Exam 2 Study Guide (BIO 1510)
Exam 2 Study Guide (BIO 1510) Bio 1510
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This 67 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nausheen Zaman on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 1510 at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Nataliya Turchyn in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 396 views. For similar materials see (LS) Bas Life Mch in Biology at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
Bio 1510 Fall 2015 Active Transport 0 NaK pump coupled transport Endocytosis and Pinocytosis Exocytosis Active Transport SodiumPotassium Pump 4 39 I Entraeellurar 339quot 1 39E i in membrane binds inlramellL Eilr audjum En Dephmphuqdmim crf protein Iniggiem change back In migfnal mammalian MP WEFMWMMS Erwin with with law Elfinin in K 39 K39 dill usas inlgs blqu sodium the can and mamagm rapaans l c uquota m 3 Phospherrgrladi npames mn unmatmal mange in pr t i 5 2 Emd39n 339 ma 39mml ma a reduginag i13al39l inil 5l in 139th N1quot delphns pmwlmim 91 pmbein IllIan diff nut Ii Thisxm fwmallm has higher af nity kir K39 Extrac llular pma ium bind5 Eu exposed sites Movement of molecules up their concentration gradients with the help of energy Concentration gradients 9 molecules move from regions of their lower to higher concentration Carriers used in active transport needs energy ATP Sodium potassium Pump o ATP hydrolysis to move 3 Na ions out the cell and 2 K ions into cell against concentration gradient 0 oMore Na ions outside rather than inside the cell 0 Less K outside than inside the cell Coupled Transport Cotransport Eatip39p39mrrl 39lf eh39lGrawnHi company5 inst mrmm reprmuctam iIH39 rsFlay uteide o Coupled Transport movement of one molecule WEEquot a up its concentration gradient is coupled with movement of another molecule down the r39 4 g concentration gradient a l GMmEE o Symport two molecules move to the same side hw mhrr if of membrane Naglucose transporter a ampL gtlgg because both Na and glucose are moving in and infillf ly out of the cell at the same time even though the concentrations of each ion on outside and inside are different 0 Naglucose transporter uses Na gradient est by NaK pump as energy source to move Na and glucose into the cell 0 Uses ATP indirectly o Depends on NaK pump creates NaK F gradient and is used to make Naglucose E transporter to occur t era A V W Sampled EJr cry 1manepuriin 3 HIFE pmmm gg y i r is 3921 I I 7 quot V r i r a 55 393 il a 1 a la i 1131 r Overview of PassiveActive Transport Passive Transport Active Transport Moving down the concentration gradient Moving up the concentration gradient No ATP requi red ATP or other energy required Simple diffusion gases and nonpotor moieculles facititated diffusion ions and potar motecul es and osmosis water ATP driven transport NatK pump and coupled transport Natglucose transporter NatHt exchanger and NatCa2 exchanger Endocytosis Exocytosis 0 An energy using process where cells import substances from the external medium Endo to break in Cyto cell 0 Phagocytosis active transport cellular eating 0 ingestiong of large particles microorganisms and cell debris 0 used by protists and our white blood cells to engulf prey 0 Food vesicles go to lysosome a lysosomes break down things inside food vesicles 0 Pinocytosis uptake of fluidsmall molecules cellular drinking C All cells within body do pinocytosis o Membrane invagination plasma membrane collapses inward 0 Process similar to Phagocytosis Endocytosis Exocytosis cont Receptormediated endocytosis requires receptor to bring specific molecules into the cell 0 Uses ligands LDL low density lipoprotein Coated pit covered in clathrin protein needed for the coated vesicle to work Lysosome breaks down LDL from food vesicle to create a free cholesterol that can be used to make cell membranes lt3 Cholesterol only found in animal cell membranes prevents our cells from becoming too fluid or permeable for cells Hypercholesterolemia when an individual has a very high blood cholesterol level 600 700 mg in their blood normal individuals have 100 200 mg in blood they lack LDL receptors due to mutation in the gene that encodes them Exocytosis An energy using process when cells export substances to the extracellular environment 0 Exo to exit o Ex of active transport 0 Creates secretory vesicle derived from Golgi Apparatus a delivers modified lipids as secretory products to ouside the cell Endergonic vs Exergonic reaction Enzymes types of enzymes factors that control them Metabolism Biochemical Pathway Positive vs Negative Feedback How Does ATP Work 5139 SUPP39 ies Eriengquot for ATP C py gh E The M m iii Emmn up FFHME lm required at mm dumiDm mummy Loss of eliectr n xudatmn IN a Reductiwn animn Oxidation cation T Gain CIT eliectmn 1 FEdMG ti I wer energy higher energy