Exam Two Study Guide- BIO 106
Exam Two Study Guide- BIO 106 BIO 106 - M001
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Date Created: 10/17/15
B10 106 OCEAN LIFE Exam Two Study Guide Weellt 5 Kev ConceDtS 1 What is a a Tiny organisms that are too tiny to see Without a microscope yet they are abundant on Earth They live everywhere in air soil rock water in the searing heat and in the freezing cold Some need oxygen some do not b Microbiology is the study of microbes and their interactions With humans animals plants and the environment 2 What are the major groups of microbes by phylogeny a Microbes are defined by size not phylogeny b There is microbial life found in all 3 major domains bacteria archaea and eukaryota 3 What are the major groups of microbes by size a Megaplankton 20200 cm b Macroplankton 220 cm Mesoplankton 0220 mm Microplankton 20200 micrometers Nanoplankton 2020 micrometers Picoplankton 022 micrometers g Femtoplankton 00202 micrometers 4 Why are microbes important to your life a Microorganisms make up more than 90 of the biomass in the sea b Critical to ocean health and productivity c Marine viruses can cause epidemics in marine species 1 Key to curing cancer 5 What are the major characteristics of a Prokaryotes b DNA not Within a nucleus c Absorb dissolved organic matter through their cell wall 6 What are a The most common marine bacteria b Photosynthetic c They look like Blue green algae 1 One of the most diverse group of bacteria on Earth 7 How long have cyanobacteria been around a Cyanobacteria created the Earth s oxygen atmosphere b About 35 billion years old 8 What is their role in the ocean a They produce gaseous oxygen as a product of photosynthesis b They create the conditions in the planet s early atmosphere 909 c They fulfill vital ecological functions in the world s oceans being important contributors to global carbon and nitrogen budgets 9 What are a Sedimentary rocks formed by layers of cyanobacteria b Oldest known life form 35 billion years old c Still living in Shark Bay Australia 10 What are the major characteristics of a Discovered in 1970s b Somewhere between bacteria and eukaryotes i Smaller than eukaryotes about the same size as bacteria DNA not in nucleus Cell membranes more like eukaryotes Make up 40 of biodiversity in the deep sea They are organisms when one organism lives on another i Cenarchaeum symbiosum lives inside the sponge Axinella Mexicana it breaks down waste products from the sponge to make its food 11 In what types of environments are you likely to find archaea a They are the dominant in extreme environments a microorganism that lives in extreme conditions i EX high temperature thermophile Methanophyrus kandleri lives in black smokers and thrives in temperatures greater than 122 degrees Celsius b Free oatingswimming they may be the most abundant organisms on the planet but they are not well known they make up up to 20 of the earth s biomass c You can find a numerous amount in the deep sea 12 What are the major characteristics of Eukaryotes a Single celled protists b DNA inside a membrane bound nucleus c Many are autotrophs make their own food d Maj or primary producers in the ocean 13 What are the major characteristics of a They must infect other cells to reproduce b Estimated to kill up to 20 of primary productivity from ocean autotrophs c They are kind of alive considered a life form but they can t reproduce on their own d Viruses are very small smaller than bacteria 14 How abundant are they a Most abundant life forms in the oceans i there about 10 to the 30th power viruses in the ocean ii There are millions of viruses in every mm of seawater 15 What recent outbreaks have been caused by viruses a About 10 to the 23rd power viral infections occur in the ocean every day b They affect small microorganisms to large whales organisms c Infections 999 i Seal and cetacean morbillivirus 1 Related to distemper or measles in humans ii Infect the lungs and brains of marine mammals iii Often are thin with skin lesions pneumonia and brain lesions iv 2013 morbillivirus event mainly bottlenose dolphins over 782 dolphins confirmed dead from the disease V It is spreading to new species 4 humpback whales and one pygmy sperm whale have stranded with the disease d i Viral coral epidemic ii A white band of tissue can be seen on infected corals iii Causes rapid tissue loss iv Results in partial or total morality in the colony V Caribbean Sea white plague event 1 White plague was uncommon 20 years ago however there have been increasingly more epidemics 2 In 2010 there was a major White Plague event in the Virgin Islands 16 What is the a A depiction of the microbial food web The pathway starts with which makes its way though various trophic levels ultimately to the highest trophic levels 17 What roles do organisms play in the microbial loop a Bacteria consumes DOC they do a lot of recycling b Viruses consume bacteria c When a virus attacks bacteria Lysis happens