objects change on their own for each of these has in itself a sense of motion I An object of art stays the same But the material that is made of changes it can also be affected by the outside It does not hold the same thing as an outside motion An object of art is anything that is constructed produced and tecni Anything that is made is an object of art Claw statue doesn t change and the only reason the manufacturing objects change is because what they are made of changes their materials change I Constructed of natural materials do have a motion for themselves That is why things that are constructed are altered o What is a thing I Matter what it is potentially I Form 9 its designarrangementactuality I Matter and form together 9 the complete definition you know what is made of and how it is arranged 0 Contemporary scientists look at us physiologically science is the best way of doing anything 0 If you don t distinguish the differences of certain objects to understand all the different aspects of the things we experience 4 causes 0 matter I that out of which is was made What something is made out of bronze 0 form I that into which it was made That into which designs blueprint o efficient I that by which it was made Agent responsible 0 final cause I that for the sake of which it was made Purpose reason Incidental causes they cannot be controlled 0 Fortune I Only applies to humans I Unintended consequence that resorts from a rational act Only people that are rational agents can be lucky Random and good fortune I Example of the market If you go to the market and run into someone that owns you money you were lucky o Chance I Chance happens to anything They don t have to be lucky Book 1 Ethics Virtue ethics 0 Happiness and moderation o Flourishing happiness Is not just a state of being happy ourishing 0 To live happily is also to live an ethical life He always puts the state the community at first The problem is to find out what happiness is 0 He admits that good is different things for different people 1St section 0 the good is the name of action I 2 types of goals ends The final end goal is after the sake of which everything is chosen It has no greater end and it doesn t serve anything higher Some things according to Aristotles they are not chosen because they are the end Other activities are outside of themselves happiness is a sort of activity An activity that stands to serve I Uses the example of being a carpenter the table that he is making is the end product of that activity The activity is only carried out for the sake of that product Therefore the end is outside of it I An activity chosen for its own sake What does happiness make for Aristotle some things and ends are chosen for their own sake Ends 0 1 absolute chosen for its sake O 2 relative chosen for the sake of something else The ultimate end being national security That would be an example of how different tasks have ends above or outside of themselves Art for the art sake The product is defined by its use Politics as the Master Science of God 0 O 0 Only for experienced humans It has an overarching role Politics apply to everything the collective good for everybody The limitations of ethics and Politics 0 O O Younger people in office you ll have a less stable regime They don t have enough experience required in the field Want individuals to have a notion of freedom be able to enforce not enforce Section 7 and 13 0 Book 2 characteristics He calls happiness final and selfsufficient Is the ultimate end Happiness of the good is what motivates all of our actions and that is how we justify everything 2nd paragraph what is always chose is called final someone that is always chosen at its own end page 170 Self sufficiency s definition Selfsufficiency in the comprehensive sense Chose for its own sake is the absolute end Relies in the understanding of the human soul for Aristotle everything living has a soul They have some sort of sparkle in it vegetative soul referring to the same thing 2rld type of soul is purely desires and appetitive The key here is a reason something of a hierarchy Progress of complexity I humans have reason desire and I figuring out what reason is the next task Human soul is divided into 3 parts Aristotle s there is only 2 o irrational I lacks reason biological need for water lacks reason 0 Middle bottom of 177 I Desirable rule of following o Rational I Happy life I Use this rational tool as much as possible Humans don t want to live just as a plant Reason will guide your desires or just do nothing I Proper use of reason Whether or not there is a change in the practical use of reason Hierarchy of actions End product subsection different types of goods happiness if for its own sake to ourish exist biologically politics is a master science what make politics so great according to Aristotle I The good is final and self sufficient I Self sufficiency is not lacking on anything I Plants only need nutrition humans need both of those and pyramids Soul that the human have requires goods that corresponds to each particular aspect I Everything living has a soul is not meant to be religious Conceptions of the soul plants have a soul because it needs water and so on Just the principle of life promotion in some sense Irrational o Vegetative nutrient needs and aspects Rational 0 Middle desire ruled part 0 Venn diagram I Desire is in the middle Book II 0 Be in the middle Always finding the middle in the two extremes Two vices of excess Virtue and excellent living is somewhere in the middle Excessive wealth is a vice Deficiency is also a vice You need to be in the middle to live an ethical live and happy life Example courage Stay in the middle and do what you are suppose to be Structure of the mean is subjective There are corresponding concepts of courage The argument is the same for everybody but it changes according to some circumstances Middle is the basis of ethics Live life with modesty Before he gets to that he makes some claims about how do we become ethical Some things have no middle you just don t do killing cheating etc 183 Virtuous characteristics want people to have I Know what you are doing I Chose for its own sake I Do it genuinely from a firm and unchangeable character Do what is right instead of all the other externality Virtuous people most of the time Those supposedly good qualities are equally beneficial Moral virtue as a result of habits I One is moral the other is intellectual Write it down memorize it You need to get in a habit and teach children Develop this habit of being honest by having children who have been raised in these ideas Be able to get to a point where you need to recognize the mean you need the process of ethical formation Habit is what is going to get you to be ethic I Habits ethical You have to go and actual do things Ethics and happiness go hand in hand Book VI Specifying things we already see Book smart vs experiencequot Section 1 Rational 0 Scientific I Grasps but does not change 0 Calculativedeliberative I Grasps what does change I Lightness between self and others self and object Sections 37 0 Distinction between theory and practice Applied ethics I Ethical theory and ethical practice Make sure the need for theory and application between things are distinguished o 3 I Pure science and knowledge notion of pure science will just be something like theory this is how it is defined Scientific thinking with scientific knowledge actually is Studies what is eternal and necessary I Art or Applied Science Disciplines that apply certain principals Also called art Something that acquires a skill and produces something else What is being used it is implying building something material causes builds something else You have to be able to understand it as changeable deliberate or calculate about it Carpenter is not acting he s producing When you make something is producing a carpenter is making a table Making is not acting To act rationally is being able to find the mean rational productionquot NOT rational actionquot I Practical Wisdom p 194 What you need to be able to make good decisions in your life That is what is essentially what it is That is what practical wisdom does It takes care of these practical affairs Common sense This is what acting rational action Making good decisions I Intelligence p 195 What allows you to understand the foundations of something Applied science what are the foundations of different theories Fundamental basic principals or just the basics in general I Theoretical Wisdom Combination of 14 Science and its consummation Science and intelligence Knowing not jus the results but the reasoning behind them as well Combination of scientific knowledge intelligence You have to understand the reason behind the principals behind science what is known
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