Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide ENGL 301
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Snyder on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ENGL 301 at Old Dominion University taught by Dr. Edward Jacobs in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Intro to British Literature I in Foreign Language at Old Dominion University.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
British Literature I Midterm Study Guide 102215 THIS IS A MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE FOR WEEKS 18 OF DR EDWARD JACOBS39 INTRODUCTION TO BRITISH LITERATURE I COURSE ENGL30112799 AT OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY INCLUDED ARE THE QUIZ QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUOTES FROM THE BROADVEWANTHOLOGY OF BRITISH LITERATURE CONCISE EDITION VOL A 2ND EDITION AND A LIST OF quotBIG IDEASquot TO CONSIDER AS WELL AS KEY TERMS IF YOU MISS ANY OF THE QUIZZES DR JACOBS DOES NOT USE THE SAME QUESTION ON THE MAKEUP WEEK 1 BEOWULF QUIZ Q Why does Beowulf help the Danes A Hrothgar was a friend of Beowulf s father Hrothgar pays blood money to settle a Geatian feud started by Beowulf s father Q How does Beowulf kill Grendel A Beowulf rips off Grendel s arm Without the use of weapons a fair ght Q Why does the dragon begin attacking Geat A Someone has stolen the dragon s drinking cup The treasure upon which the dragon sleeps was left by an ancient and now extinct race BRIEF SUMMARY Beowulf travels from his home of Geatland to Denmark where the monster Grendel terrorizes the Danish king Hrothgar s dining hall on a nightly basis After defeating Grendel Beowulf ghts and kills Grendel s vengeful mother Beowulf becomes king of the Geats and ultimately dies battling a dragon His heroism is celebrated and his death mourned in an elaborate funeral HISTORY OF THE BRITISH ISLES Much immigration 0 Original people the lberians Followed by the Picts and Celts from Scandinavia into Scotland and Ireland AngloSaxons invade from NW Germany and take over England southern part of the island after the fall of the Roman Empire Danes Denmark and Normans France Point There is a vast mixture of different peoples cultures and languages in this very small area from which the story of Beowuforiginates the content of the poem is thus greatly in uenced by represents and speaks for and to a multitude of peoples The original telling of Beowufis likely of AngloSaxon origin British Literature I Midterm Study Guide 102215 ORAL CULTURE Beowuforally shared until a priest records it Poetic devices such as alliteration help the speaker or scop remember details of the story Tells the history of a particular people every recital slightly different Rhapsody to sew together with each telling the story grows richer and more diverse o A highly adaptable piece With the Christianization of Europe Christian references such as the allusion to the story of Cain and Abel are introduced to the original poem s more pagan ideas FEUDALISM THANE V LORD n feudal society a thane or knight serves in exchange for largesse or lordly gifts a winwin relationship 0 These gifts serve as both compensation and memorial of a bond or friendship a symbol Bonds forged through marriage and broken through war 0 Sanguinary bonds those of blood 0 Af nal bonds those of af nity or choice and friendship ex Hrothgar and Beowulf In part 1 of the poem Beowulf is a thane before the death of Grendel and his mother In part 2 he is appointed king of Geat and thus takes on the role of a lord His thanely virtues include 0 Supernatural strength ability to kill Bravery heroism Peacefulness diplomatic Honor a fair ghter Credits his victories to God fate Generosity o Kindness Loyalty o o o Beowulf serves as a better thane than lord perhaps the two are mutually exclusive and you can t have a quotthaner lordquot 0 THE MONSTERS o The various monsters in the text represent Nonhuman opposition Evil sin 0 Gluttony greed wrath Uncleanliness Revenge 0 The dysfunctionality of as represented by Grendel s mother Anticommunity o Descendants of Cain who killed his own brother 0 Original owners of the treasure guarded by the dragon have effectively exterminated themselves as a result of war ast member buries it because it is worthless without community British Literature I Midterm Study Guide 102215 0 Thief steals cup to appease his lord and gain entrance back into society Materialism 0 As represented by the dragon 0 WEEK 2 quotLANVALquot amp SIR GAWAN AND THE GREEN KNIGHT O quotLANVALquot QUIZ 0 Q Of what crime is Lanval accused A Treason he insults Queen Guinevere Q What conditions does Lanval s lover set on their relationship A Lanval cannot speak of their love 0 Q How does Lanval s lover clear him of the criminal charge A She arrives on horseback con rming her existence and supernatural beauty 0 HISTORY o Arthurian tale a series of ancient stories based on King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table 0 Some of the oldest narratives orally passed down from generation to generation of AngloSaxon origins Rhapsody to sew together with each telling the story grows richer and more diverse o Landbased feudalism warrants the purchasing of loyalties with