Exergonic vs Endergonic Reactions Free Energy t5 Energy Fteleeeed Energy Supplied ewe The mamwt CW7 in Entraing med e regimem on macer V 7 Ptredu ete l Reactants Baume et Fleaetien x Exergonic reactions 93 39 Einergy meet be supplied 850 Free Energy G Enengy Released Energy Supplied Endergonic reactions Coping e wrhquotrA PMMFW Reactants quot Products C Ll i39SE Oil HEEGHDI I l Energy i5 39 i rrleesed dGz Endergonic reactions require input of energy like ATP to function i e photosynthesis o Ender inward Gonic energy 0 C02 H20 9 C6Hl206 C02 H20 reactants Glucose products 0 Products gt reactants energy wise Exergonic reactions release energy ie cellular respiration Exer to exit Glucose 02 a C02 H20 ATP Products lt Reactants energy wise Enzymes in Chemical Reactions 0 Enzymes lower the activation energy Ea minimum energy required to begin a chem reaction 0 Exergonic processes can react on it takes their own but too long 9 catalysts needed to speed up When the missing reaction reactions enzyme is Ea is high is slowed down Free Eriergif 1339 Energy Supplied Energy Heleeeed I th The HtGIWI HIEI Bempmies Inc Pamueelee required Bettermenton ereispleyu uneetelyeed V catalyzed Fleeetent euree elf Reeetien F Aetieetien Energy Aetieetien energy MEquot Enzymes Function Facts How Do Enzymes Work 9ij c The Mgr m3 rmch mi NWngn I mmj l j 39P ilj lgffl or am 3 The bll ldl g oi the subsireto and oniymo pieces guess on the glucose uucioso bond and the bond breaks 1 lho substrate Sucrose cousisls ol glucose and iruclose bonded logeihor 2 lh subsuqu DBMS M the BEING SI I E ol39 the enzyme owing an enzyme Glucose Fruclosc s ubsuoto compiex39 Glycosidic bond 4 Producls are released and The enzyme is uoo to bind other subsumos Suomeil nzym Acth silo region of enzyme wheresubs rro re binds i Enzyme SU 3350 V Sucrose Sucrose H20 Glucose Fructose Reactants Products FACTS 1 Each enzyme has its own substrate 2 Many of their names end in ase 3 Names can tell us about their functions ie DNase enzyme that breaks down DNA RNase enzyme that breaks down RNA both belong to a group of enzymes called nucleases enzymes that break down nucleic acids by hydrolyzing phosphodiester bonds between nucleotides 4 Not consumed in chemical reactions they are simply reused 5 Many enzymes are proteins Ribozymes RNA molecules that catalyze chemical reactions Peptidyl transferase catalyzes formation of peptide bonds between amino acids needed for translation to occur o Translation RNA 9 protein Some RNA molecules act as enzymes ribozymes Types of Enzymes Ribosome Factors that Control Enzymes o most human enzymes work best at pH 7 neutral environment o pepsin stomach works best at pH 2 very acidic environment 0 trypsin small intestine works best at pH 8 mildly basic environment 0 Temperature 0 Most human enzymes have optimal temperature between 35 49C o Bacteria that live in hot springs thermophilic bacteria have enzymes that operate at 70C or higher o Human enzymes don t work elevated temps many of our enzymes are proteins and denaturebecome nonfunctional at high temperatures Work best 37C this will not work in thermophilic bacteria Factors that Control Enzymes cont 0 Inhibitors stop enzyme from working 0 Can stop enzymes from reacting when the energy is not needed for a function that already happened 0 Competitive inhibition Competes with substrate to change the active site How can we overcome the competitive inhibitor 0 Can be overcome by increasing amount of substrate 0 Noncompetitive inhibition an inhibitor attaches to another area of the enzyme allosteric site which changes the active site so substrate becomes nonfunctional o Allosteric site where noncompetitive inhibitor binds to the enzyme o When binding of noncompetitive inhibitor to the allosteric site the active site to undergo a conformational change and the substrate will no longer work 0 Noncompetitve inhibition can be overcome by preventing binding of noncompetitive inhibitor to the enzyme s allosteric site Factors that Control Enzymes cont Activators help enzymes function better o Also bind to allosteric site 0 Cofactors Inorganic metal ions Fe2 Zn2 Cu2 Organic nonprotei n r molecules coenzymes o Vitamins B6 812 Modified nucleotides NAD NADP FADH Metabolism 0 39Total of chemical reaction carried out in an organism cgt Anabolic reaction create larger molecules 6 smaller molecules Endergonic reaction 0 Catabolic reaction Broken down larger molecules 9 smaller ones Exergonic reaction Initial aubatrate Iniermedaie I substrate A Intermediate auhetsrate E Intermediate subatrate 3 End product Biochemical Pathway Multiple chemical reactions in the same area Product of one enzyme substrate for another enzyme 0 Glycolysis occurs in cytoplasm all enzymes needed for glycolysis are contained in cytoplasm part of biochem pathway Positive vs Negative Feedback Reactions 0 