Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide PSY 4930
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by jjb13n on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 4930 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Wen Li in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 167 views. For similar materials see Affective Neuroscience in Psychlogy at Florida State University.
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Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Jill!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol
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Date Created: 10/18/15
Study Guide Exam 2 Learning Objectives are in bold Week 5 Primary Methodologies in Cognitive Neuroscience Lesions brain injurystroke Neural Stimulation TMS Cortical BS DBS Electrophysiological recording EEG MEG Structure scan CT DTI MRI Function scan PET fMRI Different Methods Used in Cognitive Neuroscience 0 EEGERP O O 0 Type Recording Invasiveness Noninvasive Brain property used Electrical 0 Singlecell and multiunit recordings 0 MEG 0 PET Type Recording Invasiveness Invasive Brain property used Electrical Type Stimulation Invasiveness Noninvasive Brain property used Electromagnetic Type Recording Invasiveness Noninvasive Brain property used Magnetic Type Recording Invasiveness Invasive Brain property used Hemodynamic Type Recording O Invasiveness Noninvasive 0 Brain property used Hemodynamic General Physics Behind the Methods amp General Utilities and Functions 0 Lesions brain injurystroke O Ablation surgical removal of a part of the brain 0 Lesions brain injurystroke I Behavior I Personality I Sensory capacity I Cognitiveexecutive functions Neural Stimulation TMS Cortical BS DBS Electrophysiological recording EEG MEG Structure scan CT DTI MRI Function scan PET fMRI History of MRI 0 NMR Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 0 Nuclear properties of nuclei of atoms 0 Magnetic magnetic eld required 0 Resonance magnetic eld interacts with radio frequency 0 NMR gt MRI 0 Most likely bc nuclear has bad connotations Mental Chronometry 0 Measuring the timing of cognition to infer its structure 0 Classic method is response time RT to a task stimuli and measure changes in RT across conditions ERP signal is continuous over time and has some advantages over RT method In ERP different peaks may approximately re ect the functioning of different cognitive stages 0 But not a simple relationship bW ERP peak and cognition because each peak is a sum of different electrical activities Endogenous vs Exogenous o Endogenous ERP components related to the task O Exogenous ERP components related to sensory stimuli o Distinction not always clear Structural vs Functional MRI Equipment 0 Magnet 0 3T 3 Tesla 60000 X Earth s Magnetic Field Gradient Coil RF Coil Step 1 O 0 Step 2 Magnetic LineUp Apply magnetic eld by putting person in scanner 3T magnet Line up spins of all hydrogen atoms protons Send Waves Radio waves lift spins of hydrogen atoms in unison Gradient Coil Atoms absorb energy as they lift RF pulse Measure Waves Turn off pulse Relaxing hydrogen atoms emit energy Receiver RF coil picks up this radio energy Structural Brain Anatomy 0 Step 3 O 0 Measure how fast the atoms spins move back to normal magnetized spin I Tl Atoms in different tissue types move at different speeds Functional Brain Function 0 Step 3 0 Measure how fast the atoms give off energy as they move back down I T2 0 Atoms in different tissue types give off energy at different speeds T2 Function MRI Starts in the Blood Active brain areas need oxygen Oxygenated vs deoxygenated hemoglobin Regular ratio oxydeoxy Body sends more oxygenated Hb to brain area in need New ratio Oxydeoxy fMRI Response to Neural Activity 0 Increased activity of neurons results in a small decrease in the oxyhemoglobin O This decrease often cannot be detected by fMRI small dip 0 About 3 seconds after the increased activity in the neuron the capillary dilates and dramatically increases the amount of oxyhemoglobin o This produces a very large increase in the fMRI signal SingleCell Recordings 0 Very small electrode implanted into axon intracellular or outside axon membrane extracellular 0 Records neural activity but doesn t stimulate it Unique Advantages and Disadvantages EEGMEG O The scalp and skull Which distort the electric potentials are transparent for magnetic fields 0 MEG can pick up neuronal activities directly through the skull O MEG is mainly sensitive to tangential sources Whereas EEG re ects all intracranial currents 0 Thus MEG is better for brain source localization MEG vs EEGERP o MEG Signal unaffected by skull meninges etc Poor at detecting deep dipoles More sensitive to activity at sulci Millisecond temporal resolution Potentially good spatial resolution 23 mm 0 Expensive and limited availability 0 EEGERP 0 Signal affected by skull meninges etc Detects deep and shallow dipoles Sensitive to gyri and sulci activity Millisecond temporal resolution 00000 0000 Poor spatial resolution 0 Cheaper and Widely available 0 Both are used in 2 main research contexts in cognitive neuroscience O Oscillationbased Analyses and links to cognitive function I Neurons tend to fire in synchrony but at different frequencies I Different frequencies characterize certain cognitive functions 0 Decreased alpha 7 12 Hz linked to visual attention 0 Increased gamma 30 Hz linked to perceptual grouping and higherorder cognitive processes 0 Eventrelated potentialsfields ERPsERFs Week 6 Electrical