Study Guide Chapter 6,7,8
Study Guide Chapter 6,7,8 Bio 136
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nadia Naghi on Saturday October 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 136 at University of Houston taught by Ana I Medrano in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 10/17/15
Chapter 6 Metabolism Metabolism and Metabolic Pathways 0 Metabolism totality of an organism s chemical reactions that arises from interactions between molecules within the cell 0 Metabolic pathway begins with a specific molecule that goes through a series of steps to form a final product 0 A specific enzyme catalyzes speeds up each step Enzymed V Enzyme 2 Enzyme 3 7 g Fleactinn1 I Fleactian 2 ea tinn Startin Frnduct quotJ39EFH39E There are two kinds of metabolic pathways 1 Catabolic pathways release energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds a EX glucose is broken down to C02 amp water in the presence of oxygen cellular respiration 2 Anabolic pathways consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler compounds a Aka biosynthetic pathways b Ex synthesis of protein from amino acids 0 The energy released by catabolic pathways can be stored and then used to drive anabolic pathways Different Kinds of Energy 0 Energy exists in various forms and cells transform it from one type to another 0 Kinetic energy associated with the relative motion of objects 0 HeatThermal energy form of kinetic energy associate with the random movement of atoms or molecules thus generating and producing heat 0 Potential energy energy due to location or structure high off the ground level high RE 0 Chemical energy form of potential energy stored in molecules because of the arrangement of their atoms Figure 53 Elwin converts paientllall inelrgy i kiliznttiie rm A dimer has mare potential nary an the platinum l a A A quotA i Ek m quot 71 1quot gt 39 IE i xiiml Ii m ilgilii iii a f l Ellillml lltng up laments the klill tlil lnirgy at muse mnuemant in putantiiiall energy a diver has less t tlil ll znrrgy in th water Thermodynamics and Free Energy Change AG 1St law of thermodynamics energy is neither created nor destroyed but can be transferred and transformed conservation of energy 2 1 law of thermodynamics unused energy during transformationtransfer is often lost as heat increases the entropy of the universe 0 Entropy measure of disorder or randomness Free energy AG a living system s energy that can do work when temp and pressure are uniform unchanging Free energy can tell us whether the reaction is spontaneous or not 0 If AG is positive reaction is not spontaneous needs input of energy to proceed 0 If AG is negative reaction is spontaneous no input of energy is needed Can only be spontaneous amp perform work if moving toward equilibrium 0 AG G final state G initial state Free energy measure system s instability and tendency to change to a more stable state 0 During spontaneous change free energy decreases and stability increases Equilibrium forward and reverse reactions occur at the same rate 0 A state of maximum stability 0 Cells are NOT in equilibrium open systems with a constant ow of materials 0 Metabolism is NEVER in equilibrium Free Energy and Metabolism Exergonic vs Endergonic 0 Exergonic a spontaneous reaction that releases energy AG is negative 0 AG represents maximum amount of possible work from reaction 0 Endergonic nonspontaneous reactions that absorbs energy from its surroundings AG is positive 0 AG represents the quantity of energy required to drive the reaction la Ei rg m m tlm Emmy magma EF enteeeu h Endegnie reeetiee emery requiem HDNEPIntannlu Heeteete F39Vrduet Heeteerl FI EE energy u l E e g Feireee either teeeve Emma m the mail How does ATP power cellular work 0 A cell does 3 main kinds of work chemical transport and mechanical 0 Cells manage energy by energy coupling 0 Energy coupling use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one 0 Mostly mediated by ATP 0 ATP adenosine triphosphate composed a 5 compound sugar ribose a nitrogenous base adenine and 3 phosphate groups 0 Role in energy coupling makes RNA 0 Bonds between phosphate groups can be broken by hydrolysis forming adenosine di phosphate terminal phosphate is released when hydrolyzed gurinenaming trilh phi MTIE