territory at this time 0 William of Normandy France takes England along with its language laws military etc 0 Language eventually morphs into Middle English 0 The French custom of chivalry effectively replaces the warrior code exempli ed in such works as Beowulf Knightlythane services now directed toward women One must conduct himself as a nobleman so as to assert his social ranking 0 English viewed as barbaric whereas the French were considered effeminate 0 Queen Guinevere accuses Lanval a Norman living in England of being a homosexual when he rejects her offer 0 0 Interestingly Marie de France of French descent writes a story that depicts the Normans as merciful and forgiving though they were the ones who invaded and conquered England She adapts the Anglo Saxon tale as a means of 1 quotextending the olive branchquot and 2 appropriating the culture of her English counterparts Describes King Arthur as both quotvaliant and courteousquot an AngloSaxon and a Norman quality respectively 6 British Literature I Midterm Study Guide 102215 0 quotThe Scots and Pictswho were ravaging the countryquot serve as a shared enemy fostering a sense of unity among the English and the French 78 0 LANVAL PLIGHT OF THE FOREIGNER 0 Example of the tragic life of an immigrant o This is dramatized because the Normans clearly conquered the AngloSaxons o quotFor his valor his generosityhis beauty his prowessmost people envied himquot but King Arthur refuses to recognize Lanval for his warrior and noble traits 2123 0 GAWAI N o A minor subhero and friend to Lanval o lnvites Lanval to go hunting when he is down pays his bail 0 quotThey go back to his lodgingand persuade Lanval to accompany themquot 256 o quotGawain goes to act as a guarantor for Lanvaland all his companions after him 400401 King Arthur warns them that he is capable of seizing all of their land but the court still follows Gawain 0 They went to sit in judgmentvery anxious and dismayedover the noble man from another countrywho was in such trouble among themquot 427430 The knights identify with Lanval O LANVAL S LOVER A woman of tremendous in uence effortlessly ends the trial 0 Represents outcasts idealized Norman culture and softer power the opposite of King Arthur 0 quotI command and beg of youquot 144 0 quotArthur sent for all his mento say rightly what he must doso that no one would speak ill of itquot 382384 0 SIR GAWAN AND THE GREEN KNIGHT QUIZ 0 Q What contract does Gawain make with King Bercilak A Everything the king nds on his hunt he will give to Gawain and everything Gawain nds during his stay at the castle he will give to Bercilak 0 Q How does Gawain violate it A He keeps the queen s green girdle 0 Q What is the physical effect on Gawain of the Green Knight s axe blow A Just a esh wound it does not behead him as we would expect 0 THE quotRHAPSODIZATIONquot OF NORMAN AND ANGLO SAXON CULTURE o Gawain both celebrates and questions aspects of the Norman and AngloSaxonCeltic ways of life 0 Chivalry v heroism o Alliteration serves as a pneumonic device that helps the memory in the preliterary period British Literature Midterm Study Guide 102215 0 KING ARTHUR 0 At Arthur s holiday dinner the quotFrenchi cationquot of his castle is evident Secularity of the Christmas holiday also noted 0 Arthur described as brutish and boyish Just wants to hear a funny story Starkly contrasts the Green Knight 0 THE GREEN KNIGHT 0 Representative of paganism o Demigodlike qualities of the Green Knight Great size and disposition Strength no armor Hairy healthy Green alive earthy one with nature Magical not savage Carries a hoy branch a symbol of peace Wields an axe not a sword o Axe is a tool of many uses including killing whereas a sword is a weapon only used for killing 0 Normans seized the AngloSaxons swords as a means of militarily disenfranchising them 0 GAWAIN o Gawain represents what is left of chivalry in Arthur s court The only one of his knights to accept the Green Knight s challenge The ultimate test of Gawain s warrior status spoiler alert he fails o Gawain endures a harsh winter storm and strenuous trek to Bercilak s castle but can t withstand the queen s seduction capture and bondage 0 Details of the Green Knight s hunt are gory and hypermasculine Meanwhile Gawain stays at home with the queen and her maidens o In accepting the magical green girdle Gawain shows a lack of faith in God to save him from the Green Knight s blow o Ultimately Gawain s failure provides Arthur s otherwise boastful court with some humility brings the two sides together 0 WEEK 4 THE WIFE 0F BATH amp THE SECOND SHEPHERD S PLAY 0 THE WIFE 0F BATH QUIZ 0 Q What made three of the wife s husbands good and two quotbadquot A The rst three husbands were old and rich and therefore easily manipulated by sex The last two on the other hand were young and would not tolerate the wife s promiscuous behavior 0 Q Why does her last husband hit her so hard she is now deaf in one ear A She rips a page out of his book thus challenging his authority British Literature O o Midterm Study Guide 102215 Q What question must the knight answer and why A The knight must nd out what women really want because he raped a woman BRIEF SUMMARY The wife of Bath is one of