Munm 1113 review exam 3
Munm 1113 review exam 3 1113 MUNM
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by blanca mirella on Wednesday March 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1113 MUNM at University of Oklahoma taught by Rodgers L in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Understanding Music >3 in Music at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 03/23/16
The late Classical Period Outline One of the most important developments of western instrumental was the emergence of the Symphony. Symphony is a genre usually exemplifying the following characteristics: instruments only, multi-movements, lofty musical ambitions, and an abstract subject matter; some exceptions include: 1. Composer use singers in symphonies (Beethoven, Mendelssohn, and Mahler all did at times.) 2. a single long movement.(The finished composer Jean Sibelius wrote one) 3. Intentionally trivial rather than ambitious. (Mozart’s father, Leopold wrote a “toy” symphony requiring the use of all manner of toy instruments). 4. or the corporation of concrete story lines. ( rather than abstract subject) 1. Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) is called “the father of the symphony.” Such titles aren’t particularly interesting, and this one also happens to be false. - hammerstrokes.: loud chords that typically began an overture; used to give the audience fair warning that the opera was about to star. 2. Giovanni Sammartini: from Italy. - composer organized performances of symphonies by themselves; thus, works once meant to introduce operas became separate, independent musical genre. This practice of performing only symphonies was an especially good idea during Lent and Advent, periods of the church, when opera was banned, - Thus the symphony was born, and if one must identify a father of the symphony, probably best to choose Sammartini. Sammartini’s symphonies were generally quite short, and usually included only string instruments. 2. Johan Wenzel Stamitz - was the composer most closely associate with the rise of the symphony. - Stamitz played violin in the court orchestra at Mannheim. The elector at Mannheim was Duke Karl Theodore, who wanted to establish within his hands an enlightened monarchy. 3. FRANZ JOSEPH HAYDN Haydn Symphony No 56 CD2 # 6: - He composed more than 110 symphonies. He also composed concertos, operas, masses, oratorios, keyboard sonatas. He invented the genre of the string quartet. He also composed more than one hundred pieces for a now defunct string instrument called “baryton.” - Haydn was the consummate Enlightenment era composer. He has a function in society: to make music for the important occasions in the life of his employer the prince. - Haydn joined the service of Prince Paul Anto Esterhazy. Prince Esterhazy was one of the wealthiest men in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Empire had its capital in Vienna. - Haydn and Mozart played together in a string quartet from 1780 until roughly 1790. The disadvantage of the contract between Haydn and Esterhazy was the prince owned all of Haydn’s compositions. - Haydn Symphony No 56 This piece was composed at Esterhaza for the purpose of entertaining the prince and a large number of guess during hunting season. It is a sonata form. - Sonata Form: is a form that sometimes referred to as “first-movement-form” or “sonata-allegro form” 4. Ludwig Van Beethoven: symphony No 3 (CD2 #9) and Piano Sonata No 31 CD2, #10) - Beethoven was comfortably into two periods; Classicism and helped to of musical Romanticism. - Today, scholars generally agree that Beethoven’s career falls into three distinct periods 1. The Early period (1794-1802) was Beethoven least remarkable: 2. Beethoven “Heroic” period (1802-1816) or the middle period: - Beethoven had initially dedicated his Symphony No. 3 to Napoleon Bonaparte, a person whom he early admired, before scribbling over the name with an ink pen and rededicating it to an anonymous hero; the symphony now known by the word for heroic, “eroica.” - Beethoven express to his brothers in a letter known as “The Heiligenstadt Testament,” that he often though of ending his wretched life. He wrote, “Only art, held me back.” Eventually Beethoven turns to the topic of suicide. - The instrument that Beethoven played and which he wrote multiple sonatas is the piano. - hemiolas,(rhythms that work at cross purpose with the prevailing meter; a rhythmic alteration of two notes in the place of three, or three notes in the place of two. - first movement of symphony No 3 the form is sonata. The first movement of Beethoven’s heroic symphony opens with two loud chords. The exposition section comprises 155 measures, the development section a titanic 245 measures, the recapitulation 154 measures, and the coda sprawls over a gigantic 135 measures. No large single movement was ever composing before. The piece opens with hammerstrokes. 3. The Late Period (1816-1827) - Beethoven become isolated and irascible. His deafness was likely the product of a congenital defect, incurable and progressive. He had occasional moments when he could hear a little, but he found these periods more agony than anything. - A certain serenity finds its way into his music. - He wrote some examples of the fugue, theme and variations, and sonata form. His late string quarters and piano sonatas rank among his very best works. - Our recorded anthology contains a much celebrated work from late in Beethoven’s career, the first movement of his op. Piano Sonata Number 31 (CD2, #10) Exposition: is the first section of a fugue or a sonata-form movement. Development: the practice of manipulating themes and motives in various ways; it also refers to the section of sonata form in which themes from the exposition undergo this process. Recapitulation: the last section of a sonata- form movement in which all the thematic material of the exposition returns in its original order, however, all of the themes now appear in the tonic. Coda: means, tail; a musical section placed at the end of a piece or movement that does not represent part of a described form such as theme and variations form. Romantic period outline 1. The story of Romanticism should start with Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven 2. There is three generation of composers in Romantic period. THE FIRST GENERATION OF ROMANTICS (1815-1835) 1. Franz Schubert from Vienna: Grerchen Am Spinnrade: CD2 #11 - SCHUBERTIADS”: Schubert and a few friends to come over aristocratic home for an evening of piano works, art song, and chamber music. - Art song or Lied (definition): the musical setting of a poem, usually, performed by solo voice and piano, in which the performers are expected to contribute significantly to the artistic effect of the poetry. - His composition: Grerchen Am Spinnrade: represents a text from Goethe’s epic drama Faust. - Schubert creates an onomatopoetic illustration of the spinning wheel in the piano part with its swirling ostinato (a musical phrase that is repeated persistently, usually at the same pitch). - “Volkstummlichkeit. That means a German word meaning “folk voice-ness,” or in musical terms, when thoroughly professionalized music strives to sound like folk song. In Gretchen am Spinnrade, Schubert affects the simplicity of a folk song with strophic structure. 