the bacteria burts and turns into DOC d Higher trophic levels consume bacteria 18 How are microbes important for pharmacology a They have great potential for drug development b The number of marine compounds isolated has significantly increased since 1965 c The bioactive molecule turns into a druglike molecule ready for clinical trials reaches siteof action in man which turns into a medicine demonstrated quality safety and efficacy d This is a 15 to 20year process e Marine microbes and drug development New genetic tools allow for identification of microbial DNA and chemicals i Likely the source of all currently identified drugs mher Kev Words Wee biological material derived from livingrecently living organisms The microbial biomass is 10000X more than the entire biomass of humans on the planet a microscopic singlecelled organism that has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles Prokaryotes include bacteria and cyanobacteria Organisms that use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water It generates oxygen as a byproduct the branch of medicine concerned with the uses effects and modes of action of drugs Weellt 6 Kev ConceDtS 1 Describe the difference between autotrophs and heterotrophs a are producers in the food chain and they feed through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis they ate at the base of the food web everything else feeds off of them All three domains contain autotrophs b are consumers in the food chain and they feed on organic matter from autotrophs or other heterotrophs 2 What groups of organisms are autotrophic a Bacteria cyanobacteria eukaryotes seaweeds plants phytoplankton b All plants are autotrophs but not all autotrophs are plants 3 What is and why is it important a An evolutionary theory that explains the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotes the algae cell engulfes the cyanobacteria and makes it a part of itself and turning it into a chloroplast b Primary endosymbiosis phagosomal membrane enters a eukaryotic cell with a single nucleus and becomes a double membrane chloroplast c Secondary endosymbiosis Eukaryotic cell from primary endosymbiosis secondary endosymbiont enters another eukaryotic cell with a single nucleus The double membrane chloroplast becomes a quadruple membrane chloroplast with a nucleomorph a periplastid membrane and an epiplastid membrane d Important because it proves that eukaryotes evolve from bacteria 4 Which groups of organisms display primary or secondary endosymbiosis a Primary endosymbionts i Chloroplastida green algae and true plants ii Rhodophycaeae red algae b Secondary endosymbionts i Phaeophyceae brown algae ii Protists planktonic invertebrates 1 Coccoliths 2 Diatoms 3 Dino agellates 5 What are the main characteristics of algae a Algae b Simple holdfast to anchor plant no subsurface root system c Air bladders to provide buoyancy d They are classified based on different photosynthetic pigments storage products types of agellae in their spores e They do photosynthesis autotrophs f They can be big or small 6 Describe the differences between algae and true plants a Algae are not considered true plants and are found in a different kingdom than plants They are in kingdom Protista while plants are in kingdom Plantae b Algae does not have roots 7 Which group of algae are most closely related to terrestrial plants a Green algae 8 What are the characteristics of a Also known as chlorophyta b Their macroalgae are seaweed c Same chlorophyll pigments and energy storage starch d Genus Ulva is a species of green algae i Dominant species in intertidal pools ii Tolerant of salinity and temperature changes iii Bright green and thin fronds e Interesting green algae sailor s eyeballs 9 Where are they found a Generally found in temperate and cold nutrient rich waters 10 Describe the green algae life cycle a Zoospores are haploid agellated cells that reproduce asexually by mitosis when conditions are favorable b Daughter cells escape when the cell wall ruptures c When conditions are less favorable the asexually produced cells develop into gametes d When gametes of different mating types meet they first undergo cytoplasmic then nuclear fusion to produce a diploid zygote e The zygote loses its agella and develops a thick wall that enables it to survive adverse conditions f When the zygote germinates and undergoes meiosis it produces 4 haploid zoospores that reproduce asexually until conditions change once again 11 What are the characteristics of a Also known as rodophyta b They are the most diverse group of algae about 5000 species c Red color from pigment phycoerythrin 12 Where are they found a Most common in cooler waters b red algae found in tropical waters i Coralline encrusting algae rigid unlike other red algae calcareous deposits in cell walls typically encrusting in tropical waters common in coral reef habitats 13 Why are they important a They are major sources of seaweed food products 14 