Test 2: Ch. 5-6
Test 2: Ch. 5-6 NDFS 100
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Olivia Notetaker on Saturday October 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to NDFS 100 at Brigham Young University taught by Richards, Rickelle in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 200 views. For similar materials see Essentials of Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Brigham Young University.
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Date Created: 10/17/15
Study Guide After studying each chapter and learning from class lecturediscussion you should be able to Chapter 5 The Lipids Fats Oils Phospholipids and Sterols Describe functions of fat in the body and in foods 1 FunctionsUsefulness in Food a Nutrients provide essential fatty acids vitamins and other compounds a Transport fats carry fatsoluble vitamins A D E and K and assist in their absorption at Stores and contributes to energy Taste and smell contributors 0 Provides a protective barrier for all vital organs so you can participate in activities d Important in Appetite control 2 Usefulness of Fats in Body a Energy fuel provide 8090 of the resting body39s energy and much of the energy for muscular work b Energy stores chief form of stored energy you can store energy easier w these 0 Emergency reserve fuel supply when sick d Padding protects internal organs from shock e Insulation insulate against temperature extremes Describe the different types structures and functions of lipids including fatty acids 1 Triglycerides 3 classes of lipids a Has a Glycerol and 3 fatty acids a Fatty Acids i Saturated Fats 1 No double bonds 2 from animal sources ii Unsaturated 1 From plant oils 2 CYS fats 3 Monounsaturated a 1 double bond b Healthiest c High in oils d Ex olive oil 2 Polyunsaturated a 2 double bonds or more b Omega6 Fatty Acids Linoleic Acid From plant oils Not from beef fat Eicosanoids Supergoodforyourbody c Omega3 Fatty Acids Linolenic Acid AKA epa and dha Mainly found in sh and seafood Ex Found in sh oil Decrease blood pressure Decrease blood clots Helps with growth and development in kids Helps with preventing heart disease You need the right ratio in your diet 0 Omega 6 to Omega 3 0 51 ratio needed 0 Need more omega 3 fatty acids 2 Phospolipids a Looks like a diglyceride but with extra things on top b Act as emulciphiers 2 Sterols a Know the 3 categories uner it b Cholesterol comes from animal products i Bile Acid aids fat digestion ii Steroid hormones sex hormones i Vitamin D b 1 Structures fatty acids are the carbon chains coming off the structure a Monoglyceride i 1 double bond from that carbon chain b Diglyceride i 2 fatty acids coming off the glycerol instead of the hydrogen bond b Triglyceride make up 90 of everything 2 Fats vs Oils a Saturated fats will be solid at room temperature have a higher melting point because they are solid i Have more long chained fatty acids b Oils have more short chained fatty acids i Oils are unsaturated Saturated Fat 0 Monounsaturated fat d Polyunsaturated fats multiple double bonds 1 Describe lipid digestion absorption and transport in the body 1 Lipid Digestion a Mouth no digestion b Stomach no digestion 0 Liver produces bile emulci er gallbladder stores and releases bile i Helps w lipid digestion since those oils tend to oat to the top b Pancreas 0 Small Intestine digestion occurs 2 Lipid Absorption a in Small Intestine gt short chain fatty acid glycerol gt then it is absorbed into blood stream gt which takes it to the liver b In Small Intestine gt long chain fatty acids monoglycerides gt they are packaged by chylomicrons gt taken to the lymph gt then to the liver 1 Lipid Transport a Chylomicrons i responsible for transporting dietary fat ii Transports it from the small intestine to other parts of the body b LDL Low Density Lipoproteins i Transports cholesterol and other fats from liver to cells ii Helps your body use cholesterol bad for health b HDL good High Density Lipoproteins i Takes cholesterol from cells in your body to the liver and excretesdisposes of it ii Gets rid of cholesterol from