ASB222 Exam 2 Book Study Guide
ASB222 Exam 2 Book Study Guide ASB 222
Popular in Buried Cities and Lost Tribes
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Phoebe Chang on Saturday October 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ASB 222 at Arizona State University taught by Perreault in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 1110 views. For similar materials see Buried Cities and Lost Tribes in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 10/17/15
A53 222 Book 2 Study Guide Chapter 4 1 What relative dating method is tested using gravestone data in this chapter a Sariation Developed byJames A Ford b A graph ofthe popularity of any cultural trait will have a single peak and then fade away 2 What makes gravestone so useful for testing ideas about changes in material culture over time There are three major variables that can be controlled for here What are they How are they controlled in this case a Gravestones spatial temporal and formal dimension can be barefully calibrated and controlled b They are a prime example of ideotechnic artifacts c Three major variables space time form i Their places of residence 0 Cravers distribute their product over a small geographical area thirtyodd miles gt Concentrated ii Their periods of production 0 Before 1800 0 Not fulltime specialists O Learned and passed on designs was typical of traditional cultures 0 The date of death and the date of carving are close in time iii The identification of the carvers and the designs symbolism O Probate records 0 Entries in inventories of debts against the estate specify payment for gravestones O Stones might be signed 0 Account books and diaries of the cravers sometimes make reference to stones 0 Harriette Forbes gt identified 127 cravers in New England who worked before 1800 3 Were changes in gravestone decoration uniform across New England a 16801820 i Battleshipshaped curves ii Winged death shead with blank eyes and a grinning visage iii Variety of other motifs used gt Death shead motifmost common iv Ephaphs 0 Stress decay and life s brevity b Great Awakening 17201760s i Winged cherub O Represent softening than death s heads ii Inscriptions on the stones become relevant O Describing the status ofthe deceased quotHere lies 0 Tendency to emphasize that only a part of the deceased remain in Ephaphs 0 Stress resurrection O Heavenly reward c Final shift 1760s i Willow tree overhanging a pedestaled urn H Ephaphs O In Memory of iii Cenotaphs O Erected even if the body of the dead wasn t beneath 0 Symbol of commemoration ofthe death 0 Depersonalization 4 Why might you study changes in symbols like gravestone decorations over time rather than say animal bones found in trash heaps What can styles of gravestones tell us about the people who used them a Boston Massachusetts Bay Colony i Cherubs were never common 0 Lack of large group of academicians and church leaders ii Late 18305 O Depersonalization showed death shead 0 Strong traditional urban population b Cambridge community i Gaining popularity at a slow but steady rate ii Due to Harvard intellectual and ecclesiastical community iii 65 high status individuals have been most au courant 0 Military leaders 0 Church officials 0 President of Harvard 0 Harvard teachers iv 5 of all death shead stones mark such highstatus person c Rural Plymouth i Symbols gt Visual Punning double meaning ii The heart 0 Life symbol 0 Incorporated in subtle ways into an otherwise grim symbol of death gt the winged skull 0 Appropriate for churches progressive and conservative iii Rural Carvers not far from Boston d North River i Only a brief flirtation with heartshaped elements ii Retained a conservative death shead design iii Used by O Wealthy shipbuilder O A refusal to associate with unorthodox church members e Plympton and Hinsdale later Plymouth i Graves of children 0 Chose by adults gt death shead old fashioned O Medusa design f Princeton Massachusetts i Medusa design ii Being viewed as kids racial attitudes O A negro womanservant 1778 a Flova was a slave O A Negro manservant 1783 a might not been a slave since they free the servants in 1783 g Essex Country i Same as the death shead ii Oval face squared mouth and nose birds meeting beakto beak over the forehead h Rhode Island i Newport cravers ii Cherubs with a corresponding eclipsing of the death s head iii Religious tolerance gt Baptist i Connecticut i Puritan colony gt Most fertile region ii Rich valleys spill Chapter 5 1 Deetz notes in a few places that standing structures aren39t always the best way to learn about architecture during particular periods even if the standing structures were built during those periods Why is this When is it more useful to study past architecture through archaeology a People are conceived born and die in houses in preindustria cultures the house is at the same time the domestic center and location of the most production of essential artifacts b Vernacular building i Folk building ii Done without benefit of formal plans iii Built by occupants or within occupants immediate community iv Sensitive indicator ofthese persons inner feelings and ideas v Aspect oftraditional building c Academic building i Created by architects trained in trade ii Reflects contemporary styles that39s related to formal architectural order iii Less indicative for the attitudes and lifestyle of the occupants iv Aspect of popular culture d Three types permitting us to understand the development of domestic architecture i Surviving buildings ii Excavated remains that39s limited only to those portions of a building that survived below underground iii Certain documentary materials 1 Land titles 2 Deeds 3 Probate material 4 Building contracts e Focus i The degree to which a pattern of potholes cellars and hearths can be read as clearly as to how it represents the structure that once stood over it f Visibility i The actual amount of physical remains 2 What are some features of houses Deetz would call organic goo9 Fairbanks house East Anglian derivation the arrangement of rooms Close parallel with details of framing including curved wind braces The pattern of growth of 17th and 18th vernacular American houses Typical hallandparlor house i Hall gt Parlor ii Hall gt Technomic iii Parlor gt Sociotechnic Two rooms flanking a central central chimney Long studs are compatible with clamps horizontal beams attached to inside of the studs which in turn support the upstair floor 3 What are some features of houses Deetz would call academic Q The Mott farmhouse Portsmouth Rhode Island Georgian flavor but more superficial Central chimney stood between the original hall and a new two story addition on the other side Thejetty was removed gt the facade an even plane Roof was hipped at one end only The impact of Georgian design on vernacular building 4 What does Deetz associate with organic and academic designs What kind of people built them a Organic are more traditional gt spaces were shared no privacy nor separation of various activities visitors directly enter the rooms Academic are Georgian style gt higher degree of spatial specialization individualization of living space visitors enter an unheated hallway Both of them shows strong ties to the English homeland and in time become more American and more regionally diverse
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