Positive feedback when end product increases its own production 0 End product allosteric activator Oxycotin causes uterus to contract during childbirth During labor oxycotin increases its own production a more contractions a further movement of baby into birth canal 0 Negative feedbackfeedback inhibition when end product inhibits its own production 0 High concentration of ATP inhibits more ATP being produced Inhibits one of its own enzymes early in the pathway Enzyme t to Initial I substrate Enzyme t2 End preduet Enzyme 3 Positive feedback gt lt Negative feedback substrate Intermediate substrate A Intermediate substrate B End product i V 7 Tinorganic Adenosuneduphasphale ADP ph spham hr Adamsui e AMPj ATP and How it Works ATP hydrolysis ATP is broken into ADPPi inorganic phosphate 0 Pi binds to target molecule and makes it phospharylated a gains energy ADP hydrolysis ADP broken into AMP Pi 0 Pi can phosphorylate another molecule Both ATP and ADP can donate phosphate groups but not AMP ATP has the most energy because it has three phosphate groups more phosphate groups more energy Cellular respiration Glycolysis Pyruvate Oxidation Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain ETC Aerobic vs Anaerobic respiration Hypothetical vs Actual ATP yield Why Do we need to Eat Proteins Cellular Respiration o Catabolic exergonic reaction 0 Glucose 02 reactants o 6 C02 6 H20 ATP energy released products 0 Glucose a oxidized a C02 0 02 a reduced 9 H20 O Substratelevel phosphorylation Making ATP during glycolysis and Krebs cycle by transferring a Pi group from a phosphorylated organic substance directly to ADP 0 To make ATP ADP P group enzyme kinases transfers P group from one molecule to MP another 0 PEP ADP Pyruvate kinase 9 pyruvate ATP Exergonic reaction 0 Does not produce the majority of ATP in our body but oxidative phosphorylation produces majority of ATP ATP Synthase How it Works Panama0 Iasmyw ire sz o Phosphorylates ADP 9 ATP using proton 3 pg igf H f39 i a H gradient g o Needed for reaction to happen 0 Oxidative phosphorylation o Produces largest amount of ATP 0 Occurs in inner mitochondrial membrane eukaryotes and plasma membrane prokaryotes o How ATP Synthase Works 0 Proton gradient created by proton H pumps Need high energy e to function o Chemiosmosis force of protons through ATP synthase to produce ATP ATP Synthase How it Works Cont o H Pu mp 1Always move H ions from mitochondrial matrix a intermembrane space More H ions in the intermembrane space than mitochondrial matrix 2Aways move upagainst concentration gradient using active transport 30nly energy they accept is from electrons for pump to work 4Create the H gradient refers to uneven distribution of H ions across the membrane powers ATP synthase OOOOOOO ATP Synthase transmembrane protein that acts as a H ion channel by allowing H ions to move out of intermembrane space into mitochondrial matrix down theis concentration gradient by using passive transport facilitated diffusion 0 more H in intermembrane and less H ions in mitomatrix Q As H ions rush through ATP synthase rotates combines ATP with inorganic phosphate ATP chemical energy Summary of Aerobic Respiration 1 Glycolysis occurs in cytoplasm l gluc a 2 pyruvates 2 ATP by substratelevel phophorylation 2 NADH Catabolic exergonic 2 pyruvate travel to mito matrix to be turned to 2 acetylCoA in 2 Pyruvate oxidation occurs in mito matrix 2 CO2 and 2 NADH produced as well 2 Acetyl CoA cause 3 Krebs Cycle occurs in mito matrix Turns twice once for each acetyl CoA to produce 4 CO2 2 ATP made with substrate phosphorylation 6 NADH and 2 FADH2 also produced CO2 only produced in Seg B Exergonic reaction NADH from Pyruvate Oxidation and Krebs goes to 4 ETC occurs in inner mito membrane in eukaryotes NADH donates its e to 1St H pump NADH dehydrogenase Electron Transport Chain ETC 0 Proton pumps part of ETC o Pump H up concentration gradient using e energy e s for the ETC collectively come from glycolysis pyruvate oxidation and Krebs Cycle Occurs in inner mitochondrial membrane e transported by e shuttles o 3 intermembrane proteins NADH dehydrogenase BCl complex Cytochrome oxxidase complex Ubiquinone carries H between concentration gradient doesn t only receive e from 1 but also FADHZ donates e to ubiquinon FADH originates ONLY FROM KREBS CYCLE has the enzyme to reduce O O O e Shuttles NAD and FAD o NAD a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide o FAD a flavin adenine dinucleotide O NEach carries two nucleotides to ETC 0 Dehydrogenase glycolysis pyruvate oxidation and Krebs Cycle enzyme that transfers hydrogen atoms from one molecule to another H atom Hproton e NAD and FAD are oxidized forms of NADH and FADHZ respectively NADHFADH2 are reduced forms of NAD and FAD respectively 2H 2e H donated to the solution NAD carries 2e H to the ETC OOOOOO Glycolysis