Comm 210 Midterm Studyguide
Comm 210 Midterm Studyguide COMM 210
Popular in Fundamentals of Public Communication
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Erickson on Saturday October 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 210 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Denker in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 650 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Public Communication in Communication at Ball State University.
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Explains concepts very well! Thanks!
Explained very well, also very organized.
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Date Created: 10/17/15
Fundamentals of Public Communication Midterm Exam Study Guide 1 Levels of Communication 0 Intrapersonal Communication communication with self thoughts selftalk recognition of your own feelings 8 attitudes O Interpersonal Communication communication between 2 people 0 Group Communication communication between 3 or more people a study group a team and families 0 Public Communication one person communicating facetoface with an audience audience size can vary interaction between speaker and audience is more limited than in other levels 0 Massmediated Communication communication that happens over some form of technology because the audience is too big to be together in one place includes newspapers television and the internet All of these include a source attempting to in uence a receiver through appropriate messages Each level has different forces affecting the outcome but skills 8 principles of public speaking can be applied to all levels 2 Models of Communication Dance s Helical Model 1967 this model basically shows that communication is everchanging expanding and builds upon itself Berlo s SMCR Model 1960 Source Message Channel Receiver cummumicaticn 1 t I communication skills m E Rang skills attitudes elementa hearing trt itudeg knuw ede treatment touching knowledge EDEiEI watem Structure amElllllng EEiEI System culture tasting culture SourceMessageChannelReceiver The Source transmits a message through a channel to a receiver The message includes verbal elements content and nonverbal elements delivery 3 Principles of Communication 0 Communication is Circular sender and receiver encode and decode simultaneously through feedback First one person speaks then the second responds and back and forth in a circle 0 Communication is based on Perception perception is how an individual understands reality each person perceives things differently so the outcomes of the communication process are always unique 0 Communication is Irreversible communication cannot be taken back 4 Communication Apprehension Communication Apprehension CA is also known as stage frightquot it is the anxiety a person feels when communicating or giving a speech Especially common in public speaking Types of CA include For some it is a personality trait that leads to avoiding all oral communication For many stress only occurs in publicspeaking situations Responses include vomiting shaking muscles tears forgetfulness procrastination CA can be overcome by Systematic Desensitization in which you expose yourself in small doses until you grow more comfortable Visualization and Relaxation Techniques visualizing various situations or consciously making an effort to relax can help Cognitive Restructuring a method for individuals to change their thinking usually used in counselling Also includes writing out positive thoughts Skill Development learning needed skills will help reduce nervousness Movement movement reduces shaking 8 tension Simply gesturing or walking while talking helps a speaker to remain calm Practice practice helps Seriously Planning allows for effective visualizations and helps control nervousness Developing Confidence receiving encouragement compliments helps develop confidence and more confidence means less communication apprehension Sharing the Stage sometimes having a helperfriendpartner on stage with you reduces stress 5 Intrapersonal Processes Remember Intrapersonal means within the person so with yourself the Intrapersonal Process includes Frame of Reference frame of reference is the way we view the world frame of reference includes beliefs attitudes values experiences culture feelings etc this determines how you will interpret the speaker39s message Creativity creative thinking involves visualizing something in a unique way development of creative thinking affects how you send receive messages Imagined Communication also known as selftalk when you imagine a conversation or walk through a conversation in your head this tends to help prepare for future communication or to help deal with feelings Risktaking Behaviors some amount of risk taking is necessary for growth 8 development willingness to take risks depends on past experience since the way we communicate is closely linked to our selfimage many view communication or public speaking as a potential risk since it might possibly damage selfimages Cognitive Patterns thinking patterns each person has unique cognitive patterns as a communicator you use thinking patterns and sense appeals that fit your own thought patterns your audience will have different thought patterns so sometimes this can make communication