SOP 3004 Review CH.4
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sheyla Moliner on Wednesday January 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOP3004 at a university taught by Steve Charman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 316 views.
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Date Created: 01/07/15
11192014 1 What is a stereotype A belief that associates a group of people with certain traits Stereotypes are not necessarily negative and can be accurate The problem with stereotypes is when they overgeneralize Cognition beliefs 2 What are some examples of positive stereotypes Asians are good at math Athletic men are more attractive 3 What is a problem with stereotypes The problem with stereotypes is when they overgeneralize saying every African American is a thug Stereotyping is a type of heuristic that all people use to form opinions or make judgments about things they have never seen or experienced They work as a mental shortcut to assess everything from the social status of a person based on their actions to assumptions that a plant that is tall has a trunk and has leaves is a tree even though the person making the evaluation has never seen that particular type of tree before 4 Why do stereotypes form What is social categorization What are ingroups and outgroups Stereotpes form to simplify the world Social categorization We like to sort people into groups Makes the world easier to think about remember we don39t like to think lngroups vs outgroups We carve the world into groups that we belong to ingroups and groups that we do not belong to outgroups 5 What is the ingroup bias What is the outgroup homogeneity effect Why does the outgroup homogeneity effect exist lngroup bias the tendency to favor our own groups The outgroup homogeneity effect The tendency to assume that there is greater similarity among members of outgroups than among members of ingroups quotAsiansBlacksJewsHispanicsWhites are all alikequot Why does it exist Greater contact with our ingroups More intimate contact with our ingroups 6 How do stereotypes distort our perceptions We tend to remember stereotypeconsistent information better than stereotypeinconsistent information con rmation bias 7 What are illusory correlations and Illusory correlations is the phenomenon of perceiving a relationship between variables typically people events or behaviors even when no such relationship exists 0 Minorities are distinctive 0 Bad behavior is distinctive 0 We only tend to remember distinctive events Because we are sensitive to distinctive events the cooccurrence of two such events is especially noticeable more noticeable than each of the times the unusual events do not occur together Attributions Stereotypeconsistent behavior is attributed to personality Stereotypeinconsistent behavior is attributed to the situation 0 Eg the unfriendly partner experiment 0 Exception of the fundamental attributtion bias when behaviors are inconsistent with my believes 8 What is subtyping Stereotypeinconsistent information is often dismissed as an exception 0 When people encounter instances that discon rm their stereotypes of a particular group they tend to assume that those instances are atypical subtypes of the group 0 Example Ben stereotypes gay men as being unathletic When he meets AI an athletic gay man he assumes that Al is not a typical representative of gay people 9 How does the con rmation bias and selfful lling prophecies maintain stereotypes We tend to seek out information that is consistent with our stereotypes Our expectations about others can lead us to act in ways toward them that causes them to behave in ways consistent with our stereotypes EX Interviewing White vs Black job applicants 10 What is stereotype threat A selfcon rming apprehension that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype Differences in performance due solely to expectation does not matter if its false Stereotype threat is de ned as a situational predicament in which individuals are at risk of con rming negative stereotypes about their group It is the resulting sense that one might be judged in terms of negative stereotypes about one39s group instead of on personal merit Research over the past 15 years has shown that stereotype threat contributes to low performance among African Americans Latinos and the poor but also among women in math and science the elderly in memory and even whites in athletics EX I am a short white male when ljoin a pickup basketball game with taller younger males I presume that they expect me to be a detriment to their team and that tends to undermine my con dence and performance 11 What is the twostep process of stereotyping How do the two steps differ from one another in terms of our ability to control the process 2step process of stereotyping 1 Perceiving a member of a group automatically activates stereotypes about that group Unconscious process Out of our control 2 People can then engage in deliberative processes and choose to disregard or ignore the automaticallyactivated stereotype Conscious effortful process Within our control Deliberative processes 13 How can we increase deliberative processing Personal information The more personal information we have about someone the more likely we are to reject the activated stereotype Ability The greater our ability to think about the stereotype the more likely we are to reject it Stereotyping increases when Under time pressure Tired Drunk Distracted Motivation The more motivated we are to form an accurate impression about someone the less likely we are to stereotype 14 What is prejudism Prejudice Negative feelings toward persons based on their membership in certain groups negative feelings towards other people or A preconceived negative judgement of a group and its individual members Modern racism A form of prejudice that surfaces in subtle ways when it39s safe socially acceptable and easy to rationalize People perceive themselves as fair but still harbor negative feelings towards members of other racial groups Example How can we detect it Bogus pipeline fake