DEP 3404 EXAM 2 REVIEW
DEP 3404 EXAM 2 REVIEW DEP 3403 Psychology Of Adulthood
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sheyla Moliner on Wednesday January 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to DEP 3403 Psychology Of Adulthood at Florida International University taught by in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 291 views. For similar materials see Psychology Of Adulthood in Psychlogy at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 01/07/15
DEP 3404 Exam 2 Review Chapters 6 to 9 Thoroughly read the PowerPoint slides You are also responsible for concepts discussed in class Some of the questions on the test may contain portions or sections of a concept make sure to choose the best answer in all cases CHAPTER 6 1 Aging in Place I Adults prefer to choose where they live and have services change within that setting as their needs change I 76 of older adults continue to live in traditional communities I 7 lived in some type of community housing with services I 17 lived in a long term care facility Aging in Place Cont 4 components for successful aging in place Harvard University Joint Center for Housing Studies 1 Giving older adults choices regarding housing and health care options in community 2 Flexible services within community to accommodate older adults changing needs 3 Individuals of different ages living in same community 4 Efficient amp monitored care so assistance not overdoneinadequate 2 Be familiar with infertility and its causes Infertility I Not being able to become pregnant after a year of trying or having multiple miscarriages I Affects 61 million 10 in reproductive age population 0 Problems equally with women 13 men 13 both or unexplained 13 I Causes I Women ovulation disorders endometriosis I Men lack of or low number of sperm cells Infertilitv Trezlments 0 Mostly treated with drug therapy or surgical procedures I Intrauterine insemination IUI Sperm from husbanddonor placed by a catheter directly into uterus I In Vitro fertilization IVF Egg and sperm combined in a petri dish and fertilized egg transferred into uterus most effective and common accts lt 5 of infertility treatments in US Surrogacy I More ethically complicated Surrogacy is when another woman carries and gives birth to a baby for the couple who want to have a child 0 Full surrogacy aka Gestational involves implantation of embryo created 1 using eggs and sperm of parents 2 donated egg fertilized with sperm from father or 3 embryo created using donor eggs and sperm 0 Partial surrogacy aka Traditional involves sperm from intended father and egg from surrogate Fertilization usually done by IUI 3 What are the research findings on gay parents compared to straight parents in terms of child rearing Fall 2014 1 For gay and lesbian couples who choose to become parents a Research shows no significant difference in children raised by straight or gay parents b Various professional organizations support gay couples adopting kids e g AAP AACAP APA 4 5 Be familiar with the research findings on parental satisfaction Which factors strongly in uence levels of parental satisfaction 0 Positive aspect of parenting role I Happiness love affection I Sense of meaning purpose fulfillment achievement I Sense of being a family I Watching children grow I Pleasure fun stimulation I Negative aspects I Restricts personal freedom social life activities outside home and privacy I Parenting younger children more rewarding than parenting adolescentsyounger adults I Parenting central to adult s identity more important than role of spousepartner or professional identity I According to Erikson after identity established and love relationship individuals experience generativity I Most powerful factors in uencing parental satisfaction I Marital Quality I High marital quality associated with high parental satisfaction I Stepparents report lower levels of parental satisfaction Con ict with stepchildren seen as marital issue I Role Con ict I Role strain occurs when demands amp expectations con ict Role Con ict Theory I Lower levels of role con ict associated with higher parental satisfaction I High parental satisfaction when spouses are supportive and help alleviate role con ict I Mother s negative work experience related to negative parenting father s work experience unrelated to parenting I Women who return to part time work after maternity leave experience the greatest role strain Feelings of guilt 6 Be familiar with difficult issues in grandparenting Dif cult Issues in Grandparenting cont Grandparents who serve as surrogates I Role of surrogate parent when Singleboth parents work outside Parent young single unable unwilling Parent ill on drugs abuse childchildren or absent I Consequences Exhausting physically and financially Grandparents less satisfied when forced Poor healthIntensify existing problems Fall 2014 2 Feel out of place with friendspeers Sense of intrusion felt and deprivation from lifestyle desired Dif cult Issues in Grandparenting cont I Grandparent role following divorce I In a vulnerable position when their children divorce I Most children have more contact with maternal grandparents I Tension in relationship with grandparents on noncustodial side I Children who maintain close to grandparents adjust better ifwhen parents divorce a Most children have more contact with maternal grandparents 8 Be familiar with the models on family role transitions I As time passes transitions are made in the family e g Young children become adults and may become caregivers for their parents I Perspective on family role transitions shifted from problem centered to life cycle perspective emphasizing growth and development I Most research focused on retirement and widowhood transitions to parenting grand parenting and adult caregiver roles I Growing awareness that family role transitions are in uenced by culture and tradition 9 Be familiar with the Caregiving Trajectory Theory Cicirelli 2000 and the 3 stages that lead to active care giving 10 Be familiar with the 3 models of housing migration ie Migrationdecision model PlaceIdentity Model Lifecourse Migration Model Be familiar with the three primary moves for older adults according to the lifecourse migration model 11 Be familiar with different housing options for older adults in terms of residential group living What can make residents get a sense of home Residential settings that offer assisted living services vary with the degree of assistance provided Includes a Single unit houses condominiums apartments i Help with meals transportation housekeeping