Anthro 2A MIDTERM 1 STUDY GUIDE
Anthro 2A MIDTERM 1 STUDY GUIDE Anthro 2A
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Joyce Nguy on Saturday October 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Anthro 2A at University of California - Irvine taught by EGAN, J. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 685 views. For similar materials see INTR SOCIOCULT ANTH in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of California - Irvine.
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Date Created: 10/17/15
Anthropology 2A Concepts amp Terms Midterm 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Anthropology Study of Human Diversity a The study of human diversity different ways of being human 4 subfields are sociocultural linguistic archeology biological i socio Study of social and culture aspects across time and space the differences and similarities Uses ethnography provides an account for a particular community society or culture fieldwork and ethnology examines interprets analyzes and compares the results of ethnography to study and interpret cultural diversity ii linguistic Language communication vocab how we think speaking in contextdif situati iii archeological Human sociocultural diversity through timehistory excavate materials artifacts manuscripts pots work with other fields like botany How space is organized reconstructs describes and interprets human behavior and cultural patterns through material remains iv biological Human biological differences across timespace different parts of the world how are we biologically different how are we changing Culture a The beliefs we have about the world and people the power to naturalize culture allows us to judge people by the way they look and act and make assumptions about their lives provides categories and groupings The Power to Naturalize a Relating everything to nature breaking things down to a simple level even if it cannot be evaluated in that manner A Priori a Something you39ve taken to be true or accepted without evidence Scientific Racism a Social cultural and biological difference between different groups are expressions of biological stock type Race and Colonialism a Emphasizes historical contacts linkages and power differentials between local people and international forces the political social economic and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended time Science and Culture a Scientists use qualification to interpret things and in this case culture Linneaus a 1735 1758 b Developed a system of biological classification taxonomy for different quotracialquot subsections of homo sapiens ex Homo sapiens europeus albesscus c Homo sapiens Europaeus albescence white d Homo sapiens Asiaticus fucus darker e Homo sapiens Africanus negreus black f Homo sapiens Americans rubescens red 9 Blumenbach a 1781 b Used race as a scientific category 5 racesCaucasian Mongolian Malay Ethiopian American 10 Hooton a 1926 b Broke race into caucazoid mongloid negroid 11 Monogenesis and Polygenesis a mono Argues that there is one initial origin of humanity b poly Argued for independent origins of each race 12 Race Typologizing and Rank a The work done to try and create a rank order of races based on different characteristics not viable since culture is variable and the findings are not based on nature 13 Craniometry a Big brainsmarter little brainstupid scientists made this assumption to try and prove that white men are at the top of the hierarchy 14 Robert Bennett Bean a Genu anterior brainfront had cognition thinking problemsolving Splenium posteriorback sensory function Bean theorized that whitesmen had more of the brain devoted to Genu than Splenium created some bullshit theory to make white men superior 15 Broca a Tried to prove the theory that larger brains meant smarter falsified data by using young healthy male brains and women39s brains from insane asylumsclearly skewing the data when he was called out on this he tried to use spine straightness to prove white men superior 16 Culture Biological v Social Transmission a Culture is socially transmitted not biologically transmitted all peoples have the capacity to acquire culture 17 Facts of Human Biological Variation a There is human biological variation geographically localized variation continuous variation gradual differences discordant variation different traits don39t vary together 18 implications for Racial Typologies 19 Social Races a A group assumed to have a biological basis but actually perceived and defined in a social contextby a particular culture rather than by scientific criteria b subject of analysis not a unit of analysis 0 social and cultural phenomenon set of beliefs d ethnic groups that are assumed to have a biological basis i members share biology but o jk not really but people believed that they do 20 Hypodescent a A rule that automatically places children of a union or mating between members of different socioeconomic groups in the less privileged group 21 Race in Brazil and Japan 22 Race and Intelligence a biology and environment b cultural biases c Race and intelligence have no direct correlation intelligence is best