lie detector test only works if your aware of this prejudice most prejudice is implicit Implicit Association Test measures reaction time Helping study All white participants and another white or black person are working on a tasks side by side next the person white or black asks for help First condition if the person worked hard and asked for help the person equally helped the black and white person Second condition if the person did not work hard the white person helped the white person more then the black person Examples Racism or AntiSemitism believing that race skin colour or culture makes certain people inferior eg believing that whites are superior to people of colour or people who practice Judaism Classism believing that certain economic classes are superior eg the rich are superior to the poor Sexism believing that sex and gender determine status eg boys and men are superior to girls and women Lookism believing that appearance and looks determine status eg quotunattractivequot people are inferior to quotattractivequot people 15 What did the Robbers Cave study demonstrate First he created prejudice between two people who did not have prejudice between each other to then eliminate prejudice took two groups of boys the rattlers and the eagles for the rst week the both groups were unaware of each other in the summer camp they were introduced to one another and told they39ll be competing with one anoter for resources rewards Both groups gave themselves names ags and different cabins These boys started to be very aggressive between one another Step 2 can the prejudice be reduced First the experimenter tried propaganda the eagles are good to the rattlers failed Another attempt was bringing them together in non competitve circumstances failed Third strategy superordinate goal forced the two groups to work together by saying a food truck was broken and all the boys had to push the truck together They were forced to work together successful Cognitive dissonance strategy the feeling did not match the behavior of working together so they changed the feeling 16 What are superordinate goals Superordinate goal A goal that could only be achieved through cooperation between the groups 17 How does Realistic Con ict Theory explain prejudice How does Social Identity Theory explain prejudice Realistic Con ict theory Groups often directly compete for limited resources land money jobs power This competition leads to hostility against the other groups This competition may be imagined Eg quotimmigrants are taking our jobsquot Social identity theory People favor ingroups over outgroups in order to enhance their selfesteem BlRGing basking in re ective glory attain self esteem from successful others Derogating outgroups makes us feel better about ourselves Minimal group paradigms A methology a study the arti cially creates bogus groups The dot over estimator a Dot under estimator It is an experiment often used in social psychology to show how people who are put in random groups will often start to feel and show that they are superior When divided the group will start to feed on itself and nd things that they believe that make them superior and better than the outsiders They then set boundaries and quotrulesquot that set them apart from others If there are quotweakquot people within their group that do not follow the rules of the group they can be thrown out to one of the weaker groups 19 What is Belief in a just World How does it relate to prejudice The tendency to believe that people get what they deserve and deserve what they get 0 quotGoodquot people are rewarded quotBadquot people are punished People don39t want to think that their fate is dependent on chance factors 0 Thus we often blame the victim Shock victims Rape victims battered spouses homeless 20 What are the 4 key components to a social psychologist39s de nition of quotaggressionquot Make sure you know what does and what does not qualify as aggression 4 key components 0 Behavior it has to be a behavior not just a feeling or a thought Goal the behavior has to be goal directed the person commiting the aggressive act has to intentionally want to harm the other person 0 Living being the person being treated aggressively has to be a living being punching a whole in the wall does not count as aggressive cause no one was hurt The person being treated aggressively has to be Motivated to avoid the aggression They do not want it to happen to them They do not have to know it is about to happen EXAMPLES ON SLIDE 8 LECTURE 19 21 What is the difference between hostile aggression and instrumental aggression Between physical and relational aggression Hostile aggression Aggression performed as an end in itself Your mad at someone you want to hurt them so you hurt them quothotquot aggression infused with emotion Instrumental aggression Aggression that is a means to some other end When you commit aggression not because you want to harm them but because it gets you something else like money ex a hitman quotcoolquot aggression not infused with emotion Aggression can equally be hostile and instrumental at the same time like a boxing match you do not like the person you ghting and you want to hurt them hostile but you also hurt them because you want to win for the money 0 Physical aggression Eg punching pushing kicking etc o Relational aggression Damaging someone39s relationship with peers Eg gossiping rumors silent treatment etc There are three broad theories of aggression The rst instinct view most commonly associated with Sigmund freud and Lorenz contended that aggressive energy will accumulate from within Neural in uences abnormal brains can contribute to abnormally aggressive behavior Genteic ln unece Biochemical in uence alcohol testosterone poor diet The social learning theory presents behavior as learned behavior 23 What is Freud39s death instinct 0 People have a death instinct an unconscious desire to be dead 0 Aggression is the de ection of the death instinct toward others Aggression is when the death instinct is directed at others biological theory 24 How might aggression have