body good for health Describe the health bene ts or problems associated with consuming various lipids and identify food sources of different types of lipids including saturated monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol 1 Saturated Fats a Health Effects i Raises LDL ii Increased Risk of heart disease b Food Sources i Animal Sources ii Coconut Oil 2 Cholesterol a Health Effects i Dietary cholesterol is different than blood cholesterol this is all you need to know on this topic for the test 1 Doesn39t affect blood cholesterol like saturated fat does b Food Sources i Animal Sources 2 Monounsaturated Fat has 1 double bond a Food Sources healthy i quotCOPquot 1 Canola Oil 2 Olive Oil remember this 1 Peanut Oil 1 Polyunsaturated Fat has more than 1 bond a Food Sources i Found in vegetable oils that aren39t in quotCOPquotquot ii Fish high in polyunusaturated fat Essential Fatty Acids a Omega 6 i Linoleic ii Plant Oils b Omega 3 i Linolenic 1 EPA amp DHA types of Omega 3 Fatty Acids ii Food Sources 1 Fish 2 Canola 0 ii Heath Effects 1 Protect against heart disease 2 Reduce blood clots and blood pressure ii Most people don39t have enough of this one b Need to Eat the correct ratio of Omega 6 and Omega 3 1 Explain why plant oils are hydrogenated identify foods likely to contain trans fats and describe the health implications of transfats 1 Hydrogenation a Adds hydrogen b More saturated i Takes a polyunsaturated fat and adds hydrogen to it 1 The more saturated it is the rmer something will be at room temperature 2 TransFats worse than Saturated Fat a Health Effects i Raise LDL ii Lower HDL iii Increase risk of heart disease b Food Sources i Hydrogenated foods hydrogenation causes trans fats ii Stick Margarine 1 Identify the recommendations for fat intake from the Dietary Guidelines for Americans the USDA Food Pattern and the AMDR Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range 1 2 3 4 AMDR 2035 of total daily calories Eat mostly Unsaturated Fat lt300mg cholesterolday lt10 of calories from saturated and trans fats Chapter 6 The Proteins and Amino Acids Describe the structure of proteins and explain why adequate amounts of all the essential amino acids are required for protein synthesis 1 difference between protein and other macronutrients is that protein contains nitrogen 2 Protein Synthesis a DNA determines the sequence of amino acids to form proteins i DNA tells which amino acids go where so they link to form structures 2 Describe protein digestion absorption and metabolism 1 Protein Digestion a Mouth no digestion b Stomach hydrochloric acid denatures protein i Hydrochloric acid straightens and breaks protein down b Pancreas produces enzymes and bicarbonate and sends that to the small intestine 0 Small Intestine produces enzymes amino acid chain is broken down 2 Protein AbsorptionMetabolism a Absorbed from small intestine gtthen to blood gt then moved to liver b Liver i Use those amino acids to create new enzymes and other structures ii Use for energy if calorie intake is too low iii Convert to fat for storage 2 List and describe the roles of protein in the body and explain nitrogen balance 1 Roles a Structure i Bone muscle ligaments tendons b Regulation i Enzymes hormones immune cells uid balance nerve transmission b Energy i Protein is converted to energy 2 Nitrogen Balance a Positive i Consuming more nitrogen than is leaving the body ii Ex growing children pregnant women body builders b Neutral i Consuming the same amount of nitrogen as we are excreting ii Ex any normal healthy person is usually at this point b Negative i Consuming less nitrogen than is leaving the body ii Ex sick people astronauts 2 Characterize foods in terms of protein amount and quality and also identify proteins that are complementary 1 Protein Quality a Proportion and pattern of amino acids that ll the body39s needs 1 Low range if we consume a low range of proteins we have to nd something to balance it 1 Ex grains ii MidRange Example beans and legumes iii High range meats and dairy b Complementary Proteins i Grains NutsLegumes State the AMDR for protein