Irlrnrgniu rplh h t d n i il dllphl i l h t tIF ATP I ADP Pi 0 Reactions releases energy AG 73 kcalmol 0 AG for hydrolysis of ATP is about l3kcalmol 0 ATP drives endergonic reactions by phosphorylation 0 Phosphorylation transferring a phosphate group to some other molecule 0 Phosphorylated intermediate receipt molecule that receives phosphate 0 ATP hydrolysis leads to a change in a protein s shape and its ability to bind to another molecule 0 ATP is a renewable source 0 Cycle is a revolving door Energy from Energy far cellular Activation Energy Barrier catabniisrn wnrk Enderanle exergnnie enery energvacnnsnrning 0 Activation energy Ea releasing prneesses prnnessesl initial energy needed to start a chemical reaction 0 Often supplied in the form of thermal energy that the reactant absorbs from their surroundings O Enzymes help speed up reactions by lowering their activation energies Free energy 39sssss39ms pleases Prngrs at the action r enuergyF Gnu rse at 1 reaction lE at withnut withnut enzyme enzyme Es mm enzyme is lower 39 39n tante 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 Gs nrse nil reactiien with enzyme 3939393939393939 Progress of the reaction Enzyme s activity can be affected by general environmental factors ex temp and pH amp chemicals that specifically in uence the enzyme Each enzyme has an optimal temp and pH in which it can function which favor the most active shape for the enzyme molecule Coenzyme organic non protein enzyme helpers cofactor ex vitamins Catalysis in the Enzyme s Active Site In an enzymatic reaction the substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme The active site can lower Ea barrier by O Orienting substrates correctly 0 Straining substrate bonds 0 Providing a favorable microenvironment O Covenanting bonding to the substrate Enzyme Inhibitors Competitive bind to the active site of an enzyme competing with the substrate 39 Substrates ntsr nibstretes Snibstrstss sr sit site i held in sstiive site by West iintersstinnsi ii if Substrates Enzymeisuibstrete sample Active site is snailltstale tumquot new Enzyme F redlnsts are 39quotE39EESEH39 quot Substrates sire E l WEl39tEdl tn Prisdusts I printinlets 0 Has structure that is so similar to the substrate Noncompetitive bind to another part of an enzyme that is not active causing it to change shape amp making active site less effective 0 Irreversible forms a covalent bond with an amino acid side group within the active site preventing the substrate from entering the active sitecatalytic activity 0 Examples toxins Poisons pesticides and antibiotics a Nl fiii lll binding lb Cctmpetitive inmhibitiam lslutbetrete 1 Active cite 39 Enzyme if quot Cum petitive lii ihiih39iit ir Regulation of Enzymes 0 Allosteric regulation occurs when a regulatory molecule binds to a protein at one site and affects the protein s function at another site 0 May either inhibit or stimulate an enzyme s activity 0 EX cooperativity can amplify enzyme activity 0 Most allosterically regulated enzymes are made from polypeptide subunits 0 Each enzyme has active and inactive forms 0 The binding of an activator stabilizes the active form of the enzyme 0 The binding of an inhibitor stabilizes the inactive form of the enzyme Feedback Inhibition 0 Prevents a cell from wasting chemical resources by synthesizing more product than is needed c Nlcnccmpetitive ii iihlibiiii l Ncmccemipetitive infhiibitcr a Millicetemic activatcm39a ill lidl inlhiihitcare Active elite cine ct taunt Allcateric enzyme wiiilii teat wcibanite Hegeletcw quot 39 I V cite cine Activatcr I fall active term Staciiiieed active term Deciiiaticn Minna l i l ficnmvcticlmal inactive 39quot quot b39m Stabilized active at quotquot 39 quot icrm Subetrete Stabilized active team Inactive farm 0 In feedback inhibition the end product of a metabolic pathways shuts down the pathway Ileeleueine luteedl run by eelll Feedineek inhibititnn M Ilveeleueine lhinde tie elireelerie site I Thlf nnlll quot inleeliiee 5M3 1 Enzyme 11 thrennuinre dleemlneee Ilntetnmedlete H Enzyme 2 llntetnmedlete IE w Enzyme 3 llntetnmedlate G Enzyme e 1 F Iinterme lete ID Enzyme 1F 1 End FE luGt leeleuemej NOTE You have added an irreversible inhibitor to a sample of enzyme and substrate At this point the reaction has