helped us to survive o Aggression evolved because it helped us survive 0 Those who happen to be aggressive hunted and that helped them to survive because it provided food and those who were not aggressive did not food and lacked food so they died off 25 How does evolutionary theory explain differences in physical aggression between men and women 0 Sex differences men are more aggressive because men have to compete for one another for access to the female so only the strong male reproduces with the female and passes on the gene The females do not have to be aggressive so females pass on a non aggressive gene 26 What are cultures of honor How do they relate to aggression How have studies examined this Culture of honor which maintains that insults deserve retaliation White southern men expressed more aggressive thoughts and experienced a surge of testosterone American cities populated by southerners have higher than average white homicide rates Students in culture of honor states bring weapons to school and have 3 times more school shootings Sub cultures such as the south if their reputations are insulted they result in aggression more so then people with the north this is so they can restore their reputation Tested by bring people from south and north both groups walk through a hall way and someone is in the middle of the hall way and the guy in the middle looks at the northerners and southerners mad then he insults both groups of people researches tested the results by the angry faces they make and saliva samples southerners get angry but northerners act with amusement 27 If punishment generally decreases aggression how is it possible that spanking a child often leads that child to become more aggressive Social learning theory peoples behavior is not simply a function of whether they been rewarded or punished but by simply observing another person Kids who have been abused imitate the abuse and become just as aggressive as their parents who spanked them aggression is learned 30 later abuse their own children 28 What was the purpose of the bobo doll39 study What methods were used in this study Bandura 1961 conducted a study to investigate if social behaviors ie aggression can be acquired by observation and imitation 0 Children who observed the aggressive model made far more imitative aggressive responses than those who were in the non aggressive or control groups There was more partial and non imitative aggression among those children who has observed aggressive behavior although the difference for nonimitative aggression was small The girls in the aggressive model condition also showed more physical aggressive responses if the model was male but more verbal aggressive responses if the model was female However the exception to this general pattern was the observation of how often they punched Bobo and in this case the effects of gender were reversed Boys were more likely to imitate samesex models than girls The evidence for girls imitating samesex models is not strong Boys imitated more physically aggressive acts than girls There was little difference in the verbal aggression between boys and girls 29 What is social learning theory Social learning theory Social behavior is learned through observing others as well as rewards and punishments We learn aggressive behavior from aggressive models television parents etc Violence begets violence 30 How is the concept of misattribution of arousal related to aggression When people experience an increase in ambiguous arousal they can interpret that arousal that could have been from working out watching a violent movie to anger An experiment People exercised for a speci c time and some were not these people were then told they will later shock an actor who was told to anger them those who exercised gave a stronger shock then those who did not exercised They misattributed the arousal that was created by the exercise to feeling angry 31 How might heat increase aggression Heat increases arousal Most people think heat lowers arousal Therefore arousal caused by heat can be easily misattributed to angen Therefore heat can lead to aggression o More violent crimes are committed in the summer than any other month Southerners are more violent than Northerners 0 Within the same city there are more violent crimes during hotter summers than cooler summers 32 What are three ways that alcohol might increase aggression Alcohol increases aggression o Weakened inhibitions letting your true feelings out o Narrowing of focus leading to an inability to use cognitive functioning to override aggression Placebo effects expectations 33 The frustrationaggression hypothesis makes two main claims What are they Have these claims been found to be correct or incorrect Frustrationaggression hypothesii o Frustration always leads to aggression motivation want to agress Aggression is always the result of frustration Ideas Displacement Aggressing against a substitute target so rather then acting aggressively towards your boss you yell at your wife Catharsis A reduction in aggression resulting from displacement meaning releasing anger reduces your aggressive urge Status Frustration does NOT always lead to aggression Aggression does NOT always result from frustration Catharsis does NOT work displacement can actually increase aggression F Displacement Aggressing against a substitute target being angry at your boss but taking it out on your wife Catharsis A reduction in aggression resulting from displacement 35 What has research found concerning the effects of cathartic acts Why might it be that catharsis does not reduce aggressive tendencies Retaliation in the short run can decrease tension but in the long run it fuels more negative feelings 1 Watching media violence quotteachesquot us how to aggress social learning theory 2 Observingparticipating in aggression increases arousal which can lead to aggression because you maintain that aggression so you mistakenly attribute the arousal to anger misattribution of arousal 3 If aggressing is rewarding we will be more likely to aggress in the future operant conditioning 