difficult 6 Listening vs Hearing Hearing is the physical process of detecting sound Listening is the psychological process of interpreting the sounds we detect and understanding a meaning behind them To effectively listen listeners must concentrate on the message interpret meanings analyze nonverbal aspect and so on Note that many times listeners tend to hear what they expect to hear 7 Audience Analysis Before you begin speaking you should obtain as much information as possible about your audience This will help you present information in the best way possible Audience analysis includes Psychological Audience Analysis this includes considering beliefs attitudes and values as well as their impact on the listener39s behavior interpretation Demographic Audience Analysis consider the importance of characteristics including gender age educational level occupational experience economic class religion regional background and ethnicity Analysis of the Situation and Occasion this includes considering physical environment the size of the audience and the nature of the speaking occasion 8 Selfcentered vs Audiencecentered Speaker A selfcentered speaker will be less likely to convey their message clearly to the audience An audiencecentered speaker will have an idea of what the audience understands and what they don39t understand as well as an idea of what they agree with vs what they disagree with By taking advantage of this knowledge an audiencecentered speaker will have a better chance of effectively conveying their message to the audience 9 Patterns of Organization 0 Topical Order arranges ideas into appropriate categories 0 Chronological Order sorts ideas by their time 0 Spatial Order arranges ideas according to location geography O Causal Order examines causes and effects of a specific phenomenonproblem O ProblemSolution Order explains the nature of a problem then the way to solve it C Motivated Sequence Specific Organizational Structure 1 Attention 2 Need 3 Satisfaction 4 Visualization 5 Action 10 Speech Components The main components of a speech include Introduction Body and Conclusion Introduction contains attention getter and thesis statement is also used to establish credibility and to explain why the topic is of importance to the audience Body includes the main points of the speech as well as developmental material and transitions Conclusion used to summarize ideas make speech memorable and to make a final appeal 11 Methods of Delivery 0 Extemporaneous Speaking this is impromptu speaking in which the presentation is prepared beforehand but delivered in a spontaneous conversational manner This highlights interaction with audience this is the kind of speaking we do in class C Impromptu Speaking talking off the top of the headquot or unplanned speaking This includes the type of speaking you may do in a job interview 0 Speaking from Manuscript presentation is fully written out speaker delivers it wordforword 0 Speaking from Memory this involves delivering a manuscript without notes from memory 12 Elements of Delivery Vocal Elements include Volume Articulation Pronunciation Rate Pitch Quality Bodily Elements include Posture Movement Gestures Facial Expression Eye Contact Environmental Personal Appearance Time Amplification Physical Environment 13 Outline an outline is used to identify the ideas structure and support of a presentation It should be simple clear and functional Elements of an Outline Purpose Statement Central Idea Intro Body Conclusion Transitions Reference List Bibliography Title Types of Outlines Word Outline Phrase Outline Sentence Outline Complete Content Outline manuscript 14 Speaking Notes Speaking notes should help the delivery of your presentation use words phrases and sentences that help you remember your speech contents 15 Introduction Introduction is important for grabbing the listener39s attention obtaining listener39s interest establishing credibility and preparing for the speech to come Generally it39s better to plan the intro after you write the rest of the speech Should be 520 of the speech 16 Conclusion Conclusion is important to close the speech it summarizes key ideas restates central idea creates a mood consistent with the purpose of the presentation and creates a sense of closure This is generally best to be written after the rest of the speech 8 intro Should be like 5 of the speech 17 INTRO Interest Need Topic Reliability Overview Build Interest by referencing to another speaker using audience participation including a relevant story or using a quotation interesting statement Establish credibility with research and enthusiasm 18 DONE Direction Overview Need Excitement 19 Informative Speech Principles of Informing Simplicity simple material is easier to understand 8 remember Clarity important to inform effectively 8 efficiently Credibility listener is more likely to pay attention 8 learn from a person with strong credibility Interest listeners learn more from presentations they39re interested in 20 Visual Aids Listeners learn best when they use more than one of their senses visual aids can help them understand the speech better Visual aid can provide a real example of ideas presented VAs can promote retention by making ideas vivid
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