determined by culture and surroundings 23 IQ scores Educational Achievement amp Race a Osage Indians i The IQs of different native American tribes were tested and the Osage tribe had the highest IQ this is because they found oil and used the money to invest in education so there people are on average more intelligent intelligence based on culture not geneticsrace b IQ scores black amp white WWI military recruits i Human variation we have better data since WWII in which IQ tests were not as reliable 24 Steele and Aronson a GRE Scores in quotBlackquot amp quotWhitequot Students b Trying to compare across the same social class c Only a subtle difference d Cognitive differences between 2 races e African kids scored a little lower when told this f Stereotypes g Expectancy for black students to score lower than the white students 25 Race stereotypes and standardized test scores 26 Genes a Determinants of traits and characteristics not intelligence or culture 27 Clines amp Breeding Populations a A gradation in a single character or gene frequency over geographic distance geographic distribution of a traitgenre b Particular range in values of measurement skin color c Not only typologizing but also analyzing to seek info d People believe there are races the belief has effects what we want to study e Capture variation pattern f Near equator gt encourage darker skin color 28 Ethnicity and Ethnic Groups a ethnicity as situational 29 Minority Groups and Majority Groups 30 Assimilation v Multiculturalism a multiculturalism i View of cultural diversity in a country as something good amp desirable ii Model opposite of assimilationist model iii Encourages the practice of culturalethnic traditions iv Eg Majority of the people in US speak english amp another language b assimilation i where everyone resembles each other immigrants and host societies ii Assimilation is when the minority group assimilates and loses its culture to the majority group whereas multiculturalism is the view of cultural diversity in a country as something good and desirable 31 Discrimination de jure amp de facto a apartheid South Africa b de jure part of the law c de facto Practiced but not legally sanctioned 32 Imagination and Identity a Nationalities amp Imagined Communities b Nationality imagined communities Ex American c Imagined communities are groups of people who wish they had their own political status country an example is the Kurds in Turkey Syria Iran identity refers to what nationality ethnicity or group a person views themselves as a part of 33 Social Evolution a There are 3 assumptions social forms change over time rank order societies from high to low on some criterion rank order is treated as sequence of events 34 Social Danvinism Survival of the Fittest a Herbert Spencer b quotSurvival of the fittestquot coined by Herbert Spencer 35 Unilinear Evolution a Lewis Henry Morgan change leads to increased sociocultural complexity savagerygtbarbarismgtcivilization each stage has its sociocultural attributes 36 Evolutionary Stages a Savagery Bow and arrow fire group marriage promiscuous hordes b Barbarism Metallurgy agriculture pottery polygyny c Civilization Phonetic alphabet monogamy 37 Diversity and Evolutionary Stages a Change was unilinear diversity occurs through different rates of change maternal conditions 38 Franz Boas amp Critique of Unilinear Evolution a Boas says that histories are intermingled We have contact with each other and through that contact things spread b unilinear critique bad data horrendously ridiculously bad data because they relied on secondhand accounts even with no data they would just speculate and make up data which is why this kind of sucks 39 Empirical Problems with Social Evolution a Data was based on sketchy secondhand accounts data was falsified overlooked misplaced misinterpreted 40 Multilinear Evolution a Every human society changes over time every society has unique history 41 Cultural Diffusion a ldeas inventions spread through cultures coming in contact ex Tribes of native americans go to war One tribe has bow and arrow and the other doesn39t Tribe recreates bow and arrow idea for their one production 42 Ethnocentrism a The tendency to view one39s own culture as best and to judge the behavior and beliefs of culturally different people by one39s own standards 43 Nature v Nurture a Debate over which plays larger role in human development once the brain was established then socialcultural phenomenon take over nature then nurture 44 Hobbes a Humans are inherently selfish nasty and evil but changed by society nature before nurture 45 Rousseau a Humans are pure by nature but corrupted by society nature nurture 46 Culture in Evolutionary Perspective a Field Studies of Chimpanzees i We have less than 2 genetic difference from chimpanzees chimpanzees make and use tools unlike any other species besides ourselves b Fossil record i Archeological record of bones and artifacts that show evolution in species 25mya was when the first stone tools were created 7mya was when chimps and humans common ancestor existed 47 Culture amp Society a Culture is distinguished from society society is a group of