Occurs in cytoplasm Catabolic exergonic reaction a 1 glucose 6C a 2 pyruvate 3C o 2 ATP 4 ATP produced 2 ATP consumed 2 ATP by substrate level phosphorylation o 2 NAD a reduced 9 2 NADH NADH goes to ETC donates e to dehydrogenase o 10 chemical reactionsenzymes Chemical reactions and enzymes 0 Glyco divided into three steps beginning middle end 0 Beginning Phase I Chemical Reactions and Enzymes a Middle Phase Chemical Reactions and Enzymes o Ending Phase mmary of Glycolysis O D O C Pyruvate Oxidation a 2nd step of cellular respiration Pyruvate Oxidation when Pyruvate is converted into Acetyl CoA with the presence of 02 Glycolysis is then followed by fermentation in eukaryotes o Fermentation the process of regenerating NAD in absence of 02 0 Main goal to regenerate NAD so glycolysis can continue making a total of 2 ATP by substrate level phosphorylation Occurs in the cytoplasm 2 types of fermentation o Lactic acid fermentation occurs in the cytoplasm of muscle cells after severeextended exercise I NADH gt oxidized gt NAD I Pyruvate gt reduced gt lactate lactic acid 0 EthanolAlcohol fermentation occurs in cytoplasm of yeast unicellular fungi when they run out of 02 I Pyruvate gt decarboxylated gt acetaldehyde gt reduced gt ethanol alcohol 0 Decarboxylation when 10 is lost in the form of 002 I NADH gt oxidized gt NAD o 12 concentration of alcohol kills yeast very toxic environment for them Krebs Cycle 0 3rd step of cellular respiration o 3 segments of cycle I Segment A AcetyICoA gt citrate with citrate synthetase o Citrate synthetase found in mito matrix I Segment B Citrate undergoes series of reactions to turn into 4C Succinate o 2 CO2 lost 2 NADH produced from NAD 0 ATP produced from CoA group exergonic reaction as a result from substratelevel phosphorylation I Segment C Two processes 0 FAD gt oxidized gt FADH2 with succinate dehydrogenase o NAD gt reduced gt NADH with maate dehydrogenase 0 Both succinate dehydrogenase and maate dehydrogenase produced in the mitochondrial matrix 0 ONLY SEGMENT THAT PRODUCES FADH2 o For each AcetyICoA I 2 CO2 released I 3 NAD reduced to 3 NADH I 1 FAD reduced to1 FADH2 o NADH and FADH2 are both e carriers to ETC 0 NADH 2e and 1 H o FADH1 2e and 2 H Theoretical vs Actual ATP Yield An verall Look on ATP Production Copyngnm ne McGrewzHrll Cmpanles Int Permllsslen requires or repmuuctlpn er msplay Substrate level phesphprylatien lb 1 NADH 3 ATP chemiesmpsis because at 3 H pumps 2 TNATJH VVE Chemi oemosts Substrate level phpsphprylatien L e p l 1 FADHE 2 ATP denetes ete last 2 H pumps c1 pemplex and cytpehreme pxidase cemplex Bhemiaemnsie Oll39l ly Krebs produces m r 2 ATP used to transport l Total net ATP weld BE NADH from cytoplasm FADHZ 36 in eukaryotes mltpchpndria Theoretical vs Actual ATP Yeild Summary of ATP Production by Aerobic Respiration 4 ATP Vic subsfmTele vel phosphorylc39iion 25 ATP 25 x 10 NADH 2 NADH in glycolysis 2 NADH in pyr uwcfe oxi dcfion 6 in Krebs Cycle 3 ATP 15 x 2 FADHg 2 ATP for Transport of glycolyfic NALDH 30 ATP in eukaryoi39es 32 in prokcr yofe s 9 exfm because 39I39hey donquott have mifochondria NA DH elecfmns ccfivcfe Three profon pumps in The elecfmn Transport chain 25 ATP gener cfed perquot molecule of NA DH FAiDl lz elec39l39r ons cc39l39ivcfe 39I39wo pr c39i39on pumps in The elecfmn Transport chain 15 ATP genemfed per molecule of FADl lg i hese are all ATP number s Anaerobic Respiration 0 Without 02 as final e acceptor eukaryotic cells rely on glycolysis to generate 2 ATP I Without 02 fermentation is followed by glycolysis instead of pyruvate oxidation Fermentation reduces organic molecules to regenerate NAD I Acetaldehyde yeast pyruvate animals organic molecules that are e acceptors O Controlling Aerobic Respiration o In glycolysis phosphofructokinase is allosterically inhibited by ATP andor citrate I Phosphofructokinase used in glycolysis needed to convert Fructose 6P gt Fructose 16 biP this reaction needed to make ATP I If enough ATP is made gt ATP binds to phosphofructokinase allosteric site gt undergoes conformational change alters active site gt Fructose 6P can no longer bind to phosphofructokinase I As a result no Fructose 16 biP is made and no ATP is made I Negative feedback reaction ATP is noncompetitive inhibitor binds to allosteric site 0 In pyruvate oxidation pyruvate dehydrogenase is inhibited by high levels of NADH Why Do We Need Proteins and Fats o Deamination loses amino group I Needs to occur in order to contribute to aerobic respiration o Betaoxidationfatty acidoxidation I Occurs in mitochondrial matrix I Fatty acids used to produce acetylCoA NADH and FADH2 Nucleic acids digested in small intestine with nucleases like DNAse and RNAse Proteins digested in the stomach pepsin and small intestine trypsin Pepsin and trypsin are proteases Fats digested in small intestine with lipases Polysaccharides