the thirty pilgrims in The Canterbury Tales She prefaces her story by defending her multiples marriages arguing that she s always been faithful and is in fact a woman of God The wife believes that the key to a happy marriage is investing sovereignty in the woman that is allowing her to have full control She achieves this by manipulating her husbands For example when her fth husband reads stories of deceitful women to her the wife snatches the book from his hands and rips a page from it Her husband then hits her over the head with the book and she falls to the oor and pretends to be dead Devastated he promises to do anything for her in return for her forgiveness In the wife s tale a knight rapes a woman and the queen decides that as punishment in the next year he must nd out what women really want or he will be beheaded Nearly a year later the knight agrees to marry an ugly old woman in exchange for the answer to his question but on their wedding night admits that he can t stand her looks The old woman offers the knight the choice between a good looking wife and a loyal one and having learned his lesson the knight gives her the choice She then magically turns into a beautiful woman and she is faithful to him forever THE PROLOGUE A long and aggressive rhetorical argument for women s rights In defense of her multiple marriages 0 During this time it is frowned upon for a woman to have many husbands Based predominantly on the Bible 0 Cites holy men such as Abraham Jacob Paul and Solomon in her defense Wife just one of 23 women on Chaucer s pilgrimage Con rmation of medieval misogyny O 0 Modern Misogyny 0 Medieval Misogyny Women intellectually o inferior Physically weak 0 Women persuasive like Eve and Satan Often depicted as temptresses o Believed to be unable to control their sexual urges O O Argues that sexual pleasure is divinely sanctioned with theological implications Radical for then as well as today Sexual promiscuity traditionally thought of as basesinful O Mankind s fall from grace due to Adam and Eve s search for pleasure British Literature O O Midterm Study Guide 102215 Sexuality according to the wife serves as a safeguard against sin When both partners are pleasured there s no in delity Genitals have a purpose gt Why else would God make sex so pleasurable Wife vows to use this gift of sexuality that God has given her as freely as she wants 0 Man can counsel or advise her but he cannot judge her Only God can 0 God invested in both man and woman the freedom to judge his or her own free will 0 O 0 quotHe putte it in our owne juggementquot line 68 This equalizes men and women and portrays God as less authoritariantyrannical and misogynisticpatriarchal than men THE TALES Ironically the knight is the only one concerned with ful lling his carnal pleasure not any of the women in the wife s tale The wife has a very mercantile view of marriage and often speaks of it in terms of nances Extorts money and power from her husbands using sex 0 o O O O 0 THE SECOND SHEPHERD S PLAY QUIZ Q Where does Mak hide the stolen sheep A In a cradlecrib in his home Q How do the shepherd s punish Mak A They toss him around in a blanket and beat him up Q What is one of the gifts the shepherd s give to Jesus A A tennis ball also correct a bird and cherries BRIEF SUMMARY Three shepherds convene in a eld and complain about the bitterly cold weather how little they are paid by their landlords and their wives A man named Makjoins them pretending to be a messenger from the king and threatens to og them When the shepherds who immediately recognize Mak as the town thief call him out Mak acts as though he didn t know it was them and proceeds to lie down with the shepherds for a quick nap Mak however soon wakes and casts a spell on the sleeping shepherds then steals one of their sheep He takes it home where his wife then hides it in a baby s cradle and reluctantly agrees to help her husband by covering the sheep s bleats with her own incessant moaning due to a feigned childbirth The shepherds suspicious of the couple investigate Mak s home but nd no signs of their sheep As they are leaving one of the shepherds remembers to give the new baby a gift and this is how the sheep is found The shepherds are then visited by an angel who instructs them to visit babyJesus They bring him a tennis ball a bunch of cherries and a bird STREET TH EATER Shepherd s Paya Christmas themed mystery sponsored by the church 7 British Literature I Midterm Study Guide 102215 0 Purpose to celebrate the holiday popularize Christianity instruct and entertain Not performed by priests of monks but rather by everyday people 0 Performed in the streets to other poor people a sense of comradery establishes quotWeirdly secularquot D doesn t become a Christian tale until the end Comedic in nature 0 SECULARITY o Howto what extent does the play integrate secular and Christian aspects Or rather what s wrong with this world Why is it in need of Christ s return 0 0 Class injustice D lower class underfed underpaid and overworked o No leisure time to pray practice Christianity 0 Aristocracy overtaxes the poor remains a nameless force of evil in the play 0 Nature is not kind less abundant D reference to Noah and the great