stopped completely What can you do to regain the activity of the enzyme 0 The enzyme is inactive at this point A new enzyme must be added to regain enzyme activity NOTE You have an enzymatic reaction proceeding at the optimum pH and optimum temperature You add a competitive inhibitor to the reaction and notice that the reaction slows down What can you do to speed the reaction up again 0 Add more substrate it will outcompete the inhibitor and increase the reaction rate Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation mam emery i Eisiisv r r quotquotquotquot a a quot u a quot E quot a quot quotquotquotquotquotquot Ii 0 Living cells require energy from outside sources I Phoinswthesis 39 0 Energy ows in an ecosystem as sunlight and some of it in chlplasts Organic p n leaves as heat n Ira mlwulvas D2 0 Ex photosynthesis in plants 0 Photosynthesis generates 02 organic molecules sugars which are used in cellular respiration to generate ATP for work Forml ai 6C02 6H20 sunlight C6H1206 602 v e 7 a a 7 r r a a 7 a a energy I I I ATP powers mumieellluilar Cellular Respiration 0 Includes both aerobic and anaerobic respiration but often referred to as aerobic O C6H1206 602 I 6C02 6HZO Energy ATP heat 0 Opposite of photosynthesis O The cell makes up to 32 molecules of ATP 0 Aerobic respiration consumes organic molecules and 02 and yields ATP 0 Anaerobic respiration is similar to aerobic respiration but consumes compounds other than 02 0 Fermentation breaking down of sugars that occurs without 02 0 Not effective does not produce a lot of ATP Redox Reactions oxidation amp reduction 0 Redox reactions chemical reactions that transfer electrons between reactants 0 One reactant gets oxidized and the other gets reduced 0 Oxidation substance loses electrons so charge becomes more positive 0 Is the reducing agent because it donates electrons 0 Reduction substance gains electrons so charge becomes less positive 0 Is the oxidizing agent because it accepts electrons bemm as midze Xe x YEquot b bemmes reduced T R d t Reducing Oxni nzmg 6 0X mac 10113 that 393m agar move electrons closer to electronegative atoms release chemical energy that can be put into work 0 Electronegativity describes the degree to which an element attracts electrons 0 Ex oxygen 0 During cellular respiration the fuel glucose is oxidized and 02 is reduced I EG l EE axi ize 1 EEHHDE 3F 9 2 3 5 1702 5 H20 339 ENEI QY E mg E FLIEI The Stages of Cellular Respiration 1 Glycolysis breaks down glucose into 2 molecules of pyruvate in cytosol 2 Citric Cycle pyruvate oxidation completes breakdown of the glucose in mitochondrial matrix 3 Oxidative Phosphorylation accounts for most of the ATP synthesis almost 90 in inner mitochondrial membrane xldailvg phosphuwla gn 1 Electron transport and Ehmlgsmmh l l l Bubstir ailwal 39rslubat atda lml Substrate Level Phosphorylation 0 Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm with or without 02 amp has 2 major phases 0 Energy investment phase 0 Energy payoff phase 0 Catalyzed by a specific enzyme 0 In glycolysis glucose is the electron donor amp gets oxidized to pyruvate 0 In glycolysis NAD is the electron acceptor amp gets reduced to NADH O NADH passes the electrons to the electron transport chain 0 Electron transport chain passes electrons in a series of steps instead of on big reaction 0 O2 pulls electrons down the chain by energy yielding tumble to regenerate ATP 0 Pyruvate NADH and ATP contain energy for other biological reactions 0 The net yield from glycolysis is 2 ATP 2 NADH per glucose 0 Net input glucose NAD ADP 0 Net output pyruvate NADH ATP The Citric Acid Cycle 0 Also called the Krebs Cycle amp occurs in the mitochondrial matrix 0 Has 8 steps each catalyzed by a specific enzyme 0 Easier to remove electrons and produce CO2 from compounds with 3 or more C atom than from a 2 C compound 0 Completes breakdown of glucose by oxidizing a derivative of pyruvate to C02 0 The acetyl CoA joins the cycle by combining with oxaloacetate forming citrate Acetyl CoA formation 0 Net input NAD coenzyme A and pyruvate 0 Net output NADH CO2 and acetyl CoA O The next 7 steps decompose the citrate back to oxaloacetate I cycle process 0 Generates 1 ATP 3 NADH and 1 FADH2 per turn 0 2 turns per molecule of glucose 0 NADH amp FADH2 