digested in mouth salivary amylase and in small intestine with following I Pancreatic amylase produced in pancreas but used in small intestine I Sucrase I Lactase I Maltase 0 Why do CarbRich Diets Not work I When polysaccharides are eaten they are broken down into glucose gt pyruvate gt Acetyl CoA and reduced in the Krebs Cycle I Excess AcetylCoA is converted back into fatty acids combine with glycerol and make us gain weight 0000 How Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration related Leaf Structure Chloroplast Structure Light vs Dark Reactions Difference between Photosystems l and 2 How Light and Dark Reactions Work Calvin Cycle C3 C4 CAM plants Photosynthesis vs Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration catabolic exergonic occurs in mitochondria Photosynthesis anabolic endergonic occurs in chloroplast Autotrophsphotoautotrophs organisms that carry out photosynthesis to make their own food 0 Auto self troph energy 0 Cyanobacteria photosynthesis via chlorophyll O Algae some protists o Heterotrophs organisms that eat food made by something else 0 Hetero other 0 Animals humans included 0 Some protistsbacteria o Fungi o All living organisms carry out cellular respiration both autoheterotrophs 0 You can t live without that ATP 0 Only autotrophs conduct photosynthesis How are Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Relate Ceiltuilar Respiration oxidized 4 reactants I prddu cte t reduced Iii21 Dealingquot IE gainingi tn Photosynthesis reduced 7 a r F dUCtS sunhght p reactants I Oxidized dieEH1 each Eama nm rm Leaf Structure Trichomus pre quott ieoves from overheating amp from being ten 3 herbivores I e item and is involved in photosynthesis 1o orcone epidermis protection u roses stoma epidermis protection Epidermis plant skin protects the leaf 0 Upper and lower epidermis Stomata sing stoma involved in gas exchange 0 C02 enters 02 and H20 leaves 0 Guard cells openclose stomata Cuticle waxy layer that reduces water loss Leaves covered in trichomes O Prevents leaves from being eaten by herbivores Mesophyll have many chloroplast cells within 0 Participates in photosynthesis Majority of plants photosynthesis occurs in mesophyll cells 0 Bundle sheath cells don t have many chloroplasts Inner membrane filled with stroma Stroma ATP is used Granum increases surface area in chloroplast Thylakoid membrane contains ATP synthase to make ATP 0 Thylakoid membrane stroma where photosynthesis occurs Chloroplast Structure Light Dependent vs Light Independent Reactions 0 Light dependent reaction exergonic o Occurs in thylakoid membrane 0 Only occur when sun is present exergonic I o NADPH reduced to NADP Carries 2e and H 9 Calvin Cycle H20 oxidized to O2 NADPH reduced to NADP 0 Light independent reaction endergonic o Occurs in the stroma inside thylakoid membrane Doesn t require sunlight dark reaction Calvin Cycle occurs withwithout sunlight CO2 reduced to glucose Glucose not a direct product of Calvin Cycle GBP is a PRODUCT a eventually used to make other sugars o Thylakoid membrane covered in two layers of phospholipids 00 0 Photosystems energy particle F39ha lzm ofsunhght Nghfenergy moving quot around il Phomsyslem 39 Elmlmn 39 acaephmr l mmn 1 WW Radiometer H rmdmmnHaWMNm mmmmng p mulecme I m compkx ai Consist of pigments and proteins occur on the thylakoid membrane A chlorophyll molecules of antenna complex captures a photon from sunlight and transfers energy to the reaction center chlorophyll a molecule 0 Antenna complex consists of chlorophyll b molecules carotenoids and proteins Chloro a main Chloro b carotenoid accessory An electron of the reaction center becomes excited moving to higher energy level sounds familiar Energy from sun passed around from one pigment cell to another When energy is recieved e become excited and are accepted to e acceptor molecules Reaction center chlorophyll a molecules donates their es o Chlorophyll b molecules in antenna complex don t donate only pass sun energy around Photosystem 1 vs Photosystem 2 0 Both absorb sunlight thousands found in the thylakoid membranes o The reaction center chlorophyll of absorbs light with wavelength of o The reaction center chlorophyll of absorbs light with wavelength of o I uses high energy e s make NADPH uses high energy e s make ATP 0 I replaces lost e s by e s from PII replaces lost e s by splittingoxidizing H20 0 When H20 splitoxidized a releases 2H 2e and O Light Reactions Occur in the thylakoid membrane Called light dependent reactions because they depend on sunlight Steps 1 H20 donates 2 low energy e to Photo2 e s always move from P2 to Pl 0 H2O oxidizes to O2 2 P2 receives low energy e s e s absorb photons with 680 nm energy become excited move to higher energy levels 3 High energy e s then donated to plastoquinone PQ Q mobile electron carrier carries high energy e s from Pl 