ood Mak and Gil s marriage behavior unholy 0 Stuck in poverty with many children describes them as a curse o Gluttonous view of sheep want to eat them rather them protect them Sheep a symbol of Christ common sinners shepherds work to protect them 0 MAK amp GIL o Mak and Gil are most overtly guilty of sin 0 c To steal a sheep is a capital crime during this time Mak performs secular magic to trick the shepherds l roots in paganism satanic ritual The oppressed oppress one another because they are starving D cyclical o Mak steals the sheep from the shepherds o The third shepherd is late for dinner and nds that his food has been eaten by the other two 0 REDEMPTION 0 Though Mak has committed a crime worthy of the death sentence the shepherds choose to punish him themselves thus showing mercy a virtue of Christ 0 Again a sense of comradery amongst the poor Mak is somewhat of a loveable character provides comedic relief to an otherwise depressing tale British Literature O O O Midterm Study Guide 102215 0 WEEK 5 THE FAERE QUEENE CANTOS QUIZ Q Why does the Redcrosse Knight abandon Una A The magician Archimago creates the vision of Una and another knight sleeping together the RC Knight thinks her impure Q How does the RC Knight meet Duessa A He kills Kirkapine and claims Duessa as his lady Q What happens when Una encounters the lion A Recognizing Una s innocence the lion becomes her protector instead of attacking her BRIEF SUMMARY We are introduced to the Redcrosse Knight who as his name suggests bears a shield with a cruci x painted on it in blood He has been instructed by the Faerie Queen to kill a dragon who terrorizes the family of Una a beautiful princess with whom the knight begins his quest Also travelling with them is a dwarf servant The three get lost in a storm and nd themselves before the cave of a monster named Errour who wraps RC in her tail but before the monster can strangle him he cuts of her head Errour s babies then feast on her blood and burst After this exhausting battle RC Una and the dwarf are invited to stay the night with an old man who turns out to be the evil magician Archimago Archimago casts a spell on RC that causes him to dream of Una see an Una lookalike sleeping next to him and see the real Una sleeping with another knight It is this last false image that fools RC into thinking Una impure and he along with the dwarf abandons her RC ghts and defeats the knight Sans Foy and claims his lady Fidessa as his own They rest under a couple of trees one of which cries out when RC pulls on its branches The talking tree reveals that it is actually the man Fradubio who has been cursed by the evil witch Duessa Meanwhile Una chases after her companions and Archimago expertly disguised as RC chases after her She encounters a erce lion which upon recognizing her purity refrains from attacking her and becomes her protector The lion forces his way into the home of a mother and daughter so Una can rest In the night the daughter s criminal boyfriend breaks in and the lion kills him Una leaves and the mother and daughter furious with the princess explain to Archimago dressed as RC what has happened In one giant misunderstanding Una think she s found RC when she sees Archimago and the knight Sans Loy Sans Foy s vengeful brother thinks he s also found RC when he sees Archimago until just before killing him he removes his victim s helmet to discover that it is in fact Archimago his good friend Sans Loy then takes Una as his own Here s how Dr Jacobs broke it down o Canto 0 Major Events o 1 0 Enter into the wandering woods Errour is defeated British Literature Midterm Study Guide 102215 by RC and Una Archimago creates the illusion of Una with another knight o Archimago separates RC and Una RC defeats Sons Foy RC is with Duessa story of Fradubio and Frueissa 0 Lion protects Una and kills Kirkapine Sans Loy kills the lion Archimago disguises himself as RC O O ALLEGORY The Faerie Queen is an allegory for England during the Protestant Reformation in which all of the characters represent both their literal meaning the Redcrosse Knight is in fact a knight with a red cross on his shield as well as symbols for larger ideas holiness This seems simple enough until we as readers ask ourselves quot Whatis holyquot Clearly Spencer was commentating on British society at the time by naming the dragon that RC slays Errour representative of error for example but again What exactly is error The purpose of Spencer s tale is to preach theology and doctrine and teach lessons and broad concepts while still entertaining the point of most fantastical fairy tales Children enjoy this actionpacked story of a knight ghting monsters while subconsciously being acclimated with themes of good v evil faith and loyalty to the crown Faerie Queen effectively functions as political propaganda Defends Queen Elizabeth and her reign Supports the consolidation of the Anglican Church 0 Rather than preaching Spenser entertains readers with allegorical gures and thus forces them to think for themselves 0 Requires an active interpretive audience 0 The ambiguity of allegory also serves a purpose 0 O O Speaks to Catholics Calvinists Protestants etc The villains and monsters as well as the