Activities and signals in the Brain 0 Directional Communication 0 Dendrites receive electrical signals via passive conduction not action potentials and chemical signals from synaptic cleft O Axons carry electrical signals action potential away from cell body Action Potential and Underlying Mechanisms 0 Action Potential sudden change in electrical properties of neuron membrane in an axon 0 Summary Stimulus received by dendrites of a nerve cell causes the Na channels to open if the opening can drive the interior potential from 70 mV up to 55 mV the process continues Depolarization after reaching action threshold more Na channels voltagegated channels open The Na in ux drives the interior of the cell membrane up to about 30 mV The Na channels close and the K channels open The K channels are slower to open depolarization has time to be completed Having both Na and K channels open at the same time would drive the system toward neutrality and prevent the creation of the action potential With the K channels open the membrane begins to repolarize back toward its rest potential Hyperpolarization when the repolarization typically overshoots the rest potential to about 90 mV This would seem to be counterproductive but it s actually important in the transmission of info I Hyperpolarization prevents neuron from receiving another stimulus during this time or at least raises threshold for new stimulus Part of its importance is in assuring that the signal is proceeding in one direction I After hyperpolarization the NaK pump eventually brings the membrane back to its resting state of 70 mV Electrical Neural Communication 0 From the cell body gt axon gt dendrite of the next cell 0 Action potential FrequencymodulatedFM all or none spikefiringneuronal ring uniform shape and amplitude different in freq 0 Postsynaptic potential AmplitudemodulatedAM graded sum of electrically charged ions Action potential leads to release of neurotransmitters Which bind With receptors on the postsynaptic membrane resulting in iontrafficking across the membrane and consequent change in postsynaptic potential either increase or decrease o Highdimensionality A single neuron receives inputs from thousands of synapses Neuronal Coding O Amplitude of an action potential does not vary but number of action potentials propagated per second varies along a continuum o This rate of responding also called the spiking rate relates to the informational code carried by that neuron 0 Some neurons may have a high spiking rate in some situations e g during speech but not others e g during vision whereas other neurons would have a complementary pro le 0 Neurons responding to similar types of information tend to be grouped together gt regional functional specialisation 0 Fire together wire together 0 Types of Neural Codes 0 Local Representation equivalent to grandmother cellscells responding to only one stimulus 0 Fully Distributed Representation weakly selective multiple neurons 0 Sparse Distributed Representation strongly selective few neurons Week 7 Reward o Reward O Induces subjective feelings of pleasure liking which may lead to happiness 0 Prevents extinction Related Neurotransmitters Monoamines 0 Amino Acid Precursors o 2 Types O Catechlamines catechol ring I Dopamine DA 0 Dopaminergic I Norepinephrine NE 0 Noradrenergic neruons o Adrenergic drugsreceptors I Epinephrine E O Adrenergic O Indolamine indole ring I Serotonin SHT O Serotonergic O Affected by many of same type of drugs 0 Terminated by O Reuptake by presynaptic neuron o MAO monoamine oxidase O COMT catecholOmethyltransferase methylation o Reserpine RX schizophrenia o initially stimulates NT release 0 profound depletion over several days Dopamine Pathways 1 Dopamine neurons in the Substantia Nigra project to the striatum Caudate Putamen Ventral Striatum and the Nucleus Accumbens Nigrostriatal Pathway 2 Dopamine Neurons in the VTA project to the frontal corteX a Subcortical i Striatum Nucleus Accumbens ii Amygdala iii Lateral hypothalamus Mesolimbic Pathway b Cortical areas i Orbitofrontal Cortex ii Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex leFC iii Anterior Cingulate CorteX Mesocortical Pathway o Dopamine Functions 0 Reward motivation O Pleasure euphoria 0 Motor function ne tuning O Compulsion O Perseveration O Serotonin Function 0 Memory 0 Mood 0 Sleep 0 Processing 0 Cognition Drug Addiction processes and mechanisms 0 Drug Addiction A state in which an organism engages in a compulsive behavior 0 Behavior is reinforcing rewarding or pleasurable 0 Loss of control in limiting intake 0 Wanting without liking compulsively want to take drugs even if at a cognitive level they do not want to do so 0 Drugs can act as rewards by mimicking or boosting the phasic dopamine response gt more dopamine to be required in order to feel pleasure gt wanting O Tolerance a higher dose is required to achieve the same effect the target neuron is less responsive to DA release 0 Dependence a state in which an organism functions normally only in the presence of a drug opiate receptors in the thalamus and brainstem are deprived of morphine 0 Drugs also suppress the PFC impaired topdown regulation 0 Addiction and dependence can be separate 0 Other brain changes contribute importantly to addiction too including damage or dysfunction in cortical mechanisms that underlie cognitive choice and decision making 0 Many studies have indicated changes in executive functions involving how alternative outcomes are evaluated and decisions and choices made occur in