9 b6f complex 86f very similar to bcl in mito membrane acts as H pump More H in thylakoid space than in stroma b6f complex acts as H pump by pumping H ions from stroma to thylakoid space upagainst concentration gradient using active transport only accepts e energy to move H up concentration gradients 9 creates H gradient needed to make ATP synthase work to make ATP Light Reaction Cont When H ions rush through ATP synthase from the thylakoid space to stroma down the concentration gradients using passive transport facilitated diffusion 9 ATP synthase rotates to combine ADP with Pi to make ATP chemiosmosis ATP produced in the stroma floating around because ADP and Pi are floating in the stroma as well 3 b6f complex donates e to plastocyanin mobile e carrier 4 Plastocyanin delivers low energy e to P1 which then absorb photons with 700 nm energy 5 Low energy es become excited again as they go through Pl where they are picked up by Ferredoxin Fd carries e from P1 a NADP reductase 6 Delivered to NADP reductase enzyme reduces NADP by receiving 2e combines with H and reduced to NADPH 0 H20 oxidized to O2 NADP reduced to NADPH o E carried by pQ more energy than e carried by pC but less energy than e carried by Fd e pC lt e pQ lt e Fd o NADP final e acceptor in photosynthesis light reactions Summary of Light Reactions H20 donates electrons to PhotoZ 9 pQ plastoquinone9 b6f complex 9 pC plastocyanin 9 Photol 9 Fd Ferridoxin 9 NADP productase 9 NADP 2e H reduced to NADPH 0 Products ATP NADPH both produced and released in stroma 02 released in thylakoid space exergonic reaction I I II Fhemmlem II We the Lemmm cm In ream men In W or nequ I embedded in Ihe Ihnleheidl membrane abserbe light ensuing eieelmne then are peseed In pleelequinenee e mobile eleeImn earner In Ihe membrane Eleelmne IneI 1mm nheleeyetem Ii re replaced by Ina exidelien eI39 water nienna eemel ee 39 I It 54 r39 2 The b w feempIen eIee embedded in the membrane reeehree eleenene hem pleeheeuinene end paeeee them In enether mebile earner pleeIeeyaninIEhe InsIF eemplen uses enemy hem elliren warmer II Jump Melanie I39Inm Iihe elm me inl e 39Ihe weenie Phonon 3 Phemeyelern I Is me last membrane eemplen in the chain When phnloeyeteinll ebeeme phetene mined eleehene ere eeeeed Ihr eugh e earner Ie reduce NMJP39I Ice rILIJP39IL Eleelrme Ioel 39Irem ermineyeiem I ere replaced by Bladnjn Iraneperl from etmIeenetem IL I 4 The enzyme ATP eemhaee uses Ihe proton gred n enl erealed by eleelmn Irenepen he eymheei39ze hTP Irem M and Pi The enzyme is a Ierge membrane complex Ihet male as a ehennel alienan lemme In di use bank 39irIItu lIh e tmma using Ihi e energy It mine me emitheeie eI ATP Dark Reaction Calvin Cycle 0 Calvin Cycle Endergonic 0 ATP and NADPH produced in the Light reactions used in the Calvin Cycle 0 Occurs in the stroma o Darklight independent reactions happens in absence or presence of sunlight o Anabolic endergonic reaction uses energy to convert inorganic compounds C02 9 organic compounds sugars 0 Phase 1 carbon fixation CO2 has 1C combines with 5C sugar produces unstable compound splits into 2 PGA3PG 3 Cs 1 Pi attached to C3 Inorganic C from C02 incorporated into organic compound PGA Rubisco found in the stroma and used to split 6C compound produced in carbon fixation Another name for Calvin Cycle known as C3 photosynthesis Plants divided into 3 groups C3 plants C4 plants CAM plants All carry out C3 pathway Calvin cycle as well as photosynthesis Calvin cycle must turn 6 times to make 1 glucose Calvin Cycle Phase 2 and 3 0 Phase 2 reduction Depend on light reactions uses ATP and NADPH to function Endergonic phase This phase is called reduction because 12 PGA are reduced 12 G3P 12 PGA a reduced with 12 ATP giving up Pi group and turning into ADP a 12 BPG a reduced with 12 NADPH oxidized into 12 NADP with 12 Pi groups a into 12 G3P 10 G3P continue in Calvin Cycle 2 G3P released from cycle to make glucose and other sugars 0 Phase 3 regeneration of RuBP Endergonic 10 G3P from reduction phase 6 ATP 6 RuBP o 18 ATP 12 used in 2 phase 6 used in 3ml phase 12 NADPH all used in 2 phase in Calvin Cycle C3 pathway to make 1 glucose 0 Majority of plants on earth are C3 plants only carry out C3 pathway as well as light dependent reactions of photosynthesis Photorespiration 0 Under hot arid conditions leaves lose H2O by evaporation through stomata o Stomata close up as a response but 02 concentration increases in plants o When 02 instead of CO2 binds to RuBP photorespiration occurs 0 Photorespiration o Requires sunlight o Like aerobic respiration uses 02 to produce C02 and H20 o Unlike aerobic respiration it uses ATP endergonic instead of Making ATP o Wasteful process for plants 0 They instead use C4 pathway to save energy C4 Pathway Sugarcane and Corn When inorganic C is incorporated into 4C organic compound oxaloacetate Rubisco