Midterm 1 - LECTURE Study Giude
Midterm 1 - LECTURE Study Giude CMN 136
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GEOL 205 001
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Isabella DeCredico on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CMN 136 at University of California - Davis taught by Virginia Hamilton in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Organizational Communication in Communication Studies at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
MIDTERM 1 Lecture Study Guide Test Date 1019 1 What is the de nition of an organization Organization a social collectivity or group of people in which activities are coordinated in order to achieve both individual and collective goals Organizations work inside an environment and impact an environment Work in a coordinated fashion l which builds conceptual structures Key words people goals coordination structure environment 2 What are the various metaphors for organizations and what do each of them mean and which organizational theoryapproaches do they relate to Machine metaphor Classical Approachorganizations have parts that work together to produce products or service people were considered one of those parts humans were treated like machines which led to the formation of unions Organism metaphor Systems Approachorganizations are like plants and animals complex organisms the org is born grows functions adapts to new environments but eventually dies It must be tended to in order to survive A system is something greater than the sum of its parts Key words survival thriving interdependence Systems consist of four things 1 obiects people ideas resources and things that make up the system 2 attributes the qualities that make up the objects 3 relationships relationships between all of the system s objects 4 environment the larger system in which the system lives operate Brain metaphor Human Resources or Participative Approach organizations process information have intelligence are capable of learning can change and conceptualize a past present and future A change in mentality from people being treated like machines to being recognized as people Primary resources is the brain organizations care what every employee has to say Key words control is exercised at all levels and communication is extensive decision making is based on consensus high motivation humans are seen as a resource Learning Organizations the need to consistently be learning because everything is always changing Cultural metaphor Cultural Approach organizations create and share meaning have values and norms and are perpetuated by shared stories and rituals Every single org has its own unique culture Four key components of a strong culture 1 values org has something you believe in 2 heroes the person who made you want to work forwith the company ie Steve Jobs 3 rituals predictable processes that occur every year ie the company xmas party 4 the cultural network the communication system ie a newsletter Political systems metaphor Critical Approach organizations distribute power in uence exerted and decisions are made slight socialist view Protector of the underdog Divide up the power power ruins the economy ie Labor unions are an example because they are suspicious of management and power power exploits the more power the more exploitation Peter Drucker took a critical approach he scolded CEO s for making too much money compared to employees Key words domination oppressive power structures emancipate workers marginalized groups Networks metaphor Communication Approach organizations are a complex of interacting communicating social structures that are channels of in uence and power Lines of in uence who is communicating with who about what ALL organizations are a network most companies have an overlap of the different metaphors approaches these approaches have evolved through history and experience 3 What are the three types of networks and what does each of them mean What does centrality mean regarding networks Different networks are based on key topics and in uence and leaders can shift based on the topic Three types of networks 1 Technical tools based on expertise Social 3 Authority rule enforcement Centrality having a high number of contacts within a network 4 What is control and what the four key ways control is exerted in organizations Control a signi cant concept within organizational theory It is a kind of discipline or force that maintains order consistency and large group compliance Four key ways control is exerted in orgs 1 Simple control direct legitimate open power rare in modern companies Simply telling people what to do ie The military 2 Technical control use of machinery technology tools the technology can limit or control what employees can and cannot do Tools control us New technology can either bring fear or appreciation Bureaucratic control use of ruli and procedures to control behavior ie Employee handbook Concertive use of interpersonal relationships and teamwork control order is accomplished by normalizing Use peer groupscoworkers to apply a certain norm pressure Rules within are reinforced positively or negatively more subtly than abrupt ie praising people publicly reinforcement Norm based conformity indirectly 5 What are the key ideas related to the Classical approach Who is considered to be the founder of this approach What are the principles that govern bureaucracies Key ideas efficiency effectiveness Max Weber is the fatherfounder of bureaucracy further developed my Henry Fayol and Frederick Taylor Principle that govern bureaucracies Based on rules standardization and equality Division of labor compartmentalized vs systemic view of business Hierarchy org has many levels of positions with speci c responsibilities No ownerships employees do not share in the ownership of organization 6 What are time and motion studies Time and motion studies determines the one best way to do every job related to classical approach Proper selection and training of workers Inherent difference between management and workers Carefully maintained records and documentation Industrial Psychology A tested by Federick Taylor later followed up by Lillian Gilbreth He observed workers with a stopwatch in order to nd the most efficient way to produce quality products in the shortest period of time he then standardize it in the work place 7What sparked the Human Relations movement What is the quotHawthorne effect Elton Mayo s Hawthorne Effect was the springboard that sparked the move away from the mechanistic approach to the humanistic approach Hawthorne Effect Researches tested the effects of lighting on factory productivity ended up discovering that worker output increased as a direct result of the attention paid to workers by researchers When you give humans attention they perform better Added a caring and social aspect to efficiency and effectiveness in the