people with some relation culture is the explanation for a person39s behavior in different situations 48 Culture amp Biology a Culture is distinguished from biology scientific racists attempt to turn culture into biology 49 SupraOrganic a Culture operates at a level above the individual transcends individual or human life ex English languagestill exists even after a person dies transcends their life 50 Culture amp World View a The way we see our world is shaped by culture culture provides a world view assumptions about the world different societiescultures have different world views different perspectives 51 Cultural Constructions a The meanings of culture product of social interaction and human history ex fooddifferent foods for different mealsoccasions 52 Cultural Relativism a Opposite of ethnocentrism the viewpoint that behavior in one culture should not be judged by the standards of another culture argues that there is no superior international or universally morality that the moral and ethical rules of all cultures deserve equal respect 53Language a verbal and nonverbal communication i Language is our principal means of communicating verbalinformation transmitted through words nonverbalour expressions stances gestures and movements even if unconscious that convey information b phoneme amp morpheme i Significant sound contrast in a language that serves to distinguish meaning as in minimal pairs ex bitpit ii Words and their meaningful parts cats has 2 morphemes cat and s c lexicon amp syntax i A dictionary containing all of a language39s morphemes and their meanings d language and thought i Language spoken and written is our primary means of communication only our complex thought process allows us to use language and discuss with other humans 54 Sociolinguistics a Sociolinguistics this field investigates relationships between social and linguistic variation no language is a uniform system in which everyone talks just like everyone else b dialects BEV i dialects are different types of speaking or speaking different languages BEV is Black English Vernacular which is the quotrelatively uniform dialect spoken by the majority of black youth in most parts of the United States today especially in the inner cities c gender speech contrasts i there are differences in phonology grammar and vocabulary and in the body stances and movements that accompany speech women typically use language and the body movements that accompany it to build rapport social connections with others men tend to make reports reciting information that serves to establish a place for themselves in a hierarchy as they also attempt to determine the relative ranks of their conversation mates d stratification amp symbolic domination i stratification 1 the creation of separate social strata its emergence signified the transition from chiefdom to state the presence of stratification is one of the key distinguishing features of a state ii symbolic domination 1 linguistic forms which lack power in themselves take on the power of the groups they symbolize the linguistic insecurity often felt by lowerclass and minority speakers is a result of symbolic domination 55 Social Organization amp Social Structure a all human labor is socially organized they have some way of delegating all the tasks of a society society and social groups cannot be judged based on the technique of production 56 Mode of Production a a way of organizing production a set of social relations through which labor is deployed to wrest energy from nature by means of tools skills organization and knowledge b Means of Production i land labor and technology c Relations of Production i the socioeconomic relationship people have to production in a particular epoch ex a slave master39s relationship to their slaves 57 Subsistence StrategiesTechniques of Production a the action or fact of maintaining or supporting oneself at a minimum level ex hunting and gathering pastoralism horticulture b Foraging i hunting and gathering of nature39s bounty c Preindustrial Agriculture i industrial methods made farming much more efficient and allowed farmers to mass produce crops before then farming was quotplant and pick and hope for the bestquot d Pastoralism i it is a type of herding in which the herders attempt to protect their animals and to ensure their reproduction in return for food and other products such as leather dairy meat e lndustrialism i the major shift to large industry corporations and a large increase in the work force due to industrialization 58 Correlates of Foraging a here are some people who subsisted by hunting and gathering often but not always lived in bandorganized societies foraging life correlates with lots of mobility men huntfish and women gathercollect 59 San Foragers of the Kalahari Desert a modern foraging groups in South Africa39s Kalahari Desert they still practice hunting and gathering b Group Size i small c Mobility i move often d Gathering v Hunting e Leisure Health f Sharing and Survival 60 Life Span v Mean Life Expectancy a life span i the amount of time in years that a person lives ii how old are the oldest people iii hasn t changed much over