What are the characteristics of a There are about 1700 species b Color due to pigment fucoxanthin c Adapted to fastmoving water d Giant Kelp can grow up to 60 cm a day 15 Where are they found a More abundant in cooler temperate nutrient rich waters 16 Describe the brown algae life cycle a Most complex life cycle out of all algae b Mature sparophyte has mature sporangia with haploid zoosphores that produces male and female zoospores asexually c The male zoosphore matures into a male gametophyte then into a sperm d The female zoospore develops into a female gametophyte then into an egg which is fertilized by the male sperm e A sporophyte begins to develop eventually turning into a mature sporophyte 17 Describe the types of marine vascular plants a Kingdom plantae b Found in shallow coastal waters c Related to terrestrial plants because all vascular marine plants evolved on land and have returned to the ocean over evolutionary time All have new adaptations to survive the harsh marine environment d Class angiospemae 1 Palm trees a original habitat in IndoMalayan region b widespread today in tropical and subtropical coastal regions c they have fibrous oating seeds coconuts that allow for dispersal on the ocean intertidal plants seagrasses ii Intertidal plants a Major species in the genus Spartina b Adaptations to wide range of salinity and waterlogged peat sediment c Spartina Alterni ora has become an invasive species in some areas a Mainly tropical species found in coastal waters Southern US near Australia Indonesia b Adaptations to shed excess salt exchange gases and remain supported in wet environments c They excrete salt through their leaves salt crystals form 18 Why ar a d They can exchange gases through roots at low tide and their stems and leaves at high tide 1 Not true grasses descended from terrestrial plants evolved multiple times 5 families 52 species 2 Adapted to match environmental salinity levels if there is a change in salinity there will be a problem 3 They help clean the water column provide refuge for animals and food for marine animals and birds 4 They look like seaweed but they are more like terrestrial plants have a terrestrial plant like structure 5 They are owering plants dioecious separate male and female plants a reduced owers b males release pollen into the water many more female than male plants 6 Very different than most of the algae e they important They are important to biodiversity mangroves salt marshes very productive regions in their own little areas however they do not produce a lot of the overall primary production 19 What are some conservation issues surrounding marine plants a Humans cause these problems b Coastal run off i Pollution ii Reduced light levels c Ocean acidification Coraline red algae d Habitat destruction e dredging filling in of wetlands for construction sea level rise global warmingclimate change plants can t move if it gets too hot 20 What is a and what does it tell you about a It describes how energy moves through ecosystems b trophic level the energy level where you are in the food web most energy in lowest trophic level c It starts with primary producers at the bottom then primary consumers secondary consumers third level consumers and apex predators at the top d Energy is lost as heat at every level because of waste levels e At each level 10 of the energy is left 90 is lost as heat f You need 1000 lbs of primary producers to make 100 pounds of first order consumers g You need 100 lbs of first order consumers to make 10 lbs of intermediate predators h You need 10 lbs of intermediate predators to make 1 lb of top predators 21 Why are important a They make up the base of the marine food chains on the planet b They contribute a major portion of the oxygen we breathe c They are microscopic autotrophs 22 What are phytoplankton and why are they especially important a are plankton consisting of microscopic plants b They are the dominant autotrophs in the oceans c They take a lot of the carbon dioxide that we generate and produce 50 of the world s oxygen 23 How much primary productivity comes from phytoplankton a 95 24 How are plankton classified a By habitat and mobility where they are and how fast they can move b Separated into categories based on size i viruses produce most of the DOM in the ocean ii archaea and bacteria iii Nanoplankton start of phytoplankton iv most of rest of phytoplankton start of zooplankton c Foodenergy strategy i Phytoplankton are autotrophs zooplankton are heterotrophs d Life cycle differences holoplankton meroplankton 25 Describe differences between autotrophs vs heterotrophs vs mixotrophs a Iproducers in the food chain photosynthesis or chemosynthesis b consumers in the food chain feed on organic matter from autotrophs or other heterotrophs c mix of autotrophs and heterotrophs producers in the food chain that photosynthesis but they also can ingest smaller organisms 26 What are the major divisions of plankton based on