work place The psychology behind it workers wanted to be recognized and know The sociology behind it humans are social and want to bond with people around them 8 What Is Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs What does quotprepotencyquot hierarchy mean How does it relate to organizational life Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs proposed that humans are motivated by ve basic needs Level 1 lowest level basic needs Level 2 safety Level 3 af liationbelongingness social aspect Level 4 selfesteem con dence Level5 highest level selfactualization our unique purpose A prepotency hierarchy is the one that has the greatest power or in uence over our actions what motivates us It relates to organizational life in the sense that leaders needs to understand that each employee is different and what motives them and how to ful ll their needs 9 What do McGregor s Theory X and Theory Y postulate What are Theory X and Theory Y managers concerned with and believe about people Theory X and Theory Y represent the different assumptions that managers have about productivity and their employeespeople Theory X classical approach managers assume the most negative aspects of employees and have a low regard for them ie they are lazy Theory Y humanistic approach managers believe their employees to be internally motivated have a high regard for people McGregor advocated more managers should use Theory Y managers should conceptualize workers as motivated by the higher order needs in Maslow s hierarchy and capable of independent achievement in the workplace 10 What is the de nition of a system What are qualities that all systems have in common and what do each of them mean system a set of things that affect one another within an environment and that forms a larger pattern that is different from any of its parts a system is greater than the sum of its parts it is a unique whole qualities that all systems have interdependence all parts of a system affect and are being affected by other parts hierarchy systems are embedded in one another a series of levels on increasing complexity suprasystem environment the larger system in which the focus of interest is embedded ie country system focus of interest ie state subsystem smaller systems that are embedded in the system ie cities equi nality survival the goal of a system can be accomplished in different ways at different points if one path does not get us where we want to go nd another adaptability homeostasisbalance adaptability systems seeks equilibrium stability order which enables a system to maintain itself and experience comfort systems are however able to adapt in order to survive too much balance stagnation too much change overload breakdowns 11What is the Human Resources approach What distinguishes it from the Classical and Human Relations approaches Human Resources approach added a caring aspect to efficiency and effectiveness in the work place humanistic control is exercised at all levels and communication is extensive decision making is based on consensus high motivation humans are seen as a resource differences from Classical approach Classical approach saw and treated humans as machines where as human resources viewed humans as a resource with everyone having knowledge and important input 12 What is New Systems Science How does it differ from original systems theory New Systems Science humans are different from organisms we do not always seek equilibrium sometimes we seek challenge and changeunpredictability in order to grow learn and increase our ability Differs from original system theory Systems theory views us as organisms that seek balance but new systems science views as different from organism too much balance in humans can lead to boredom we seek balance between balance and change 13 What are the key ideas of cybernetics What are the elements of a quotsimple cybernetic processquot What is involved in each of the three steps Cybernetic study of how systems adapt and make necessary adjustments to assure survival Key ideas of cybernetics a sub eld of systems theory goaloriented system processing information and feedback from within and without the system allows us to survive and be successful Elements of quotsimple cybernetic processquot 1 The sensor takes information from the environment and reports it to comparator 2 Comparator makes an analysis of how on or off the goal the system is makes a decision and give send actionsgives orders to activator 3 Activator takes action acts in accordance from comparator s orders Process helps us to se what will threaten us and what can strengthen us and how to act accordingly 14 What is the cultural approach What is the de nition of quotorganizational culturequot Cultural approach organizations create and share meaning have values and norms and are perpetuated by shared stories and rituals quotEach organization has its own way of doing what it does and its own way of talking about what it s doing To discover these is to investigate organizational culturequot 15 What are the four key components of a strong culture What do each of them mean Four key components of a strong culture 1 values beliefs and visions members have for organization 2 heroes the person who made you want to work forwith the company ie Steve Jobs 3 rituals predictable processes that occur every year ie the company xmas party 4 the cultural network the communication system ie a newsletter 16 What does the critical approach attempt to achieve Critical approach attempts to achieve Fight domination of organizations and oppressive power structures emancipate workers and ally with marginalized groups prounderdog ie boycotting 17 What is a quotlearning organizationquot What are the necessary skills needed to excel in a learning organization What does quotobsolescencequot mean Learning organizationspart of brains outcropping of systems theory need to be consistently learning because everything is always changing which helps to prevent obsolescence Skills need to excel 1 Systems thinking awareness of interconnections monitor ad know our environment in order to survive 2 Personal mastery internal motivation commitment to learning self re ection selfimproved open to challenges 3 Flexible mental models patterns and beliefs that shape and limit our interpretations and actions selfchange questioning our own assumptions and perceptions and being open to receiving constructive feedback 4 Building a shared vision concertive control is exercised members have a shared vision and contrast vision against the current reality which generates a creative tension 5 Team learning communication and dialogue that leads team toward collective intelligent decisions everyone can bring something to the table therefore no need for a manger to micromanage Leads to balance advocacy and inquiry Knowledge is power and share knowledge to learn any information you don t know