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Ch. 5 Outline

by: Alyssa Zirkman

Ch. 5 Outline SOC 271

Alyssa Zirkman
GPA 3.8
Intro to Criminal Justice
Amie Nielsen

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Outline of textbook Chapter 5- On the Streets
Intro to Criminal Justice
Amie Nielsen
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Zirkman on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 271 at University of Miami taught by Amie Nielsen in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Intro to Criminal Justice in Sociology at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 10/18/15
Ch 5 On the Streets Organization Responsibilities and Challenges A Introduction Contemporary Policing a Policing from the 70 s90 s was corrupt b Knapp Commission reported more than half of NYPD in 1972 was corrupt i Rotten apple theory the idea that corruption in most police departments can be traced to just a few of cers Knapp Commission dismissed this idea ii Grass eaters identi ed by the Knapp Commission as of cers who acted as passive participants when others were engaging in bribery and corruption iii Meat eaters of cers who actively engaged in corrupt activities c Late 80 s lead to a change in the view of policing i More professionalism in policing see chapter 4 B The Police Organization a State and Local Agencies i Sheriff s of ces ii State highway patrols iii City police departments ie NYPD 1 Majority of these agencies are quite small about half of them employ 10 or fewer fulltime of cers b Federal Agencies i Department of Homeland Security 1 US Customs and Border Protection 2 US Immigration and Customs Enforcement 3 US Secret Service ii Department ofJustice 1 Federal Bureau of Investigation 2 Drug Enforcement Administrations 3 Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco Firearms and Explosives 4 US Marshals Service c Becoming a Police Of cer i Many steps including interviewing testing and screening ii Does not require much education for most departments C The Police Role a Police of cers considered gatekeepers of CJS i Given high level of discretion allowing them the latitude to make an arrest or other action or not b Patrol Patrol backbone of all police agencies responsible for preventing crime apprehending suspects and assisting community members lncludes reactive policing responding to calls and proactive policing selfinitiated officer activities to prevent and detect crime c Investigation Highly sought after generally require a few years of expenence Special assignments ie detectives vice and narcotics sexual assault lncludes working on crime scenes undercover work d Command Top cop chief of police D Who are the Police a Culture Unique subculture involving secrecy group solidarity violence masculinity cynicism isolation and authoritarianism 1 This culture shapes all policies and actions Corruption does happen and has a negative effect on the subculture High levels of job satisfaction but also stress b Gender Female officers make up only 14 of all sworn officers c Race and Hispanic Origin 15 Hispanic police and sheriff s patrol 14 Black 2 Asian E Community Policing a 1994 Do created Community Oriented Policing Services COPS to fund community based programs b Community policing a philosophy and style of policing that adopts proactive measures and collaborates with community members Often focuses on public safety issues Three key components 1 Partnerships 2 Organizational transformation 3 Problem solving Gary Cordner 4 Dimensions of Community Policing 1 Philosophical citizen input broad function 2 Strategic reoriented operations prevention emphasis 3 Tactical positive interactions partnerships 4 Organizational structure management information c Problemoriented policing POP a policing style that emphasizes the use of data analysis and assessment to address crime problems i Identify problems develop solutions ii SARA model scan analysis response assessment iii Crime triangle problem analysis triangle used to focus on immediate concerns 1 Routine activity theory Cohen and Felson the convergences in space and time of motivated offenders suitable targets and the absence of capable guardians increases the risk of criminal incidents iv Community policing evolved from the broken windows theory describes the social disorder that occurs in rundown and neglected neighborhoods which leads to higher crime rates v Advances in crime mapping revealed hot spots speci c geographical locations identi ed as high crime areas vi Zero tolerance a policing approach that focuses enforcement efforts on qualityof life issues such as disorder and minor crime enforcement efforts are applied to lowlevel crimes and minor infractions in speci c neighborhoods 1 No community policing here F lntelligenceLed EvidenceBased Policing a Intelligenceled policing rst developed in the early 90 s envisioned as a means of creating ef ciency and effectiveness in police agencies emphasizes the importance of risk assessment and risk management i Relies on accountability and need to effectively use resources ii 4 key elements 1 targeting of offenders 2 management of crime and disorder hot spots 3 investigation of linked series of crimes and incidents 4 application of preventative measures b Fusion centers developed under the National Criminal Intelligence Sharing Plan i Facilitate information exchanges on intelligence gathered from con dential informants surveillance and crime data analysis ii Similar to problem oriented policing c Compstat employs computer technology to gather upto date and accurate information on crime within neighborhoods G Controversial Issues in Policing a Use of Force i Use of force different from excessive force ii Continuum of force guideline for the degree of force and weapon an officer may employ during an arrest b Racial Pro ling i Pro ling when an officer questions or investigates an incident based on race ethnicity religion or national origin c Discretion and Mandatory Arrest Policies i Discretion depends on personal disposition styles situation and departmental rules ii Mandatory arrest policies limit police discretion in certain situations d Private Policing i A large and lucrative area of law enforcment ii Protection by private companies extended to corporate executives and other highpro le individuals iii Used in airports hospitals etc e Social Media i Can be used to get money ii Also used to educate the public send crime reports etc f Technology L CopUnk ii High activity location observation HALO cameras iii Tasers iv Military drones H Working with Victims a Serves to reduce future crime and victimization


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