feeding strategy a Phytoplankton Autotrophs anything that can generate its own food b Zooplanton heterotrophs more like animals consuming matter produced by phytoplankton and other zooplankton 27 What role do plankton play in marine food webs a They are the foundation of marine food webs b A is a diagram showing the connection of different organisms who eat each other c All organisms are tied to phytoplankton 28 How are plankton traditionally sampled and what are some drawbacks of these methods a Old method of study was using early 1800s b Method misses many types of plankton 29 What are some new methods being developed a MOCHNESS a multiple openingclosing net and environmental sensing system b Video Plankton Recorder underwater video microscope c These new techniques have revolutionized understanding of epipelagic and especially plankton biology 30 Describe the four major groups of phytoplankton a Phytoplankton are found in all of the oceans highest concentrations in temperate latitudes not a lot at equator or poles b found in the epipelagic zone of the water column c All the domains eukaryotic bacteria archaea include phytoplankton d 95 of primary production in the ocean is from phytoplankton e Cyanobacteria Diatoms Dino agellates Coccolithophores 31 What are the major characteristics of each group 1 They are the most ancient they are the tiny architects of the earth s atmosphere They are very small but they do a ton of photosynthesis ii Called bluegreen algae but are bacteria not plants iii Precursor to chloroplasts in all other plants on land and in the water iv Prochlorococcus responsible for 50 of oxygen production on earth and was only discovered in 1986 1 Dino whirling agellum whip ii Both marine and freshwater species iii Can be autotrophic or mixotrophic about 50 are mixotrophic iv Dominant phytoplankton at low latitudes V Some species are responsible for red tide due to potentially harmful tox1ns i Most common type of phytoplankton in high latitude nutrient rich waters ii silica cell walls which are not calcium carbonate iii found everywhere land ocean bogs feathers of diving birds iv About 10000 very diverse forms in shapes in sizes i Maj or phytoplankton in temperate subtropical and tropical oceans ii Armorlike plates of calcium carbonate scales called Coccoliths iii major focus of concern with Their shells dissolve 32 Which group includes mixotrophs a Dino agellates about 50 33 Which group is a concern for ocean acidification a Coccolithophores 34 Describe the global trends in primary productivity in the ocean a There are increased areas of productivities all over the world due to upwelling areas b West coast of US Africa South America increasing levels of chlorophyll c There are different changes in phytoplankton as the seasonsweather changes 35 What are zooplankton and what are some major groups in this classification a plankton in kingdom Animalia consisting of small animals and the immature stages of larger animals They are heterotrophs b Foraminifera Radiolaria Copepods Jellyfish Fish larvae c Role in the food web consumers they eat things 36 What are the two groups of zooplankton classified by life history differences i Planktonic larval stages of nonplanktonic organisms They do not stay plankton their whole lives ii Especially abundant in neritic coastal waters iii EX crab larva reef fish larva i Spend entire life as plankton ii EX copepod amphipod 37 How do plankton stay at the surface a They have body shapes to resist sinking which is important for photosynthetic organisms they need to stay in sunlight b They have buoyancy adjustment gas filled sacs algae plankton oil droplets c Spiky body structure resistance in water 38 Why does zooplankton undergo a daily migration a Many planktonic species migrate vertically in the water column b They follow their food c They do not need light heterotrophs it can damage them so they are avoiding strong light d They migrate up to 800 m in a single day equivalent to humans traveling 50 miles e They migrate to follow food to avoid predation to avoid very strong light energy conservation or all of these reasons at the same time 39 Where are they migrating to a During the day they passively sink and at night they actively swim upward mher Kev Words Wee the rate at which energy is converted by photosynthetic and chemosynthetic autotrophs to organic substances Plankton are responsible for 95 of marine primary productivity a plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place Chloroplasts play a very important role in endosymbiosis a motile asexual spore that uses a agellum for locomotion Also called a swarm spore these spores are created by some algae bacteria and fungi to propagate themselves the haploid multicellular stage in the alternation of generations life cycle of plants and algae It develops from a spore by mitotic cell division Gametophytes produce haploid gametes by mitosis unusual brown algae they are free oating and they