and share your information that others might not know Obsolescence something that was once valued but no longer is everything become obsolete at some point except for our competency always willing to be learning learning is not only con ned to formal education 18 What is assimilation What are the two major processes involved in assimilation What are the phases of socialization Assimilation process in which individuals join become integrated and exit organizations become part of the culture Two major dual processes Socialization the process in which the org in uences changes the individual through formal and informal processes social agents ie education family gov lndividuation process in which a single employee in uencesimpacts some aspect of the organization varies based on level within the company Phases of socialization Anticipatory socialization that occurs before entry into the org conceptualize yourself in a job Encounter a new employee enters an organization must let go of old roles and values and accept expectations of new organization Metamorphosis completion of socialization process employee is now accepted as an insider to org Withdrawal leave before leaving mentally detach from the organization before you have actually left 19Why is interdependence considered to be quotthe breeding groundquot for con ict Interdependence is the quotthe breeding groundquot for con ict Due to incompatibilities and incompatible goals Interdependence inevitable con ict 20 What are some of the common things that need to be adjusted when an organization becomes unstable What methods are used to implement change Organizations become unstable due to planned and unplanned events Unplanned not foreseen natural disasters war economy death of a leader Planned occurs a lot Adjustments for planned change 1 task behaviors reevaluate who does whatwhen is the work getting done 2 organizational processes reevaluate efficiency and potential benchmarking making similar changes that your competitors made that worked well for them 3 strategic direction reevaluate environmental trends current strategies etc 4 people reevaluate culture skills competence and morale of the individuals and groups in org Methods used to implement change 1 Technical introducing new and improved tools for helping with task behavior and work processes 2 Structural the people whom manages whom the hierarchy removing a layer of management creates a selfmanaged approach 3 Managerial leadership changes mental models new skills new ways of management 4 People employees change mental models new skills new ways of working with each other 21 What are the causes of negative emotions in the workplace Tensions between public vs privatepersonal in work relationships Con icting allegiances workers feel localities may end up con icting Differences in ethics 22 What is emotional intelligence What are the qualities that emotionally intelligent people possess Emotional intelligence the ability to manage ourselves and our emotions effectively Qualities Selfawareness know your emotions and how you impact others Selfmanagement our ability to control our impulses 23 What are the de nitions of prejudice and discrimination What are EEOC laws designed to do What are the two main challenges of diversity What are the advantages of diversity Prejudice negative attitudes toward an organization member based on their culture group identity acting on prejudice Discrimination observable behaviors immoral and illegal EEOC Equal Employment Opportunity Commission federal and state agency created to protect prospect employees against discrimination Laws protect people legally from discrimination in the workplace Protected classes cannot discriminate based on sex gender race ethnicity region veteran statues disabilitypregnancy age religion Bona de job quali cations times when it is reasonable and necessary for a business to hire based on protected class ie for a teen magazine you would hire a teenager not someone older than mid205 Two main challenges of diversity 1 informal communication and networks minorities experience limited access or exclusion 2 tokenism a low number of representatives of a gender or ethnic minority ie quotthe token womenquot quotthe token blackquot Advantages of diversity Creativity and increased ability to solve problems 24 What are the two types of sexual harassment What are the de nitions of each one What s involved in each one Two types of sexual harassment 1 quid pro quo more rare something for something ie hiring promotions etc in exchange for sexual favors 2 hostile environment more common sexual comments innuendos photographs etc create an environment that is perceived as quothostilequot and interferes with employee s ability to do their job 25 What are common behaviors associated with sexual harassment What steps should you take if you are being harassed Common behaviors of sexual harassment Inappropriate verbal comments and nonverbal behavior inappropriate visual displays or objects ie posters or calendars unwanted terms of endearment ie honey sweetie inappropriate touching quid pro quo askingimplying for engagement of sexual activities as a basis for continued employment or advancement Steps to take if being harassed Confront the harasser Report the behavior to supervisor or HR department Keep records with dates and details of offenses Enlist the support of trusted colleagues family members and friends 26 What does the media richness theory propose What are the four criteria that distinguish the informationcarrying capacity of media When should one use lean or rich media Media richness theory suggests that when choosing a medium to communicate we need to consider the nature of the message ambiguous or routine and dualcapacity datacarrying capacity vs symboliccarrying capac y Four criteria for the informationcarrying capacity of media the more we use of the criteria the more it is rich media 1 the availability of instant feedback 2 the use of multiple cues 3 the use of natural language 4 the personal focus of the medium Rich media vs lean media We use rich media for ambiguous unclear or sensitive topics We use lean media for routine or simple messages Rich l lean Face to face skype phone voicemail email text 27 What is the different between the symbolcarrying capacity of media and the datainformation carrying capacity Both are part of a dualcapacity Symbolcarrying capacity of media refers to the way a medium conveys the core values and assumptions of the organization s culture Social meaning potential to be offensive ie breaking up with your fianc over text message the information was received but it isn t very socially acceptable Datainformation carrying capacity refers to the degree to which a medium is able to effectively and efficiently convey taskrelevant information The best way to share information
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