the years age iv what s changed is MORE people are getting old b mean life expectancy i a measure of the health status of a group more people living to be older if make it through childhood live longer than average ii average of how old people they are when they die iii infant mortality brings down the mean life expectancy iv not a good measure misconception we don tjust kick the bucket when we re 30 61 Domestication a the use of animals as a means of productionfor transport as cultivating machines and for their manure 62 Extensive Agriculture Horticulture a Slash and Burn Swidden Agriculture i when horticulturalists clear land by cutting down slashing and burning forest or bush or by setting fire to the grass covering the plot 63 lntercropping a growing two or more crops in close proximitymany crops at once mimicks nature b Fallow i type of land that has been left unseeded for a season or more uncultivated 64 Intensive Agriculture a requires more labor than horticulture does because it uses land intensively and continuously the greater labor demands reflect its use of domesticated animals irrigation or terracing 65 Terracing Irrigation etc a terracing is when farmers cut into hillsides to create level plains to plant crops without them getting washed away in the rainy season irrigation is the construction of canals and watenNays to control water during the dry season 66 WetRice Agriculture 67 lntensification 68 Energy Production amp Efficiency of different 69 Techniques of Production 70 Pastoralism and Ecology a livestock and environment b livestock as food 71 Transhumence a part of the group moves with the herds but most people stay n the home village 72 Distribution amp Exchange a Market Principle b Redistribution c Reciprocity 73 Specialization a only making one product or a few products but in vast amounts specializing work towards a single product specialization promotes trade in clans a clan39s speciailization reflects the social and political environment rather than the natural environment 74 Law of Supply and Demand a things cost more the scarcer they are and the more people want them higher demandlower supply means higher cost 75 Reciprocity a Generalized Reciprocity i someone gives to another person and expects nothing immediate in return normally involved in expressions of personal relationships b Balanced Reciprocity i applies to exchanges between people who are more distantly related than are the members of the same band or household giver expects something in return c Negative Reciprocity i exchanged with outsiders people want something back immediately these exchanges are almost purely economic 76 Potlatch a competitive feast among Indians on the North Pacific Coast or North America to give a potlatch enhanced one39s reputation prestige increased with the lavishness of the potlach Anthropology 2A Things to Think About for Midterm 1 1 Discuss and critique the theory of scientific racism What is race and how is it used to account for social and cultural as well as biological difference in human beings What criticisms have anthropologists made of race and its use as a unit of analysis for gaining insights into human sociocultural and biological variation What alternative concepts do anthropologists use to analyze human biological variation 2 Discuss the concept of social race How do cultural anthropologists approach the race concept today and how does this differ from scientific racism Discuss some examples of how race is culturally constructed in different times and places 3 Discuss the theory of unilinear social evolutionism What are its core assumptions and how does it represent sociocultural diversity What criticisms have anthropologists made of unilinear social evolutionism 4 Discuss the field of craniometry and related uses of anatomical measures in racial arguments What criticisms have Stephen Jay Gould and anthropologists made of these arguments What logical and empirical errors are made Give and discuss specific examples to make your points 5 What do anthropologists mean by culture What common elements can one expect to find in anthropological conceptions of culture What do anthropologists mean when they speak of culture as superorganic more than biological and not merely psychological What does it mean to say that culture has the power to naturalize 6 What is ethnocentrism and what problems does it pose for anthropological investigation of sociocultural diversity How does cultural relativism offer a solution to these problems Are there limits to cultural relativism 7 Why have many anthropologists today concluded that the different ways of interacting with an environment to gain subsistence foraging extensive and intensive agriculture pastoralism industrialism be thought of as subsistence strategies or techniques of production and NOT as types of societies 8 Contrast horticulture extensive agriculture with agriculture intensive agriculture How do they represent opposite ends of a continuum What kinds of factors would encourage a society to shift the position of its cultivation practices along this continuum
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