account for most of the energy extracted from food Are electron carriers 0 Donate electrons to the electron transport chain which powers ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation 39 Net input NADH ADP and CO2 39 Net output ATP NAD and water 0 Citric Cycle 0 Net input NAD ADP acetyl CoA 0 Net output NADH CO2 ATP coenzyme A iT39Lll Williquot gt 3 1 nif romElia cubism isn n mt gt 39 il jmk mglul r m E 4 Suf inyl film Efirnrin acid cycle CD Honesty TunquotIn 4 I 4 E oxalnacemte quot u 39ll l 394 I 4 I ma Ilsa res hrmgnrrgnl xrs NOTE How would anaerobic conditions when no 02 is present affect the rate of electron transport and ATP production during oxidative phosphorylation 0 Without 02 mitochondria are unable to oxidize the NADH amp FADH2 to NAD amp FAD produced in the first 3 steps I cannot make any ATP by oxidative phosphorylation I both electron transport and ATP synthesis will stop Chemiosmosis The EnergyCoupling Mechanism 0 Chemiosmosis the use of energy in a H gradient to drive cellular work 0 Electron transfer in the electron transport chain causes proteins to pump H from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space 0 H moves back across the membrane and through protein compleX ATP synthase 0 Uses the exergonic ow of H to drive phosphorylation of ATP 0 H gradient proton motive force emphasizing its capacity to do work 0 Energy stored in a H gradient across a membrane couples the redox reactions of the electron transport chain to ATP synthesis 0 Most energy ows in the following sequence glucose I NADH I electron transport chain I proton motive force I ATP carrying El ms 1 er Mar 1 h J 1 L 7 39 J 5quot T 1r Ellanstmn tramspar Emlyn Shemi m l xli a m phgph mbatlm Types of Fermentation 0 Anaerobic respiration uses an electron transport chain with a final electron acceptor than 02 ex sulfate 0 Fermentation uses substrate level phosphorylation of an electron transport chain to generate ATP 0 2 common types of fermentation alcohol fermentation amp lactic acid fermentation 0 Alcohol fermentation pyruvate is converted to ethanol in 2 steps 0 1St step releases CO2 from pyruvate 0 2nd step reduces acetaldehyde to ethanol 0 Fermentation in yeast and bacteria 0 Lactic acid fermentation pyruvate is reduced by NADH forming lactate 0 Human muscle cells use it to generate ATP when 02 is scarce O Pyruvate NADH I lactate NAD m I l w l Ami Sugars Ellyreml Pity May39s quot l 39 acids MH13lt ail la u 7 phaph f I l n Chapter 8 Photosynthesis 0 Photosynthesis the endergonic process that converts solar energy into chemical energy 0 Occurs in plants algae and certain protists and prokaryotes 0 Feed themselves and most of the living world 0 Autotrophs sustain themselves without eating anything from other organisms 0 Are the producers of the biosphere producing C02 amp other inorganic molecules 0 Almost all plants are autotrophs use sunlight energy to make organic molecules 0 Heterotrophs obtain their organic material from other organisms sunlight EWWQEE energy for photosynthesis in ohloroolasts fl I modi es rEEI ItEIiI39T this oignnstn t o sioes Li I I oathon for 1 Dng an 5mm thilo rohy39ll V raise inputs to r Emil W395 oElILilar TF r 7 39 rosiratioh tariho n dioxide 5mm in h mitochondria 0 Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts in the presence of the green pigment chlorophyll O Chloroplasts are found mainly in cells of the mesophyll inner tissue of leaf I Contain stroma a dense interior uid 0 Each mesophyll cell contains 30 40 chloroplasts O Chlorophyll is in the membranes of thylakoids which may be stacked in columns called grana 0 C02 enters and 02 eXits the leaf through microscopic pores called stomata IjrnyilaHuild marijuana 39W EIEEHI i 39 1 quot a The 2 Izncalzlun Elf il l tl at light enmeilupE Stages Of Ealuin cycle medians membmnaa lihz i39aie id mace Photosynthesis 0 Photosynthesis consists of the light reactions photo part amp the Calvin Cycle synthesis part 0 The light reactions 0 Occurs in the thylakoids 0 Split H20 and oxidize it to release 02 0 Reduce NADP to NADPH 0 Generate ATP from ADP by photophosphorylation 0 Net input light NADP ADP and water Net output ATP Oz and NADPH 0 The Calvin Cycle Occurs in the stroma Begins with carbon fixation incorporating C02 to