FWExam2StudyGuide.pdf FW 104
Popular in Wildlife Ecology and Conservation (GT-SC2)
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mikaela Maldonado on Saturday October 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to FW 104 at Colorado State University taught by Nicole K M Vieira; Ann L Randall ; Tyler Ryde Swarr in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 208 views. For similar materials see Wildlife Ecology and Conservation (GT-SC2) in Animal Science and Zoology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 10/17/15
vocabulary concept time period Effective Wildlife Management I the application of scientific knowledge and technical skills to protect conserve limit or enhance wildlife populations I nondomesticated animals in their natural environments I life requirements for healthy productive wild animals provided by the animal39s habitat food water cover space oxygen in aquatice systems I a welfare factor that is in short supply and restricts population growth often one welfare factor will be in shortest supply and thus will be the minimum limiting factor takes into account the target species welfare factors and limiting factors human and societal values or impacts I number of animals that a habitat can support a characteristic of habitat 0 Social carrying capacity human ideals a little bit below the natural threshold I Might not want wildlife destroying gardens and land used by people I Thus limits carrying capacity due to human intervention he deliberate intervention on the animals within a species I Concern on what to do with wildlife I ncreasedecreasemaintain I Local Colorado examples I Moose and chukar introductions via translocation to new areas I Bighorn sheep and mule deer culling for disease is the deliberate human intention to go directly manage a population by killing some of the species I Plains sharp tail grouse reintroductions to native habitat manipulation of a habitat or indirect affects on animals not directly managing I Habitat alteration I Prey manipulation I Education to promote conservation ethic I Local Colorado examples I Creating wetlands for waterfowl I Stabilizing islands for breeding pelicans I Controlled burn for bighorn sheep forage I Nest platforms for osprey I CRP for plains sharp tailed grouse O O 0 Overall is managed through licensing Small game I Small mammals bird reptiles I Larger maximum daily kill allowed by law for a hunter called quotcreel limitquot for anglers eg quot6 trout per dayquot I R selectedfast recovery I Sage grouse I Aldo leopold quotsmall game is the phenomenon of edges I Pheasants I Directly managed through putting a lot of birds in each area I Sandhill cranes I Can hunt in CO with state and federal permit I Like sand bars any structural resource of the environment that enhances survival of an animal eg hiding or nesting cover 0 Nesting 0 Easy food source I Waterfowl migration routes are called I Migratory birds affect multiple regions I Mourning dove hunting regulations vary I Prairie dogs I Can control on private land as a nuisance but need small game license on public land I 98 decline led to proposal to list as federally threatened o likely to become quotendangeredquot legal term when threatened status is declared by US Dept of Interior I USFWS denied protection I Ecosystem engineer and disproportional affect on structure on food webs due to presence Big game mountain lions bears a hoofed mammal eg deer elk moose bighorn sheep pronghorn antelope horses cattle I Biggest concerns over population where not hunted social k exceeded over browse human lands causing public damage disease within a large population humanwildlife conflict I are allowed to prevent such livestock loss keep humans safe maintain other big game species and profits from trophy money I Turkey are classified as big game according to hunting regulations in CO Furbearers controversial I Ex beavers organisms that change structure of the landscapeenvironment I Dams kill trees reroute water provide fish habitat I Engineers came up with design still allow water flow below dams Non game not hunted O O Endangered Contributes to watchable wildlife 0 to illegally take fish or wildlife FUN FACT The largest herd of elk in North America is in Colorado FUN FACT 2 Deer is the most harvest big game species nationwide 0 White tailed deer usually run with tail up and have a rack with a stick with prongs off it o Mule deer usually run with tail down and have a white booty patch Their rack is made of a fork VVVVV Small scale implementation and understanding Open systems Missing life history and ecology Oversimplification No evaluation of management impacts gt gt gt gt gt Intraspecific competition for resources predation disease etc logistic growth model based on operation of Density Dependent factors of population density Nothing to do with how big the population is Weather accidents etc gt gt gt gt adaptations for rapid population growth reproduce rapidly highly mortality rapid turnover of generations good dispersal little effort in young many offspring poor competitors better adapted for unstabletransient habitat conditions Early mid succession pioneers a lot of fluctuations in populations gt gt gt competition for resources is intense good competitors low reproductive rates few offspring more effort into young feeding defense from predators adapted for stable habitat climax communities gt Learn I Harvest rate I Population size I Birthrates and mortality number of births per number of individuals over a specified time period births of young within a specified period