tend to form large rafts in the open ocean They serve as habitats for other organisms temperature and tropical distribution red algae primarily absorb blue and purple light they do not absorb much red and orange that is why they are red brown algae are a lot of different colors re ected back to you Availability of light by depth algae that absorbs a lot of blue will tend to be deeper Distribution of different algae species are determined by light levels At lower levels pigment concentration increases they get more in their cells to be generating energy because there is less light Small organisms in the ocean that have common ancestiors from bacteria archaea and eukarya domains They are classified by habitat and mobility and can be very diverse in their appearances Most are very smallmicroscopic a type of zooplankton they are the king of the plankton Kope means oar and podos means foot they have the most diverse habitats marine freshwater terrestrial polar to hydrothermal vents they are the most numerous multicellular animals in water dominant consumer of phytoplankton major source of food for filter feeding organisms Also known as euphausids they form huge dense swarms in cold oceanic waters most common in Antarctica They can be important food for large organisms whales Week 7 Kev ConceDtS 1 What is the most dominant phyla in Animalia a Phylum chordata 2 Which phyla were discussed in class a Porifera Cnidaria Annelida Nematoda Mollusca Chordata Anthropoda 3 Describe organisms in Phylum distinguishing characteristics feeding techniques body plan a Some of the oldest invertebrates first records over 600 million years ago b Simple organisms permanently attached to substrate sessile they stay in one place c Originally thought to be plants d Can be very large and colorful barrel sponges can be greater than 2 m e They all share a common body plan i An outer layer with smaller pores where they bring in water tubular structures that bring in particles for digestion ii They can clean their water columns rapidly f The skeletons of these sponges can be used as bath sponges 4 Describe organisms in Phylum body plan life cycle types of species a Another ancient group more than 600 million years old b Diverse type of organism corals jellyfish anemones hydroids c Large diversity in size Coral reefs can be enormous or 2 cm for individual polyps Lion s mane giant jellyfish d Two common body planslife stages i The stage gluedattached to substrate ii The stage mobile stage 5 What are the causes of a Human changes to the environment i Habitat modification more rocks more polyps ii Translocation 1 Ships take in large volumes of water ballast waters to be the right buoyancy and take the species in the water with it thousands of miles away a lot of new species have been introduced to different areas iii Overfishing reduced predation and competition on jellyfish 6 Where is the largest diversity of found a an area between the Indian and Pacific Oceans where the largest amount of coral reef species can be found 7 What is the life history of a species a the distribution of important events in an organism s life when it matures reproduces dies etc 8 Know the differences between rselected and Kselected life histories a species i Short life span fast growth born mature and reproduce very rapidly ii Lots of offspring iii Minimal or no parental care iv opportunist b species i Longer life span slow growth social and physical development ii Few offspring iii Extensive parental care iv competitor 9 Why is the considered immortal a Can develop backwards if it gets stressed transdifferentiation 10 What types of organisms are in Phylum a Round worms b Most marine species are very colorful c Mostly parasitic d Up to 8 m long 11 What types of organisms are in Phylum a Segmented terrestrial and marine worms b Bobbit worm up to 3 m in length i Barry the bobbit worm c Lie and wait predators d Giant hydrothermal vent tubeworms Riftia species i Not predatory chemosynthesis e They are they live in the sediments 12 Describe organisms in Phylum types of organisms where they live why they re commercially important a Subphylum crabs lobsters shrimp copepods b Widest size range for any phylum from microscopic to massive lobsters and king crab c Segmented legsbodies d Most diverse animal phylum most species 52000 described estimates of 100000 e A lot are zooplankton some are can t swim against the current efficiently f They are very commercially important 3 of the top 5 commercially important fisheries are arthropods g Many species are bury themselves in sediment 13 Describe organisms in Phylum types of organisms historical importance predators current research a Class cuttlefish squid octopus clams oysters nautilis molluscks bivalves Cephalopods ones that don t have an external shell squids octopus etc These get their food by hunting predatory About 800 species today They are more diverse in equatorial waters fewer polar species thrDFLPP i Basis