Calculate an individual39s recommended protein intake DRI 1 AMDR 1035 of total calories 2 RDA 8gkg body weight a 22le 1kg b Example Finding RDA for someone that is 150bs i 150le 22 681818kg ii 682kg x 8gkg 5456g iii Answer 55g of protein recommended for a 150lb person Describe the consequences of consuming too much or too little protein 1 Too MuchHigh Intake a Doesn39t help with muscle build up b Kidneys excrete Nitrogen in urine 2 To littleLow Intake a Comes with not eating enough calories vitamins or minerals b Causes edema andor muscles deteriorate Describe celiac disease including what happens in the digestive tract the consequences how it is diagnosed and what foods need to be avoided 1 Autoimmune response against gluten a Villi deteriorate absorption is impaired b Diagnose i Biopsy ii Blood tests b Treatment i Avoid gluten wheat barley rye Identify the strengths and limitations of vegetarian and meatcontaining diets Identify nutrients of particular concern 1 Vegetarians a Vegetarians eat more nutrient dense foods i Fruits veggies whole grains foods high in ber b Less obesity i Which means less chronic disease b Low saturated fat 0 Nutrients of concern i Calcium vitamin D lron Zinc ii Vitamin BlZ main concern since it is only in animal fats Chapter 7 The Vitamins There will not be exam questions on biotin pantothenic acid choline or quotnonB vitaminsquot Identify the key differences between fatsoluble and watersoluble vitamins 1 a b c a b Identify the major func Fat Soluble Vitamins Store in the body with fat Higher risk of toxicity Absorbed with fatslipoproteins 1 Water Soluble Vitamins Excreted in urine Need to eat more frequent doses tions of each vitamin Identify major food sources of each vitamin including factors if any that enhance or interfere with the use of a speci c vitamin Identify the name and symptoms of each vitamin de ciency disease Identify toxicity problems if any for each vitamin For Questions 25 Fat Soluble Vitamins Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K Water Soluble Vitamins m a Gene Expression b Visual CycleEyes c Antioxidant Maintains blood calcium Soft Bones levels to keep function of our organs and cells Thins Blood prevents blood from clotting Antioxidants Helps our blood to clot Bone matrix Proteins m De ciencv SvmotomsDisease Toxicitv Svmc a Night Birth defect blindness G upset sto b mpaired Hypercarote cell differentiation overstimulated cell division Cannot com overexposure Calci cation Rickets for children Osteomaacia for adults Not on test Not on test Hemorrhage dec clotting Opposes the bleed to death clotting meds especiay babies 0 is clottin De ciencv SvmotomsDisease Vitamin C Maintains connective tissue scurvy antioxidant poor wound healing cofactor in energy easy bruising and bleeding metabolism wound healing Thiamin Bl Beriberi leads to weakness and edema swelling A function of coenzymes All B Vitamins are involved in energy metabolism Ribo avin B2 A coenzyme in energy Not on test metabolism Niacin B3 A coenzyme in energy Pellegra which leads to metabolism dermatitis diarrhea Dementia death Folate DNARNA Synthesis Birth Defects A coenzyme in energy Spina bi da baby is born w hole in metabolism back happens win 2127 days after conceonn Vitamin B6 Energy metabolism Anemia Nonessentia amino acid synthesis Vitamin B12 Coenzyme in energy Anemia Metabolism rreversibe nerve damage Trick to remember these Vitamin names quotIender omance ever Eails with g or 12 Beautiful Bearls Ihiamin ibo avinNiacin Eolate Vit 36 63 12 B and E haven39t been taught yet Describe how to minimize nutrient losses during food storage and preparation 0 Cook for a minimal amount of time in little water a The longer you cook the more of the good nutrients leave Identify who might bene t from multivitaminmineral supplements and identify guidelines for selecting supplements 1 Pregnant women vegans chronic dieters alcoholics a Multivitamins should supplyexceed more than 100 of the RDA important to remember for test not G d cram Notc Notc Notc Can I since Nerv Notc
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