I Age and growth 9 Study lifetime of a marked animal is difficult gt R selected species are much easier 9 Tooth wear gt Invasive or non invasive I Document foodhabitat type I scat and pellet analysis behavior observation I Invasive stomach analysis live or dead I Movement dispersalhome range I Catching and handling wildlife I Safety I Process quickly quietly and carefully I Reduces drugs needed struggle and injury I Trapping netting darting I Remote cameras I Track plates I Hair snares I Scat gt Marking animals I Permanent semi permanent tags collars some radio telemetry collars tattoos bands toe clipping PIT tags I Bird banding I Small tag in ear 9 Try to make the same color I PIT tag 9 Passive integrated transponder gt Think a microchip like in dogs I Nonpermanent I Dyes hair clipping toenail clipping drop off collars I Low tech tracking I Mark and recapture of individuals 9 Small mammal trapping on a grid 9 Recapture or harvest of a banded bird 9 Allow tracking of movement I High tech radio telemetry I Collars backpacks 9 Hiking with reception I GPS collars 9 Allow location frequencies all the time 9 Physiological information from the animal as well I Doppler Radar non invasive 9 look at population size as a whole 9 not for individual based study CLICKER QUESTION GPS collars can be used to A Track movements of individual animals B Monitor heart rates C Monitor body temps D All of the above gt An exploited population of aquatic animals I Notjust fish gt Broader view I Aquatic biota interacting with the environment gt Three interacting components 5 nonliving portion of the community Aquatic plants amp animals I Habitat On land amp in water I Humans Recreation amp commercial gt Important I 29 billion people rely solely on fish for protein 200 billion pounds per year I jobs I recreation I other industries Aquaponics Aquarium Research gt The worlds largest fishery is the Peruvian Anchovies Anchoveta I Gather information amp apply knowledge to Sustainable use 9 Commercial harvestuse 9 Recreational opportunity gt Fishing is one of the first activity children can do at a young age 9 Aquarium trade Conservation of biodiversity 9 Big picture so much unknown Human health 9 Mercury loads in fish 9 Over 1 part per million 9 Much of mercury poising comes from china and India air pollution gt Data collection Gill nets Fish come to the trap Trap fyke nets 9 Calm water 9 Like a maze Long lines pot or catfish traps 9 Like tuna or mackerel O Careful about by catch something you don t want is caught Seining 9 Beach seine gt Like corralling fish 9 Purse seine gt Lake gt Commercial gt Weighted bottoms that are closed off gt Dolphins used as indicators as location for tuna causing much of dolphin by catches O Stream seines gt Go through a pool 9 Trawl gt Big and small gt Net behind a boat gt SSS gt lots of damage to ecosystems O electrofishing gt boat gt barge gt backpack ANGLING is what type of capture a active b passive c both d neither Passive methods for fish capture include a electrofishing b seining c gill net d all of the above Can body mass be used to age a fish false I Non capture I Hydroacoustics O SONAR I Creel survey 9 Ask anglers what they got I Snorkelscuba I Counting towers O Literal tower placed to count fish that cross a line gt What kind of measurements and data do we need to collect I Sicklids eat weird things like scaleseyebalsetc I Species I Age and sex I Length weight I Reproductive condition I Health and disease I Movement I Habitat use I Diet I Mortality recruitment I Scales can lead to information about scale ridges and length of fish If there are no scales then the bones in fins such as in catfish can be cut out and used in a similar way to diagnose age gt Marking Fin clipping Tattoos Floy tags PIT tags Otoliths gt Fish movement PIT tags and reader station TelemetryGPS Habitat Eggs need clean aerated substances Juvenile need habitat to hide in adults need places for ambush Hatcheries Fish not as fit as wild fish because natural selective forces are not in play Can be released as a bigger size than natives improving success Get treated with antibiotics Mercury loading through feed hatchery feed uses Hg contaminated fish Harvest Manage fish size and age structure Fish between 6 and 36 inches are protected 9 Below harvest rapid reproduction and high population density 9 Harvest trophy fish low density or chance of catch Maximum Sustained Yield of fish can be maintained at 12 K will produce the max number of fish to be harvested each year Intentional removals removing non native fish which are killing or outcompeting natives O 67 nonnatives introduced in CO River since 1900 9 40 sport amp nongame species in Upper Basin 9 remove non natives by catch and transplant or quottake all you can fishing derbys Human education Pollution abatement restrictment on bottom trawls Bait bucketing dumping fish where they don t belong 100000 fine amp a year in jail gt Brown trout migrating to colder waters Affecting other populations gt Lake trout is in the char family Have to eat other fish to survive Problems for coniine gt Brown trout Spawning About 600000 gt Rainbow trout Bread and butter of Colorado High catch rate VVVVV I Grow fast Bigger streams I Laramie river I Brown trout quot14 inches Green back cutthroat I State fish of CO I Past 15 years HUGE genetic controversy I threatened species on ESA High lakes I Stocked with cutthroats in an airplane I 95 survival I raised in hatchery Hanging Lake Lily lake Twin crater lakes Set a gill net for two hours Spinning mountain I Issues of water loss in such lower lakes I