organic molecules Forms sugar from C02 using ATP and NADPH from the light reactions Oxidizes NADPH back to NADP Reduces C02 to G3P Net input C02 NADPH and ATP Net output G3P NADP and ADP 0 0000000 NOTE Suppose the concentration of C02 available for the Calvin Cycle decreased by 50 How would the Oz production be affected 0 The rate of Oz productions would decrease because the rate of ADP and NADP production by the Calvin Cycle would decrease The Calvin Cycle 0 Phase 1 carbon xation incorporates CO2 molecules into RuBP using the enzyme rubisco 0 Phase 2 reduction involves reduction and phosphorylation of 3phosophoglyecerate 3 PGA to G3P 0 Phase 3 regeneration rearranges G3P to regenerate the initial CO2 receptor RuBP in em 3 meieeul HIKE rb39rns 1 Pheee 1 7 eerbee r v r 1 E m g uie me euiee 15 eerbme 13 eerbrne 3 ee 1 tellein ewe Phase 3quot Fheee regenere ee m ee ee 1 I ef the CUE eeeeerer ReS mlleeu iee 15 newline asp 33P E meeeu lee 5 meeeuiee 39 A a a w 53F 13 eerbnsme 15 eetrbeme Egp 391 1 melleuzle 3 eerheine eutput input The I13 meleculee 1112 Phase 3 career Hee ee wr ue 3 meleeulem Ea maize lee rw u P Eelein evele Pheee 3 Phase 2 r 7 r r 7 a regenereri en redue en 3 m letugles 39 I eeeepter REA Reap 5 meleeulee 7 r 33p I J E meleeulee 53F 1 meme eee utput 1 A T i i lelirei meet t Nature of Sunlight 0 Light travels in rhythmic waves with different wavelengths O Wavelength distance between Results crests of waves I Determines the type of electromagnetic energy 0 Behaves as though it consists of Abs Erptlarm u l39 Him by v hgl r plaat pigments photons 7 Wavelengm at light mm V1s1ble light cons1sts of wavelengths that a Hh mi n E produce colors we can see m a Pigments absorb visible light based on its 5593 wavelength and those that are not E a Fquot E absorbed gets re ected g EL r 0 Leaves appear green because chlorophyll re ects and transmits green light The absorption of chlorophyll a suggest that Violetblue amp red light works best for photosynthesis Chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b are the is En gammgnn psrimant main photosynthetic pigments Carotenoids pigments that absorb excessive light that would damage chlorophyll What is a Photosystem Photosystem consists of a reactioncenter complex surrounded by light harvesting complexes that transfer the energy of photons to the reaction center Primary electron acceptor found in the reaction center amp accepts excited electrons to reduce them There are 2 types of photosystems in the thylakoid membrane Photosystem 2 PSII functions first and is best at absorbing wavelength of 680nm a The reaction center chlorophyll a of P811 is called P680 Photosystem 1 PSI is best at absorbing a wavelength of 700nm a The reaction center chlorophyll a of PSI is called P700 Fhe eeyetem II FE II new thtesyetem I PS I new 1 bath IFS II and IFS I reductle ete tree eteltltlem elf eteetn39ee tremeeettt game between the 39treneee retrain between the light etheerphien streams elate elf ET J evntheeie Wquot eyteehmme PE 1 I39tl nli tll i ATP temple red neta 5e Synth 35e release th ylakuld spine Liner electron flow primary pathway involving both PS and produces ATP and NADPH using light energy 0 Linear electron ow steps 1 A photon hits a pigment and its energy is passed among pigment molecules until it excites P680 2 An excited electron from P680 is transferred to the primary electron acceptor P680 a P680 is a very strong oxidizing agent 3 H20 is split by enzymes and the electrons are transferred from the H atoms to P680 reducing it to P680 4 02 is released as a by product of this reaction 5quot Each electron falls down an electron transport chain 6 Energy released by the fall drives the creation of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane a Diffusion of H across the membrane drives ATP synthesis 7 In PSI transferred light energy excites P700 and becomes P700 Each electron falls down an electron transport chain 9 Electrons are transferred to NADP and reduce it to NADPH 9 E Ieetre PI tre F I SEW Fl SIZE 1 WElitf 3 PEI J y at ere F ferreee39inj 5 Fri 4 NAP Energyr input required in en erg input require en ergy input require in e en ergy input require en ergy39 input require inn en ergy39 input required
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