only found in bundle sheath cells of C4 plants Works by separating processes into two different cells carbon fixation mesophyll and Calvin Cycle bundle sheath cells 30 ATP needed to make 1 glucose 0 Called C4 pathway because the PEP is turned into an 4C oxaloacetate a converted to malatea travels through plasmodesmata a bundle sheath cells 9 goes through decarboxylation to be made into C02 used by rubisco in calvin cycle to make G3P a glucose and pyruvate a Pyruvate travels back into mesophyll thru plasmodesmata to be converted back into PEP C3 Pathway Which Method is Better for Plants Majority of plants are C3 plants carry out C3 pathway ONLY and don t have C4 pathway Occurs only in mesophyll cells Rubisco and chloroplasts found in mesophyll cells of C3 plants 18 ATP to make 1 glucose Calvin Cycle only needs 18 ATP as well C4 pathway although overcoming problems of photorespiration does have a cost 0 6 C02 needed to make 1 glucose 2 ATP needed to move 1 C02 in malate form from mesophyll a bundle sheath cells 0 Spend an additional 12 ATP compared to Calvin Cycle 0 C3 plants use only 18 ATP to make 1 glucose carry out Calvin Cycle ONLY C4 photosynthesis is advantageous in hot dry climates where photorespiration would remove more than half of C fixed by usual C3 pathway alone CAM Plants Pineapples and Cacti found in extremely hot dry environments Have both pathways that occur in mesophyll cells but happen at different times of the day CAM plants keep stomata slightly open at night to make C4 function C02 PEP a oxeloacetate a malate stored in cell C4 decarboxylated a C02 pyruvate rubisco a calvin cycle a G3P a glucose CAM plants spend more ATP to make glucose than C3 plants but probably don t indicate how much ATP is used in CAM plants same amount of ATP as C4 plants Parts of a communicating cell Different types of signaling Different receptors 0 Intracellular and Surface Parts of A Communicating Cell 0 Signaling cell sends signals can be protein peptide amino acid fatty acid steroid hormone or dissolved gases 0 Target cell receives signals only receives signals with a receptor attaches to the signal sent out by signaling cell only when it has RECEPTOR cell 0 Receptors can be found in the plasma membrane or inside the cell 0 Plasma membrane cell surface receptors 0 Inside the cell intracellular receptors 0 How Do Cells Know What s Going On Around Them 0 Signal transduction pathway converts info from signal into a cellular response often studied by pharmaceutical companies 0 Ligands are usually hydrophilic like water bind to cell surface receptor protein peptide or polar amino acid 0 Ligands that are hydrophobic hate water bind to intracellular receptors via simple diffusion to move across plasma membrane fatty acid steroid hormone dissolved gas DirectContact Signaling at Bell sinalllrm cell lair m e r a ti 2 bound Signal m Ie u e When molecule on plasma membrane of one cell contacts receptor molecules on adjacent cell with gap junctions Face to face conversation Important in early development where tissues that have similar properties begin to take on different functions Gap junctions formation of gaps made of connexons form between plasma membrane of adjacent animal cells allowing them to exchange inorganic ions amino acids and simple sugars NO PROTEINS too big to pass through gaps Animal cells only plants have plasmodesmata Paracrine Signaling o Para near 0 Signaling cell releases shortlived ligands into extracellular fluid that affects several nearby target cells 0 Target cells located very near signalling cell but do not touch each other 0 Shortlived ligands crossfactors proteins that stimulate cell division and growth 0 Involved in wound healing if you are injured cross factors tell nearby cells to increase in number and stimulates nearby cells to regrow and heal the wound tar cells Endocrine Signaling ermone i l lj bid endocrine gland Signaling cell releases long lived ligands hormones that travel through bloodstream to induce changes in far reaching target cells Both animals and plants use this mechanism extensively Endocrine cells found in endocrine glands ie when glucose level increases pancreatic beta cells release insulin into blood delivered to cells that have insulin receptors only liver cells skeletal muscle fat cells and they convert excess glucose to glycogen liverskeletal fatty acids that react with glycerol to make fats fat cells Synaptic Signaling Autocrine Signaling o Nerve cell releases short lived ligands neurotransmitters into the gap synapse when forms between nerve and target cells 0 Auto cell Cell sends signals to itself 0 Signaling cell produces ligands that bind to receptors on the same cell causing the cell to respond to its own signalsligands 0 Plays a very important role in immune response o T cells help destroy harmful antigens produces