good characters have traits of all these groups of people No single group is criticized Recurring theme things are not always what they seem Archimago and Duessa s spells REDCROSSE amp UNA Una represents oneness and unity while RC represents holiness Together the characters as well as the ideas struggle to overcome adversity RC is a brave and feared knight but is also sad 10 British Literature I Midterm Study Guide 102215 0 Wishes to serve the Faerie Queen 0 In serving the Queen and Una RC hopes to earn God s grace and the Queen s honon He is untested 0 His armor does not belong to him has seen more action than he has 0 Una likened to the Virgin MaryJesus Dressed in white Rides on a donkey with a lamb at her side 0 Interpretation England needs both a savior Christ and a mother Mary in the form of Queen Elizabeth the virgin queen 0 THE DWARF o Goes with RC when he abandons Una presumably to protect the knight Subtly implied that Una will be ne RC is kind of dimwitted Dwarf able to see through Archimago s visions o Suggests a class difference Represents grace which in Christian faith one is never without 0 The Holy Spirit Humble devoted service to fellow as well as the church valued Small yet wise loyal a Yodalike gure 0 THE LION amp KIRKAPINE o The lion the chivalric symbol of the Tudor monarchy protects Una the unity of England and kills Kirkapine the daughter s criminal boyfriend o 0 Lion mutilates his body and seeds the land with his esh 0 Land thirsty for its blood 0 Redistribution of the wealth he steals from the church 0 A sacredness of violence similar to the taking of the body and blood of Christ during communion o Allegorical to Henry VIII Elizabeth s father seizing church land and redistributing it lawlessness chaos anarchy and corruption A warning to the Tudors too much lawlessness and bloodshed will bring down the monarchy Elizabeth follows the rules and holds the country together Kirkapine directly opposes holiness of the church 0 Raids local churches for their treasures leaves the rest An attack on iconoclasm of the high church 0 O CANTQS lVVlll QUIZ 0 Q Why does RC decide to leave the House of Pride A It is built on sand and in the back there is a pile of dead bodies Q Why can t RC put up a ght with Orgoglio A He is weakened from his battle with Sans Joy has drank from a cursed well and has no armor 0 Q How is RC rescued from Orgoglio A Prince Arthur saves him 0 11 British Literature O O O O Midterm Study Guide 102215 BRIEF SUMMARY RC and FidessaDuessa enter the House of Pride where they encounter Queen Lucifera She takes them on a carriage ride drawn by six beasts who each represent a deadly sin When they return Sans Joy brother of Sans Foy and Sans Loy is waiting for RC but Lucifera orders the two knights to wait until the next day to ght During the night Duessa reveals to Sans Joy that she loves him and that RC is holding her cap ve In the morning RC and Sans Joy battle but just as RC is about to defeat his opponent Duessa casts a spell that hides Sans Joy in a dark cloud She visits Night and begs her to help her nephews the Sans brothers and together Night and Duessa bring Sans Joy to the Underworld where he is reluctantly healed by Aesculapius Back at the House of Pride the dwarf has informed RC of the piles of dead bodies surrounding the palace so naturally they leave Meanwhile Archimago attempts to rape Una but she is saved by a herd of halfman halfgoat creatures that begins to worship her A knight amongst the herd named Satyrane helps her escape and they meet Archimago disguised as a traveler He tells them that RC is dead and Satyrane goes to nd and ght his murderer for Una Duessa nds RC who has drank from a cursed fountain that makes its victims lazy Just then the giant Orgoglio appears but RC has no time to grab his armor Knowing that RC has no chance Duessa offers RC and herself as servants to the giant and he agrees throwing RC into a dungeon The dwarf runs off to nd Una who is griefstricken by the news They then encounter Prince Arthur and he agrees to help nd RC Arthur ultimately defeats Orgoglio when the veil over his shield falls revealing a brilliant and blinding light and retrieves RC from his cell Here s how Dr Jacobs broke it down o Canto 0 Major Events 0 RC is in the House of Pride 0 4 challenged by SansJoy 0 RC defeats Sans Joy Duessa saves him dwarf shows RC the truth about the House of Pride o Una is saved from Sans Loy by Satyrane 0 RC falls to Orgoglio Una encounters Prince Arthur dwarf tells Una and Arthur about RC 0 Arthur defeats Orgoglio on a quest for Gloriana 12 British Literature O O Midterm Study Guide 102215 Duessa convinces RC to take of his armor Relaxing even for just a moment will get you in trouble never let your guard down politically RC s lack of faith in cantos iiii leads him to a battle with pride in cantos ivviii O Sans Foy translates to quotfaithlessnessquot it is ironic that RC defeats him after exhibiting faithlessness in abandoning Una ln Faerie Land contemporary England everything is not what it seems Arthur s shield shows everything as it is CANTOS VX QUIZ Q Who does Contemplation tell the RC Knight he really is A Saint George Q What luck helps RC defeat the Dragon A He falls