36 Different types of studies have examined the effects of violent media on aggressive behavior What are the three main types of studies that have been used to examine this relationship Violent media 1 Correlational studies More violent TV watching more aggressiveness Even when we account for other variables Correlation does not cause causation 2Longitudinal studies Kids who watch violent TV are more likely to commit a serious criminal offense later in life 0 Viewing violence at age 8 predicted aggressiveness at age 19 Aggressiveness at age 8 did NOT predict viewing violence at age 19 0 Viewing violence precedes aggressiveness not the other way around Experimental studies Participants either watch violent TV or nonviolent TV Watching violent TV increases aggression in the lab the classroom the lunchroom the playground and the athletic eld F Effects are small and shortlived experimental Clips from movies used in lab studies are given without context Many people watch violent TV and do not commit violent crimes Lab studies are arti cial and do not re ect what goes on in the real world Correlational and eld studies do not prove causality The link between the violent tv and aggression can not be explained by a third variable because even without a third variable aggressive media alone causes violence F 40 How might violent TV increase aggression 4 explanations 1 Weakened inhibitions Legitimizes violent behavior 2 Increased arousal Misattribute annoyance as anger 41 42 3 Imitation ldeas about aggression eg postColumbine 4 Desensitization After awhile violence no longer arouses us Eg Karate Kid study What are some criticisms of research examining the effects of violent media on aggression 0 Effects are small and shortlived experimental but not longitudinal Clips from movies used in lab studies are given without context Many people watch violent TV and do not commit violent crimes Lab studies are arti cial and do not re ect what goes on in the real world Correlational and eld studies do not prove causality What is the effect of pornography on aggression Nonviolent pornography Lowered aggressiveness lowered male to male aggressiveness due to an increase pleasant arousal Attitude change Violent pornography Greater maletofemale aggressiveness Greater acceptance of violence against women Greater acceptance of rape myths F 44 What was the purpose of the Stanford prison experiment The experimenter wanted to know if the roles that people were assigned changed how people behaved 45 How was the Stanford prison experiment conducted httpwwwsimplypsychologyorgzimbardohtm 46 What were the results of this study Guard responses Justi ed action through need to maintain order Uniform provided power and deindividuation Prisoner responses Dehumanized and isolated Learned to be helpless Social roles outweighed personality the situation was more powerful then their personality Ethical concerns 47 What is the difference between social exchange theory and the empathyaltruism hypothesis How do supporters of the empathyaltruism hypothesis incorporate social exchange theory into their model of helping behavior Social exchange theory Maximize rewards minimize costs We help when rewards gt costs Rewards Feeling good social approval enhance job prospects etc Costs Potential harmembarrassment timeconsuming guilt etc People help for egoistic reasons Empathyaltruism hypothes Truly altruistic helping will occur when we experience empathy READ SLIDE 4 LECTURE 20 According to his 39empathyaltruism hypothesis39 if you feel empathy towards another person you will help them regardless of what you can gain from it 1991 Relieving their suffering becomes the most important thing When you do not feel empathy the social exchange theory takes control 48 According to the empathyaltruism hypothesis what are the motives of people who help others Egoistic motive you will help if rewards outweigh costs social exchange Altruistic motive you will help regardless of rewards and costs 49 How has the empathyaltruism hypothesis been tested Participants observed a woman getting shocked High and low empathy Allowed to leave or not allowed to leave Would the participants help the woman by switching places with her The researcher gives you info about the woman either shes is very similar to you or not Some people get the info which says she is very similar high empathy or not similar low empathy After you watch the woman get shocked Then the experimenter leaves the room and ask the people watching if they would like to receive shocks so the woman does not have to suffer For half the people the experimenter tells them that they have to watch her get shocked the other half is allowed to leave Percentage of people who are low in empathy and can leave very few people agree to help lower then 20 in the dif cult escape but low empathy switched positions because they did not want to watch anymore 60 Those high in empathy in both dif cult and easy escape these people are likely to help her equally 50 What is the relationship between helping behavior and the number of bystanders The probability of help is inversely related to the number of bystanders In other words the greater the number of bystanders the less likely it is that any one of them will help 51 What is the bystander effect Bystander effect The nding that a person is less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders 52 What are the 5 steps to helping What is the obstacle associated with each step 1 Noticing In order to help we must notice that there is an emergency Other people can distract our attention 2 Interpreting the event as an emergency Is the situation really an emergency or are we misinterpreting something When ambiguous we look to others If they39re not panicking we don39t panic But everyone is looking to everyone else therefore no one looks panicked Pluralistic ignorance The state in which people mistakenly believe that their own thoughts and feelings are different from those of others even though everyone39s behavior is the same Bystanders assume nothing is wrong because no one else looks concerned