Fort Collins water is west slope water Introduced fish I Artic grelining I Came from Montana I Mountain white fish trout I Small mouth I Insectivore I Sock eye salmon I True pacific salmon I Return to where it is laid I Catfish I Not native to CO I Missisippi and Arkansaw I Spin fins I No scales 9 All trout have scales I Black bull head I Native to CO I Flat tail I Spin in tails I Hybrid fish introduced I Tiger musky O Muskalounge female and a northern pike male I Big Creek Lake I Opportunistic feeders I Walli I Yellow Perch I Fast reproduction limits growth I Small mouth bass I Bright orange iris I Hybrid stripe bass I White bass with a striper I Blue gill I Teach kids to fish I Native sun fish I Orange spotted sun fish I 4 inches long I Green Sun fish I Dark greens I Problematic because they don t know what they want to eat I Black croppy I Highly sought after in CO I Hybrid Vigor gt 2012 West of Fort Collins I burned down to Poudre River I huge slope that rain poured silt into the river I surprisingly no harm on the fish I pH changes in water caused selective harm gt 2013 100 year flood I seriously damaged fish relative to 20009 I Test questions gt Hybrid vigor I Generally don t reproduce or reproduce successfully I Less energy going to repro and more energy towards flesh I Increased growth gt Wildfires are the primary reason why bighorn sheep populations in northern C0 are declining F gt Population size decreases by both deaths and immigration F gt T One of the common errors in wildlife management is failure to evaluate the results of the management action gt F Native Americans drove bison off cliffs to hunt them and made them go extinct as a result gt T Elephants are listed as vulnerable on the UNIC International Union for Conservation of Nature redlist F A bear is more r selected than a rabbit A Big game includes mountain lion and black bear in CO B Furbearers some are still abundant like the beaver others were trapped out like the wolverine E non protected species the mouse in your house C smallupland game squirrel or rabbit stew C Prehistoric Pleistoncene Overkill Hypothesis A Conservation game management Era Aldo Leopold s textbook and his major influence B Preservation Era John Muir and establishment of National Park system A Active Gear sample a known space area of water over a known time and you take the gear to the fish B Passive Gear Gill net VVVVVV VVV V B Passive Gear hard to define what space area of water has been sampled and fish musts come to stationary gear E Which of the following may lead to density INDEPENDENT effects on bighorn sheep population I A wildfire in summer I B Overcrowding of a habitat leading to limited food resources I C Avalancche in winter I D Passing diseases via sneezing during social interactions EA and C D Which of these wildlife techniques are NON invasive I A Putting on a GPS collar I B Net gunning I C gastric lavage I D Scat analysis E leg banding small birds is referred to as the quotconservation President A Nixon B Clinton I C T Roosevelt I D Truman I E Obama D Which of the following data would you NOT expected to collect from a captured animal I A Sex I B Age C Reproductive condition D Biotic potential E All of the above E Which of the following is an example of density dependent population factor I A Lynx start taking more snowshoe hares in years that the hare population is high I B 20 of animals die during an above average winter snowfall I C A flood removes most of the brown trout population from a river I D A growing reindeer population on an island crashes when they over exploit their lichen food resource I E A and D D Which of following wildlife marking techniques is considered to be PERMANENT I A toe nail clipping I B shaving patterns into hair I C Hair dying I D PIT tagging I E GPS collars that drop off over time A Which of the following characterizes species with K selected life histories I A low reproductive rates I B high reproductive rates I C poor competitors I D No parental care of young I E Short lived B If you have 10000 mice living in a town and they produced 24000 babies a yaer what is the rateindividualmonth B 02 In O 00 of Wildlife Management gt gt Tool to figure out what to do next Prehistoric people and wildlife I Food collected by huntinggathering I Mammoth mastodon ground sloth camelops I Clicker Question Do you think that prehistoric people contributed significantly to Pleistocene extinctions woolly mammoths for example I Lindenmeier SiteNear fort Collins11000 years old has prehistoric tools I Pleistocene extinctions options I Climate change I Disease I Humans overkill hypothesis Historic People ampWildlife I As we moved to an agrarian farming lifestyle land conversion had the largest effects on wildlife I Animal domestication I Wild stock was now undesirable I Overgrazing I Predators persecuted I Growing human population 9 Dynamic growth exponential after industrial revolution and the plague gt Antibiotics O 1500 AD humans occupied all major ecosystems in North America I different cultures I Native Americans 9 Wildlife were the basis of life for tribes gt Respected nature spiritual view of nature and were more closely tied together I Europeans O Dominion fear useexploitation O Tragedy of the Commons gt Idea that everybody shares a resource that the resource will be over used and trampled because there is no one to take responsibility for the protection and accountability Depleting the common resource is contrary to the group s long term best interest I Wildlife were essentially abundantdownfall 18501899 I duty to tame the land I