into the Well of Life on the rst day of his battle then falls into a stream beneath the Tree of Life on the second Q How do Archimago and Duessa try to interrupt the betrothal of RC and Una A They claim that RC is already engaged to Duessa BRIEF SUMMARY After resting Una presses Arthur for answers as to who he is and where he is from but Arthur only reveals that he has a wound that won t heal and is on a quest to nd the Faerie Queen of whom he has dreamed Before going their separate ways Arthur gives the RC Knight a healing elixir in exchange for a magical book RC and Una then encounter Sir Trevisan another knight running from Despair who has nearly convinced the knight to kill himself Trevisan reluctantly shows RC and Una where Despair lives but before RC can kill him Despair talks him into suicide too In an attempt to save him Una takes RC to Caeia and her three daughters With the help of several others they teach the RC Knight Christian virtue and ultimately heal him of his depression and the wise old man Contemplation explains to RC that he is now ready to become a hero and a saint RC must now ght the dragon that holds Una s parents captive and even though he manages to injure the beast a few times RC struggles greatly to overcome his foe On the rst day he is burned by the dragon s ery breath but luckily falls near the Well of Life which revives him overnight On the second day the dragon stabs RC in the shoulder and RC cuts off the dragon s tail and one of its hands then falls again into a magical healing stream that runs from the Tree of Life On the third day RC nally defeats the dragon by stabbing it in its mouth The entire kingdom celebrates RC s victory and the king grants the knight permission to marry Una Just then however Archimago 13 British Literature Midterm Study Guide 102215 disguised as a messenger reveals that RC is already engaged to the witch Duessa but upon realizing their true identities both are imprisoned for their trickery RC returns to serve the Faerie Queen for six years o 0 Here s how Dr Jacobs broke it down 0 Canto 0 Major Events 0 Arthur tells of his quest 0 9 RC resists Despair o 0 RC visits the House of Holiness where Caelia and her daughters heal him 0 10 Contemplation reveals that RC is St George and that Cleopolis is heaven on Earth 0 11 o 3 day ght with dragon 0 RC and Una are engaged but RC must return to O 12 serve the Faerie Queen for 6 years Archimago and Duessa are unmasked and imprisoned o O CAELIA S DAUGHTERS o Caelia heaven has three daughters Fidelia faith Speranza hope and Charissa love each of whom represents both a Christian virtue as well as a womanly spirit see below Una a woman herself brings RC to these women who are ultimately the ones to heal the knight by teaching him how to worship God D a celebration of female power and Queen Elizabeth 0 Fidelia is a school teacher 0 Teaches people to read during a time when only the expert clergy knew how to decipher the Bible 0 Preaches but also teaches her students to read the Bible for themselves free will 0 Shares her knowledge with others 0 lnstills in her students quotcelestial disciplinequot 0 Described as powerful and faithful enough to make the sun stop moving 0 Can be described as the best of both the Catholic and the Anglican Church Speranza is a nurse 0 Nurturing tends to the sick Charissa is a mother 0 Has just given birth to another child a maternal gure 14 British Literature I Midterm Study Guide 102215 0 O ALLEGORICAL FUNCTIONS o Contemplation s assertion that RC is St George solidi es that this is an allegory for England at the time Represents English citizens and Christian worshippers as a whole 0 Born English but then stolen and brought to Faerieland 0 Perhaps a nod to England s long history of immigration 0 As long as you serve this monarchy you are welcome in England 0 3day ght with dragon 0 Dragon represents Satan 0 RC likened to Christ 0 HOWEVER he is far from a martyr gure Luck allowed RC to defeat the dragon D you can t defeat evil without gracedivine intervention 0 Story begins with an emphasis ontest of faith and trust Archimago then pride Orgoglio and nally grace dragon 0 The Faerie Queen amp Queen Elizabeth 0 The Faerie Queen AKA Gloriana never makes an appearance in the story D unattainable A representation of purity chastity Elizabeth was known as the virgin queen 0 Arthur 0 While RC is a knight on the rise so to speak Arthur has succumbed to wandering Faerieland in search of a woman he s dreamed of Admits that he doesn t really know what he s doing in Faerieland and that it s hard to read or understand dreams and God s ways D criticism on the Catholic church Serves as a m to RC they share similarities but their journeys result in much different outcomes 0 Both on a mission with a speci c purpose Arthur s quest hopeless though 0 WEEK 6 JOHN DONNE POETRY O NOJOHN DONNE POETRY QUIZ O POEMS o quotThe Sun Risingquot 0 quotGood Friday 1613 o quotThe Fleaquot Riding Westwardquot o quotThe Ecstasyquot o quotA Valediction Forbidding 0 Holy Sonnets 10 and 14 Mourningquot o 0 During this time of political hostility it is wiser to speak one s mind in the form of poetry which can disguise controversial opinions in metaphor and other