Smoke lled room study 3 Taking responsibility When alone people feel responsible When others are present people place the responsibility on everyone else Diffusion of responsibility The belief that others will or should take the responsibility for providing help 4 Knowing how to help Do we know how to help Provide assistance directly call someone else Lack of competence 5 Deciding to help Audience inhibition The more people the greater the potential embarrassment Rewards and costs Read slide 19 lecture 20 1 Make sure you understand and can de ne the following terms pluralistic ignorance diffusion of responsibility audience inhibition Pluralistic ignorance The state in which people mistakenly believe that their own thoughts and feelings are different from those of others even though everyone39s behavior is the same Diffusion of responsibility The belief that others will or should take the responsibility for providing help Audience inhibition People are inhibited from helping for fear that other bystanders will evaluate them negatively if they intervene and the situation is not an emergency 2 Why is the quotGood Samaritanquot study so ironic Took a bunch of students studying to be priest and told that they had to give a speech on the good Samaritan a person who helped someone in need half the people are told they will get there earlier the other half are told they will be late while on the way they see a man in need those who were early helped 63 late 10 It is ironic because these people are about to tell others to always help people and many don39t when the time comes 3 How does happiness affect helping behavior How does guilt affect helping behavior You are more likely to help people when you are happy guilt can also increase helping 4 How do attractiveness and similarity affect helping behavior More likely to help people we nd physical attractive halo effect As well as more similar because of empathyaltruismquot the more similar the more empathy we feel 5 Under what circumstances are we less likely to help our friends than strangers We help our friends in cases in which their achievement is not relevant to ourselves but we are less likely to help our friends in cases in which their doing well will make us look and feel bad Depends on egorelevance How can we increase helping 39OOOOO Just being aware of the obstacles to helping increases helping Distraction Pluralistic ignorance Diffusion of responsibility Lack of competence Audience inhibition Make it clear that you need help Single someone out 7 What are the main ways in which men and women tend to differ How do they differ lnterconnectedness Women have more intimate social relationships than men Women experience more empathy than men Women respond more to distress of others Women are better at reading others39 emotions and conveying their own emotions Women tend to prefer professions that deal with people moreso than men eg nurse teacher Social dominance In almost all cultures men have more power than women Political power Jury leaders Men tend to be more assertive aggressive and competitive than women Differences in preferences Aggression In virtually all cultures men are more physically aggressive and violent than women Men are 20 times as likely to murder men than women are to murder women Among children boys engage in more quotroughandtumblequot play than girls Sexuality Men are much more willing to engage in casual sex than are women Men are more likely to initiate sexual activity Men are less selective about their partners than women are This is true for gay men as well as heterosexual men 8 What does it mean to say that differences within a group are greater than differences between groups Similarities are far greater than differences between men and women Remember we are talking about averages Differences within a group are much larger than differences between groups 9 What is social exchange theory What is a comparison level What is a comparison level for alternatives How do these concepts relate to satisfaction and commitment in a relationship Social exchange theory proposes that the relationships we choose to create and maintain are the ones that maximize our rewards and minimize our costs According to this we are more self centered and not necessarily concerned with equality The basic idea is that relationships that give us the most bene ts for the least amount of effort are the ones we value the most and are likely to keep longterm It is important to note that social exchange theory is a bit more complex than a simple economic model of costs and rewards It actually suggests that we feel positively or negatively about our relationships because of a combination of three factors Costbene t analysis Comparison level refers to the expectations for the relationship based on past experience Basically we compare the costs and bene ts of the current relationship to the costs and bene ts of our past relationships Some people have a high comparison level and expect a high number of rewards For example Bridgette Bachelorette is used to having rewarding relationships with boyfriends who pay a lot of attention to her and treat her well She will expect her relationship with Brad to be similar If it is not we would predict that she may rethink her decision of dating him lowest level of relational rewards acceptableCompare relationships to available alternatives if you are dissatis ed in a relationship look at alternatives determine the stability of the relationshipLeave the relationship and be alone Or do you have alternativeslf you have a lot of alternatives you will probably leave 10 Why can returning a favor lead someone to like you less The emotional burden to repay bothers some more than others causing some to overcompensate with more than what was given originally Exchange vs communal The person will think you want an exchange relationship instead of a communal relationship AGRRESSION HELPING STEREOTYPING WHERE TWO THEORITICAL EXPLANATIONS CAN EXPLAIN THEM HELPING SOCIAL EXCHANGE AND EMPATHY ALTURISM
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