of the kraken of mythology ii They have a complex brain and nervous system iii Largest eyeball of almost any creature more than 30 cm iv Maintain neutral buoyancy in seawater with ammonium chloride lighter than seawater v They are solitary hunters they eat arrow squid and other giant squid and they are eaten by sperm whales and Pacific sleeper sharks vi They have dark ink and teethed suckers to deter predators vii September 30 2004 the first pictures ever taken of a giant squid alive was not filmed on video until 2006 viii Discovery channel expedition July 2013 expedition to get glimpses of giant squid alive in their habitat encountered the squid after 100 missions 14 Phylum Echinodermata a sea stars urchins sea cucumbers b variety of feeding strategies 15 Phylum Chordata a Animals with a spinal cord b Fish reptiles mammals birds humans etc 16 Difference between fish and fishes a re one or more individual of a single species b are more than one species regardless of the number 17 Three major divisions of fishes Which is most primitive a the most primitive i Superclass higher than class below phylum b i Class 1 Two subclasses Elasmobranchii and Holocephalii i Superclass 1 Two classes Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii 18 What are the thermoregulation strategies of fish How do those differ from other types of marine life a Warm blooded i can maintain their own heat internal mechanism for generating heat endoinside ii Also known as temperature homeostasis iii Whales dolphins marine mammals b Cold blooded i use external forces for heat ii Also known as they don t regulate their body temperature they can have large variations in body temperature and still survive iii Fishes reptiles 19 Describe jawless fishes types of organisms body shape distinguishing characteristics parasitic strategies a Superclass Agnatha b Most primitive ancient vertebrate first chordates about 450 million years old c Primitive notochord exible cartilaginous structure with nerve cord on tip instead of spine Eellike body form no scales or paired fins they have dorsalvental fins Feed by suction using round muscular mouth and rows of teeth The only vertebrate parasites sea maggots i Feed on deaddying fish secrete a fibrous slime to deter predators i Attach to host fish and feed on tissue and blood 20 What types of organisms are considered cartilaginous fishes Describe those organisms distinguishing characteristics body shape a Sharks skates rays chimeras b Paired fins and noses nares skeletons made of cartilage moveable jaws with welldeveloped teeth skin covered by tiny nonoverlapping rear facing placoid scales rough like sandpaper c Ampullae of Lorenzini can sense electricity d Their teeth get preserved in the fossil record e they are predators and carnivores can maintain a regularly stable body trotmg i ii iii iv V vi The most ancient cartilaginous fish 50 living species Deep water fish 2002600m Diverged from sharks 400 million years ago Lack sharp sharklike teeth Ghost sharks ratfish spookfish i ii iii iv vi vii h Sharks ii iii iv vi vii First records 150 million years ago about 500 species Generally live exclusively on sea oor demersal cover themselves With sand Largest ray manta ray can have Wing span up to 7 m eats plankton bodies so they can hide ventral gill slits attened expanded pectoral fins They are carnivores eating other stuff on the sea oor eating Whatever they can find Feed on clams crabs shellfish demersal fishes using teeth modified into grinding plates Electric rays Torpedo produce electric volts for feeding and defense Sting rays have a Whiplike tail With defensive spine at base that can be used to stab Can grow up to 20 m 60 ft Whale sharks eat plankton shape shaped like a football heterocercal tail unequal distribution of tail on tip and bottom paired pectoral fins shaped to provide lift FAST Multiple rows of teeth that are continuously replaced over lifetime average shark has 5 sets of teeth they can shed up to 30000 teeth in a lifespan There is a lot of diversity in sharks their structure predatory vs plankton feeders formshape Variation in shark size and habitat 1 Coastally and shallow hammerhead angel nurse bull saW 2 Slightly deeper bull White tiger shortlin mako 3 Deeper water Whale megamouth thresher basking spined pygmy Sharks do not attack as often as people think average of 10 attacks and 04 deaths per year in the US Shark Ray Alley Shark research tagging them and using underwater robots REMUS 21 What do sharks eat a All species are carnivorous b Vary from plankton filter feeders to predatory 22 How do cartilaginous fishes reproduce a Most rays and skates lay eggs some sharks b Most sharks have internal fertilization and give birth to live young i Sand tiger shark hatch1ings cannibalize other embryos in utero 23 What is a major conservation concern for sharks a People hunting them b Since the 1970s 90 of sharks have declined
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