gurative language devices 0 15 British Literature I Midterm Study Guide 102215 0 Advances in science in uence this writing of this time namely astronomical and cosmological Shift from system that placed the Earth at the center of our planetary system accepted by the church and very egotistical to a heliocentric one 0 Beyond these concentric rings were the stars and God many people believed that each ring or sphere was controlled by whatever celestial body ruled it and that they themselves could be affected by this the in uence of the planets was believed to be a powerful force Figurative language can be broken down into two categories rhetorical gures and tropes o Rhetorical Figures 0 Tropes Apostrophe the addressing of 0 Small scale gurative language inanimate objects as living like metaphor and simile that beings ie the sun in quotThe Fleaquot compares two things meta l Wellde ned dramatic situations over phor l carry often centering around 0 To talk about one thing by seduction characters introduced talking about anotherquot setting established early on in 0 It s often dif cult to describe the Poem ie Shakespearian ideas of freedom or love for POG U Y example so we talk about them Overstatement in terms of concrete objects ie Compare and contrast love is a rose see below Paradox Hyperbole quotThis bed thy center is these walls thy spherequot quotThe Sun Risingquot 2930 Rhetorical question quotMust to thy motions lovers seasons runquot 4 o o The tenor or subject of the metaphor U Love is a rose D the vehicle 16 British Literature I Midterm Study Guide 102215 is a disease is a re A more complex metaphor such as quotthe ames of love knifed his heartquot require a little more interpretation 0 Conceit an extended metaphor o In quotThe Sun Risingquot the Sun is personi ed as a nosy old man and a peeping tom 0 quotBusy old fool unruly SunWhy dost thou thusThrough windows and through curtains call on usquot 13 0 Question quotMust to thy motions lovers seasons runquot 4 Translation Must the seasons change as the Sun travels around the Earth or rather is the Earth subject to the Sun s forces rays of light quotLoversquot in this sense are representative of the Earth since they have seasons like the Earth 0 Answer quotLove all alike no season knows nor climequot 9 Translation No because lovers know no season they are beyond the Sun s sphere and therefore more spiritual o The series of rhetorical questions the narrator asks the Sun establishes a rebellious tone 0 Doesn t want to get out of bed 0 quotI could eclipse and cloud them with a winkquot 13 o Narrator s eyes compared to the moon and clouds metaphor o Cites concrete evidence if I close my eyes the sun will no longer bother me that individual power is greater than that of higher forces 0 quotLook and tomorrow late tell meWhether both th lndias of spice and mineBe where thou left st them or lie here with meAsk for those kings whom thou saw st yesterdayAnd thou shalt hear All here in one bed lay quot 1630 0 quotTomorrow latequot tomorrow night 0 quotIndias of spice and minequot treasures riches 0 quotBe where thou left st them or lie here with mequot Are they where you left them or are they here with me 0 WEEK 7 GEORGE HERBERT amp CARPE DIEM POETRY O NO GEROGE HERBERT POETRY QUIZ O POEMS 0 quotEaster Wingsquot 0 quotThe Pulleyquot o quotAffliction 1quot o quotThe Flowerquot o quotThe Windowsquot 0 quotThe Pulleyquot o quotThe Collarquot 17 British Literature I Midterm Study Guide 102215 0 quotTHE PU LLEYquot Herbert was a religious poet and a practicing clergyman but his poetry is not overtly celebratory of God but rather angry and complaining These ideas seem to contradict one another 0 God depicted as quotcruel unjust sadisticquot according to DrJ 0 Why isn t the purpose of these poems to deter people from beingbecoming Christian 0 There s always a turn of voice toward the end of poem speaker reconciles with God 0 Not a bad Christian because he has doubts voicing the complaints of all Christians Speaks from the POV of God much like God did Himself in the Bible 0 Very bold and almost blasphemous Effectively brings God closer to His worshippers personalizes and familiarizes Him 0 Does not capitalize God s pronouns quot Let us says hequot 3 o Portrays God s creation of the universe as accidental quotWhen almost all was out God made a stayPerceiving that alone of all his treasureRest in the bottom layquot 810 0 God sadistic Yet let him keep the restBut keep them with repining restlessness quot 1617 0 God himself needs love He needs to be needed and adored obtains this in not giving humans everything they could ever possibly want so they ll come to Him 0 Worried that humans will love nature and all its awesomeness instead of Him quotTHE COLLARquot A rebellion poem a child throwing a t until quotmethought I heard one calling ChildllAnd I replied My Lord 3536 0 Talking to and quoting himself 0 Complains that he once was happy 0 quotSure there was wineBefore my sighs did dry it there was cornBefore my tears did drown itquot 1012 Corn in this case is bread or crops In other words God gave the speaker redemption in the form of His son s sacri ce o The speaker sel shly compares himself to Christ quotHave