2. Gioachino Rossini from Italy: - popularized the style of bel canto opera (means “beautiful sinning) - The formal plan for the aria was based on an important tempo change, “two- tempo aria.” That is a little misleading since it has three tempi. - a Banda (refers to the instrumentalists placed on stage in Italian opera.) 3. Vincenzo Bellini from Italy: Norma (CD3 # 1) BEL CANTO OPERA - The most famous aria from Norma, “Casta diva.” - bel canto style 4. FEDERIC CHOPIN from Poland: THE NOCTURNE in F Sharp (CD3 #2) - The nocturne genre has the goal the evocation of moods and feelings associated with the night. - His music reflects his controverted and singular temperament. - Chopin was a perfectionist whose works at the best with attention to the smallest detail - The Nocturne in F# major exemplifies a structure on both the small and large scale that reflects Chopin’s concert with variation. The overall form of a piece is A-A1-B-CA2-coda. - His lovely piece was included in most unlikely film, Dracula’s Daughter (1936). 5. Hector Berlioz from France: Symphonie Fantastique: (CD3# 3) - He is the last of the first generation of Romanticism. - Berlioz holds the reputation as something of a maverick. No rule could stop him if he felt his way was better. - Composer and music journalist - Berlioz believes that instrumental music benefited from telling a specific story. We call this sort of storytelling piece programmatic music and this Symphonie Fantastique is an example. - Berlioz used of the idee fixe in every movement of the symphony. Idee fixe definition: a fixed idea or obsession; a term Berlioz uses for a recurring theme, which carries programmatic meaning, in all of the movements of his Symphonie Fantastique. THE SECOND GENERATION OF ROMANTICS: Were the composers who flourished in the 1840-1850. 1. FELIX MENDELSSOHN AND FRANZ LISZT - Medelssohn: : took part in the revival of Bach’s music in Berlin during the 1830s and 1840s, as an enthusiast of older music. Mendelssohn felt that concerts should have an educational function. He favored antiques genres like the oratorio. - Liszt: was the most technically gifted pianist of his age. He concentrated on establishing the ethos of the great artist from the moment he walked onto the stage. Liszt’s abilities as a musician and entertainer took him to the far reaches of Europe. He performed from Turkey to Ireland, From Portugal to Russia. His piano compositions tend to be showy and technical. Some are programmatic, while others move in ethereal realms of pure emotion. 2. ROBERT SCHUMANN: Waldesgesprach (Forest Conversation) CD3 #4 - the most influential composer of the mid-century, (1810-1856) also an important journalist. - They had a mental illness running in the male family. - As a journalist he co-founded the paper Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik, - As a composer, Schumann initially favored the piano. We have one of Schumann piano work, called FANTASIESTUCKE (Fantasy Pieces). This movement is called “Aufschwung” or “Soaring.”The key in this piece is also wonderfully ambiguous. The tension caused by ambiguity energizes much of Schumann’s best work. The form of the piece is ABACABA or rondo. - Schumann was a manic-depressive - Waldesgesprach: a song dating from the manic period in Schumann’s. 3. CLARA WIEK SCHUMANN’S: The fugitive piece No1 represents Clara the composer CD2 # 13. - The fugitive piece No1 represents Clara the composer The formal plan of the piece is simple; ABA or ternary form. - Clara became one of Europe’s most celebrated pianists. So Clara turned out to be the much finer pianist than Robert Schumann, who she was married. THE THIRD GENERATION ROMANTICS 1. Johannes Brahms: - Like Clara and Robert Schumann he was a pianist and composer. - like Clara and Robert Schumann Brahms favored instrumental music without a definite subject. - Brahms marks the most conservative and classical extreme of the late Romanticism. Two new forces dominated; Music of the Future and Nationalism. A terrible quarrel broke out between advocates of Music of the Future and those who preferred to look back with nostalgia on better days gone by. Music of the Future: 1. Richard Wagner: Der Ring des Nibelung (The Ring, for short) CD3 #5 - He composed his own operas. - German - Eventually, he would no longer refer to creations as operas, but as “music drama.” - The crucial features of Wagner’s music dramas that distinguish them from others as follow: 1. Seamlessness, or endless melody, as without stops or pauses. 2. Leitmotifs were the principal means of connecting the music to the drama. 3. Wagner coined the term Gesamtkunstwerk (total artwork) as a way of expressing his ideal of fusing all the arts at their highest perfection, so that the whole of this fusion would be greater than the sum of its parts. 4. Wagner instituted a revolution in harmonic practice by utilizing what we now call linear chromatic harmony. That is the polyphonic lines that create harmony with pitches outside the tonic scale, often moving chromatically. 5. Wagner’s music drama tends to be gigantic in their conception. His works tend to be far longer than a typical bel canto opera. Moreover the orchestra he utilized is huge in comparison with the modest forces required for Bellini’s Norma. - The Ring Of The Nibelung: Wagner’s most ambitious project comprised a series of four music drama called Das Ring des Nibelung (The Ring of the Nibelung- The Nibelungs are a race of dwarves).
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