addicts and animals given drugs 0 The impairment of executive control plays an important role in making bad choices about drugs especially When combined with the pathological incentive motivation for drugs induced by incentive sensitization Pleasure Circuits O Striatum O NAcc ltgt Pallidum O NAcc Nucleus Accumbens I Opioids and Endocannabinoids interact I Dominated by areas for liking or disliking I Only a small ventral section is related to obtaining food 0 Pallidum I Limbic nal common pathway receiving projections from a host of rewardrelated brain areas 0 NAcc o Amygdala o OFC 0 ACC O ventral tegmental area O Opioids o Liking Pleasure Hedonic Hotspots Subcortical and pathways 0 Hedonic hotspots form a functional integrated circuit I Sufficient Cause nucleus accumbens I Necessary Cause ventral pallidum Neural blockadelesion produces loss of pleasure I deep brainstem regions including the parabrachial nucleus in the pons Cooperative hierarchy activate first If many hotspots in these regions activate activation of additional hotspots increased liking response the VTANAcc pathway appears important in both wanting DA and liking opioids etc 0 Basis of Alliesthesia O O Hypothalamus ties reward with the internal homeostatic state Amygdala adds affective potency to the reward stimuli O Neural Hierarchy of Pleasure O Decerebrated animals brainstem only balanced liking and disliking to taste positive to sweet but negative to bitter BenzodiazepineGABA enhances liking Thalamic animals ablation of everything above the thalamus aversion to all even to a sweet taste this suggests that the diencephalon contains circuitry pushing brainstem reactions into disliking unless opposed by signals from hypothalamusamygdala O Decorticated animals brainstem thalamussubcorteX restores liking liking to sweet and dislike to bitterness O Cortical Pleasure 0 Code for pleasure evaluations including anticipation appraisal experience and memory of pleasurable stimuli O Orbitofrontal Cortex o MidInsular CorteX o Medial PFC O Anterior Cingulate CorteX Distinction from wanting 0 Brain divides wanting and liking into separate circuits for same reward 0 Natural opioids in a few brain pleasure hotspots make people want to eat more of a tasty sweet food and make them like its sweet taste more when they eat it 0 Same thing happens with addictions and other pursuits involving brain reward circuits 0 Relationship bw liking and wanting in happiness 0 Hedonia Pleasure I Hedonic Happiness liking without wanting contentment O Eudaimonia Meaning I LikingWanting gt Eudaimonia Moderate wanting liking facilitates engagement with the world construction of meaning 0 Commitment I Too much wanting without liking gt unhappiness Addiction Happiness and its Neural Basis o Anhedonia 0 Evidence for link between pleasure and happiness 0 Damage to Ventral Pallidum hedonic hotspots in rats fully abolishes the capacity for positive hedonic response 0 3 Pillars of Happiness O The pleasant life a life that successfully pursues the positive emotions about the present past and future 0 The good life using your signature strengths to obtain abundant gratification through activities we like doing in the main realms of your life 0 The meaningful life using your signature strengths and virtues in the service of something much larger than you are Week 8 Main Concepts of Information Processing and Emotion O Processes Perception Memory Learning Attention Reasoning Conscious Awareness 0 Key Concepts 0 Assumes there is competition Within processing system bW streams of info I Capacityresource limitations Within the system I This competition leads to selection and impaired processing I Emotion modulation more resources allocated to emotional information 0 Additional Concepts 0 Bottomup vs Topdown I Sensory driven I Expectation goaldriven 0 Levels of functioning I Fully automatic processing I Partial automatic processing I Deliberate control by a supervisory attentional system Emotion In uences in Domains of Information Processing 0 Attention O Dorsal Attention Network bilateral I Intraparietal sulcus superior parietal lobule I the junction of precentral and superior frontal sulcus frontal eye eld FEF I Topdown taskrelevance O Ventral Attention Network right hemisphere lateralized I Right temporoparietal junction TPJ supramarginal gyrus SMG and superior temporal gyrus STG I right ventral frontal cortex shows activity increases upon detection of salient targets especially when they appear in unexpected locations I Bottomup stimulusdriven saliency I Ex Left Neglect neglect left side of visual space 0 Conscious Awareness 0 Intransitive state of vigilance o Transitive o Binocular Rivalry I Emotion reduces image suppression duration emotional vs stimuli tend to break into conscious awareness o InterpretationReasoning 0 Interpretation I Experiment using adults after 911 0 Group 1 write about attacks making them feel angry 0 Group 2 writing about attacks making them feel afraid I Results o Anger enhances optimistic beliefs 0 Fear enhances pessimism O Divergent effects even though both are threatrelated emotions O Reasoning I Depressive Realism 0 people who are mildly depressed pessimistic are more realistic than highly optimistic people 0 pessimists are more likely to perceive themselves and their situation accurately 0 Experiment A strong evidencebased argument was more persuasive to students in a sad mood and a weak argument was more persuasive to students in a happy mood
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