cross factors produces a signal to a cross factor a binds to receptor on t cells a t cells begin to divide quickly and this increases the defense response in t cells Intracellular Receptors Intra inside Ligands for intracellular receptors are hydrophobic pass through membrane by simple diffusion o Steroid hormone testosterone estrogen cortisol adrenal glands fatty acids dissolvable gases hydrophobic ligands o Steroid hormone uses simple diffusion to move across plasma membrane and binds to steroid hormone receptor nuclear receptors cause changes in transcription in the nucleus eukaryotes only Transcription is part of gene expression a when gene is transcribed and translated 0 When steroid hormone binds to receptor receptor becomes active conformational change 0 Hormone receptor complex moves into nucleus through nuclear pore binds to DNA turning transcription of specific gene on or off activated LHE WE terminal Nitric Oxide Signalling I smth muecie can gt r h r 39 V K 7 in neurotransmitter MG boilind to 7 MO IFBCEP39lI39 iF39 guanyly cyc usa If i i 39iquot39 Vi ZK Vi LEI we arginine 39 j v r 7 dzquot 7 r r r C RaPIoRELAKaTioH WWI RAPID orrrusmm 5 Wild CEUSE MEMBRANES endothelial I39 T can o Intracellular receptor found inside cell NO nitrate oxide gas hydrophobic ligand binds to nitric oxide receptor guanylyl cyclase o Nerve terminal releases neurotransmitter into synaptic gap 9 binds to target cell Synaptic signaling exists between nerve cell and endothelial cell a endothelial cells found in our blood vessels produce nitric oxide 9 outside of endothelial cells are smooth muscle cells arteries and veins only regulate the diameter of the arteries and veins by constrictingdilating when needed a N0 gas diffuses through endothelial cells via simple diffusion a NO binds to NO receptor found inside smooth muscle cells signaling between endothelial and muscle cells is paracrine a smooth muscle cells relax and arteries and veins become wider dialate phasodialation a blood flow increases CellSurface Receptors Chemicallygated ion channels 0 Majority of receptors are in plasma membrane 0 3 classes all use hydrophilic ligands 0 Do not cross cell membrane 0 Chemically gated ion channels 0 Open to let specific ions such as NA K CA2 or Cl to pass through membrane in response to the building of a ligand neurotransmitter lt3 When neurotransmitter binds to receptor receptor behaves as an ion channel only specific ions pass through membrane acetyl colon receptor a chem gated ion channel found in skeletal muscles and become active when acetyl colon short lived ligand binds to receptor and receptor acts as a sodium ion channel allowing sodium ions to enter skeletal muscles allowing muscles to contract 0 Acetyl colon receptor is found in the cell membrane Enzymatic Receptors and GPCRs Act likeassociate with enzymes found inside the cell Become active when ligands bind to receptors a cellular response O Almost all are protein kinases phosphorylate themselves andor other proteins Receptor Tyrosine Kinases RTKs O O O Most common enzyme receptors Influence cell cycle cell migration cell metabolism and cell proliferationdivision Each RTK monomer is a single transmembrane protein that passes the plasma membrane only once as an alpha helix 2 different domains Extracellular ligandbinding domain binds ligands a can be crossfactors short lived or hormones long lived Intracellular kinase domain consists of many tyrosines amino acid Dimerization coming together of two kinases activates kinases each kinase transfers one P group from ATP a tyrosine amino acid autophosphorylation a phosphorylated tyrosine kinases interact with other proteins to elicit cellular responses Binding of ligands to RTKs a come together to form dimer dimerization to associate together a activates kinases a each kinase transfers phosphate from ATP gt tyrosine of dimer partner autophosphorylation 9 these phosphorylated tyrosine kinases phosphorylate other proteinsinteract with other proteins aiding in cellular response Insulin Receptors Kinase vs Phosphatases Belongs to RTKs Activated by insulin and lowers blood glucose Hormone hydrophilic and long lived ligand Insulin receptors found in skeletal muscle and liver cells Converting glucose to glycogen decreases glucose levels in our blood Protein kinases phosphorylate proteins turning their activities on or off Some proteins become active in phosphorylation while other proteins are turned off from it Divided into 2 groups 0 Tyrosine kinases phosphorylate tyrosines ONLY 0 Thryonine kinases phosphorylate either serines or thryonines ONLY cannot phosphorylate tyrosine Protein activated by phosphorylated is deactivated by dephosphorylation Phosphatases enzymes that dephosphorylate phosphorylated proteins turning their activities on or off
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