b Residential group living i Adult foster care Few full time residents cared for in a home like setting ii Adult day care Offers services on a per hour basis iii Board and care Provides meals 24hr staff housekeeping and assistance with bathing dressing and medications iv Nursing home 24hr professional medical care declining due to increased assisted living options and declining rate of disability Residents get sense of home when c Sense of control have outlet of selfexpression d Social involvement Fall 2014 3 e Comfortable routine f Stimulating place CHAPTER 7 12 Be familiar with lifelong and lifewide learning Lifelong learning 0 Movement that encourages individuals to continue education throughout their lives to remain competitive 0 Related to workrelated topics Closely associated with lifelong earning in some professions Many professions require continuing education CE units attendance of in house programs conferences and workshops e g mental health counseling clinical psychology Required to remain uptodate professionally and to remain active professionally Life wide learning 0 Formal and informal educational programs that focus on areas of life other than work Offered by colleges health clinics libraries school boards bookstores religious communities coffee shops Focus on an array of topics hobbies leisure crafts health issues parentingfamily issues fitness education of special interest to older adults are programs for social and cognitive stimulation 13 Be familiar with the definition of a traditional college student according to the National Center for Education Statistics Know the factors that are linked to academic success for traditional college students Definition National Center for Education Statistics a Have a high school diploma Began college right after high school Depend on parents grants student loans for support PT employedemployed in summers Immersed in college experience Live onnear campus g Not marriednot parents 3 most common stressors h Social academic financial Factors that in uence academic success 39 Supportive parental relationships Successful social adjustment to college Rapport with instructors and peers High levels of perceived academic control and failure preoccupation i Academic control belief that individual can in uence grades by amount of effort they put into studying and competing ii Failure preoccupation belief that failure is a possibility if enough effort not applied wogpo HW rr 14 Know the six personality types highlighted in Holland s Theory of J obPersonality Fit 15 Be familiar with volunteering When does the peak of volunteer service generally occur What are the benefits of volunteering for older adults Fall 2014 4 Informal volunteering any helpful behaviors Formal organizations involve an organization or agency local statewide national international agencies Educational organizations libraries and schools Political organizations Military related support organizations Religious organizations Hospitals nursing homes and other care facilities Health care and medical research organizations Humanitarian and community social services organizations Environmental and animal care organizations Senior citizens organizations Historical societies Volunteers r39Fwwggogg j Have higher educational attainment Have a good income Have previous volunteer experience Volunteer for altruistic reasons Volunteer to network Older adults benefit most from volunteering Feel good about themselves Report greater life satisfaction Better physical health Live longer Guards against isolation depression Sense of identity and purpose Stay busy Viewed as a bridge between fulltime employment and complete retirement 16 Be familiar with wage discrimination especially the gender gap in pay Wage discrimination unjust practice when individuals not given comparable wages for comparable work Equal Employment Opportunity Commission EEOC created in 1965 to deal with wage discrimination Withinjob wage discrimination unequal pay for employees in the same position is less common than in previous years Requires equal pay for those engaged in different jobs that are substantially equal or of comparable worth within same companyorganization i EEOC considers factors as l Skill level 2 Mental and physical effort 3Responsibility 4 a b Working conditions Wage Discrimination cont d 0 There is still a gender gap in pay women earn less than men Fall 2014 Women earned about 73 of men s earnings US Census Bureau 2000 Gender difference in pay evident in 1 similar jobs 2 professions requiring advanced education eg lawyers 3 professions dominated by women eg nurses Gender related wage discrimination evolved through different mechanisms Allocative discrimination occurs at point of hiring Women often hired for less prestigious jobs that have lower pay scales Valuative discrimination Refers to the unfair trends indicating that some occupations are valued less primarily because they are dominated by certain groups of people such as women 17 Be familiar with sexual harassment and the two different types Sexual harassment I Unwelcome sexual advances requests for sexual favors and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that occur in the workplace and when submission to or rejection of this conduct explicitly or implicitly affects and individuals employment unreasonably interferes with an individual s work performance or creates an intimidating hostile or offensive work environment EEOC 2002 I Divided into two legal terms 1 Quid pro quo sexual harassment When sexual activity is requested as a condition for something in the workplace 2 Hostile environment sexual harassment When work environment is so stressful due to behaviors of a sexual nature that one cannot perform hisher job adequately 18 Despite the research to the contrary older workers face age discrimination based on stereotypes Be familiar with the stereotypes and myths about older workers mentioned in class Stereotypes and myths about older workers FALSE a Physically unable to do their job Have high rate of absenteeism Have high rate of accidents Are less productive Are less motivated Resistant to change and innovation Unable to learn new skills tactmch 19 What factors are associated with socioeconomic status mentioned in class I Socioeconomic status SES based on 1 Educational attainment 2 Occupational status 3 Income I Higher SES related to I Healthier selfesteem in young and middleaged adults but not in older adults I Better physical health I Wellbeing selfesteem cognitive functioning health management I all related to successful aging 