I no harvest but a thornTo let me blood and not restorequot lines 78 quotHave I no bays to crown itquot 14 0 Garden of Eden quotBut there is fruitAnd thou hast handsquot 17 18 Describes the fall of mankind due to his sel shness and lack of gratitude CLASS ACTIVITY Working in groups we wrote a sentence or two that cites and interprets evidence for the model thesis given below 18 British Literature I Midterm Study Guide 102215 Ex In the rst four stanzas of Herbert s Af iction I the speaker overtly accuses God of satanic enticement and trickery but the speaker s accusations ironically expose his own sinfulness and con rm God s mercy CARPE DIEM POETRY QUIZ Q What is one reason Herrick gives Corinna for getting up A It s May Day Q Why is Lanyer saying farewell to Cookham A The mistresslady of the estate has left Q Why does Lanyer kiss the oak tree A The lady kissed it rst PQEMS Herrick s quotCorinna s Going A Mayingquot Marvel s quotAn Horatian Ode on Cromwell s Return from Irelandquot Lanyer s quotDescription of Cookehamquot THE GENRE 0 Description of a place Urges readers to indulge in pleasure often seductive seize the day quotCQRINNA S GOING A MAYINGquot o Dramatic situation speakers enters to nd Corinna still asleep urges her to get up and go out 0 Out of comfort laziness and privacy into the public social world 0 May Day celebration of spring and the renewal of nature 0 To go quota mayingquot meant the entire village partying in the town s center about a poll sex drinking dancing festive games etc o Allusions to classicalpagan gods in contrast with Christianity 0 Counterculture quotTake no careFor Jewels for your Gowne or HaireFeare not the leaves will strewGemms in abundance upon youquot 1720 Don t bother getting dressed or xing your hair nature will provide you with clothing in the form of leaves 0 Rejection of Christianity quotBe briefe in prayingquot 27 0 Religion v secularity quot39Tis sinNay profanation to keep inquot 1 12 Difference between the words sin and profanation signi cant 0 Celebration of communal life 0 Written during civil war quotWe shall grow old apace and dieBefore we know our libertyquot 5859 Youth as well as political freedom are eeting threat of death and invaders quotDESCRIPTION OF CQQKEHAMquot Commentary of political class and the relationship between quotthe havesquot and quothave notsquot The lady leaving a loss of not just a beloved employer for lack of a better word but also a mini society of sorts 19 British Literature I Midterm Study Guide 102215 Emphasis on this loss rather than the good times shared Resentment on being excluded and class separation unequal distribution of power Betrayal of loyal service WEEK 8 THE DUCHESS 0F MALF QUIZ Q What is Bosola s past relation to Ferdinand and the Cardinal A He was an assassin for the brothers and served time for them Q Why does the Duchess accuse Antonio of stealing from her A To get her brothers off his case so the brothers don t learn the Duchess and Antonio are married Q How does Bosola discover who the Duchess s husband is A She tells him DRAMA Dramatic performers of this time had to appeal to all classes from the quotgroundlingsquot in what would be described as the pit or the standing area of a theater to royal attendees Comedy history and tragedy VALUE OF TRAGEDY ARISTQTLE S THEORY OF CATHARSIS Purging of the emotions o Promotes empathy 0 Provides larger universal moral or spiritual meaning to suffering Parts of a Tragedy 1 Hero of mixed qualities neither perfectly good nor perfectly evil not too noble not too poor a common character relatable 2 Tragic error understandable aw one mistake that changes everything 3 Extreme suffering out of proportion to the mistake 4 Recognition of a universal truth THE DUCHESS A widow and tragic hero Brothers don t want her to marry so they can have access to her wealth Relatable Qualities Breaches class boundaries when she proposes to Antonio her longtime steward Puts away vein ceremony Must hide her true emotions for Antonio longs to be free of social decorum just like everyone else 0 Gender signi cant if it were the Duke of Mal his actions would not be judged as harshly 20 British Literature I Midterm Study Guide 102215 BOSOLA Another reatabe character Torn as to what to do when the Duchess reveals that she is married to Antonio IM PORTANT N OTE As required by StudySoup I will have posted this study guide four days prior to the midterm before we as a class nish discussing The Duchess ofMafi so be sure to review the second half of the play 21 British Literature Midterm Study Guide 102215 BIG IDEAS TO CONSIDER FOR THE MIDTERM Christian v pagan ideology AngloSaxon v Norman culture The Catholic Church v the Anglican Church The value of community and communal life The functions and ambiguity of allegory 39 Comradery amongst a struggling lower class 0 Class separation and injustice Oral culture and the use of pneumonic devices Feudalism v chivalry Women s rights and medieval misogyny 0 KEY TERMS Rhapsody Thane and largesse Sanguinary and af nal bonds Arthurian tale Chivalry and warrior code Allegory Apostrophe Hyperbole Rhetorical gure Trope Tenor and vehicle Concet Tragedy 22
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