quotmyth of superabundance I Clicker Question Which animal went extinct between 1850 and 1900 in North America Passenger pigeon I Passenger Pigeon I Described as clouds that darkened the sky I Gregarious large flocks one egg per clutch mast I Tied to food source tied to development of a city I Demand railroads telegraphhunting and radioing information to kill more birds forest habitatmast I Robins I 1 market hunter sold 120000 to hotels and restaurants I Waterfowl I Punt guns 1 load 10 modern shotgun shells I Trumpeter swans I Fashion I Bison 30 million in 1860 to 150 in the wild in 1889 I Industrial revolution machine belts I Military conflicts I Repeating rifles I Railroads I Carolina parakeet I Native to US SE I Habitat hunting I Gone by 1870 19001929 I Legal protections I Yellowstone National ParkUS Grant 1872 I National Park Service Woodrow Wilson 1916 I John Muir preservation view I Sierra club I Theodore Roosevelt Conservation President I 1St Forest Preserves I Gifford Pinchot 9 1st chief of US Forest in 1905 9 proposed concept of sustainable use of forest Wise Use became more political to progressive development and use of wildlife 19301965 I Game management by Aldo Leopold in 1933 I quotfounder of American wildlife management I Sand county almanac I Great Depression Dust bowl in the 19305 I Civilian Conservation Corps work for people in depression plant trees improve parks develop natural parks predator elimination I Franklin Roosevelt I Ding Darling Cartoonist about the environment Appointed to the biological survey USFWS Duck stamp funds for wetlands National Wildlife Federation Sanibel NWR Mangroves O Pultizers I Soil Conservation Service NRCS I Bureau of Land Management BLM I The Wildlife Society Game spp emphasis much more broad now 0000 I Who ushered in the environmental era I Rachel Carson 9 Silent SpringOrganic Chemistry why 9 Scientist who knew how to turn that into effective community 9 Marine biologist O Bioaccumulation vs bio magnification gt Polar Bear article that we read pesticides live in top predators a lot gt Eagles flushing nests problems I Bioaccumulation I The increase in the concentration of a substance in a organism or a part of that organism I Bio magnification I The increase in the concentration of a substance in a food chain no an organism 19661984 I Silent Spring 1959 effects of DDT I Environmentalists I Endangered Species Act of 1973 I National Environmental Policy Act 1970 I EPA gt gt VVVVV V VVVV VV I Conservation biology I Biodiversity I Animal rights I Ecosystem Management I Human dimensions I Clicker Question How will wildlife historians in the next century write about this era and our actions towards wildlife v Extra vocab Population abundance N of individuals of a species within a particular area Birth or natality rate of births per of individuals in a population over a specified period of time RATEchangeunit time Fecundity of eggs produced per female potential or physical ability Fertility of females eggs that are fertile actually can results in offspring Production actual number of surviving offspring produced by a population Recruitment of new individuals reaching breeding age in the population pass on genetic material Fitness the relative ability of an individual or population to survive reproduce and pass on genetic material in an environment Key to having high fitness in the natural selection process recruitment Mortality or death rate of deaths per individuals over a period of time Dispersalmovement of individuals from one location to another Immigration rate of animals entering the population over a specified time period Populations have age structure less of a population as the age increases I More parental care would cause a smaller difference between progressive ages Population growth curves help to determine amount of harvest Exponential growth I Introducedrecovering populations island caribou I Invasive species gt Biotic potential max rate at which population can grow when no resources are limiting r I Max births b and minimum deaths d I rbd assuming no immigration or deaths I density of organisms vs time gt logistic growth model caps off gt kcarrying capacity max of individual in a pop that a habitat can sustain LIFE HISTORY Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Proboscidea Family Elephantidael Dull brownish grey wrinkly skin with asparse covering of black bristly hairs Large broad feet large oversized ears A fusion of upper lip and nose forms trunk calcareous tusks elongated upper incisors generalists herbivores Habitat generalist forests savannas grassyplains miombo woodlands scrub river valleysmarshes and even deserts in low densities habitat use increases with proximity to water herbivores 150200kg of food a day main tool for acquiring food is their trunk any difficult pieces are torn down with their tusks Polygamous No specific mating season sexual maturity at 1011 years breeding for females is around 1520 years gestation period is 22 months females only give birth every four to nine years calves remain with their mother for up to six years weaned before the next calf is born Single births common twins are rare Migrations are largely resource driven IActivity like eating moving diurnal female matriarch herds can join together and form larger herds males usually are solitary but will form bachelor herds vulnerable on the IUCN red list subject to various degrees of legal protection70 of range is believed to lie in unprotected land most large populations occur in protected areas
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