20 Be familiar with obstacles to retirement reported in research studies Obstacles to retirement a Loss of professional role b Loss of career identity 0 Loss of camaraderie friendships 1 Experience stereotypes 21 Know the differences between Medicare and Medicaid Medicare a Federal program b Covers approximately 97 of adults 65 0 Outpatient care office visits skilled nursing facilities home health services Fall 2014 6 i In the past intended to be used for acute care 22 Medicaid a Statecontrolled program b For lowincome Americans c Longterm care CHAPTER 8 1 Be familiar with the Information Processing Theory by Atkinson amp Shiffrin 1968 and the modified theory by Baddeley amp Hitch 1994 Baddeley amp Hitch 1994 modified the Atkinson amp Shiffrin model I Short term memory replaced with working memory Comprised of a central executive I Coordinate all information coming into working memory through the sensory registers I Coordinates all information being retrieved LTM It is in working memory that information can be held and manipulated mmnle of the Processing of Working Memorv I Think of the numbers that are part of your address inc zip code and add those numbers together as digits I Now think of your phone number and add those as single digits to your previous sum I Finally add your age to this number I What is the total 2 Be familiar with the Parallel Distributed Processing Model Theory provides a way of understanding long term memory Theory is useful when interpreting research on memory decline with age According to PDP a Individuals store mental representations of specific units of information and build connections between those units b Memorymemories formed when mental energy activates appropriate units and connections to create a concept Parallel nature of the PDP theory comes from assumption that the mental energy that is needed to follow the connections and pull together info can occur in many different directions c Research supports existence of different types of memory and multiple memory systems d Retrievalmanipulation of procedural semantic and episodic memories occurs simultaneously 3 Be familiar with findings from CT and MRI scans regarding brain atrophy with age Computerized tomographyCT I Used to study variations in brain density I CT scans show Brain atrophy After 60 yo brain weight decreases by 2 3 grams per year I At 60 years brain occupies 95 of skull area In 90s brain occupies 80 of skull area Brain structures change at different rates with some structures beginning at age 30 Brain structures that reduce most in size show greatest reductions in performance Fall 2014 7 Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI I Detect different types of soft tissues that form brain structures using radio and magnetic waves Grey matter or Cerebral cortex is where most cognitive processing in brain takes place 4 Be familiar with hippocampal functioning with age Hippocampus I One of the most widely studied structures of the inner brain in memory research I Considered as librarian for all thought and memories I Sends info to parts of the brain for long term storage then retrieves info when needed I Brain imaging shows that older adults take longer to learn something new but retention is not an issue I Patients with Alzheimers have severe damage in this area 5 Be familiar with the different types of attention and research findings on age differences for each type of attention Selective Attention Choosing to focus on a stimulus out of many stimuli involves 1 selecting one stimulusitem and 2 ignoring other irrelevant items I Age related differences seen when the situation makes it difficult to ignore distracting stimuli Vigilance I Sustained attention over time I In general older adults are not impaired on vigilance tasks Visual Search I Use of attention processes to scan an area in search of a specific stimulustarget I In general older adults appear to be slower than younger adults in responding to targets I Largely attributed to a general slowing of information processing in older adults I Age related differences apparent when there is no pre cuing person given prior info on characteristics of target I Divided Attention I Attending to more than one stimulus simultaneously I With age divided attention declines and difficulty processing all the information increases Response time to stimuli also increases with age I Especially for older adults dividing attention when taking in new info is more problematic than dividing attention when retrieving already learned info I Procedural Memories for routine and often repeated information or behaviors I Semantic Memories for factual and knowledgebased information often organized by concepts or themes Episodic Memories for personal experiences often organized by time and context little or no age related declines Fall 2014 8 Procedural memories 0 Involve motor perceptual and cognitive operations e g reading driving typing playing instrument 0 It remains strong throughout life especially for skills learned at a younger age little or no age related declines Abilit to develo n rocedural memories stron throu hout adulthood becoming noticeable for individuals in their 6 s Cross sectional studies show declines in retrieval of episodic memory earlier than longitudinal studies shows stability until age 60 Decline associated with reduction in processing speed and decreased efficiency observed in working memory Older adults have more trouble accurately remembering source of a particular piece of info often remember content but cannot remember who said it when they heard it Semantic Memory 0 Long term memories for general knowledge facts and concepts 0 Ex starting with 105 subtract 7 and then subtract 7 again and Until you reach zero 0 Ex what are the past tense forms for speak buy and say Word knowledge remains strong till 90s 0 However older adults have difficulty in remembering new facts e g names of people recently met READ SLIDES 3441 7 Be familiar with ashbulb memories Flashbulb Memories memories linked to unexpected shocking events Flashbulb Memories cont d Personal memories episodic 1 When did you hear the news 2 Who told you 3 Where were you 4 How did you feel 5 What did you do in the next few hrs following the moment when you heard the news Flashbulb Memories cont d Factual details semantic 1 What day of the week was September 11 2001 What time did the first plane crash into the WTC tower What time did the third plane crash into the Pentagon Where did the fourth plane crash Did the north tower or the south tower of the WTC collapse first 6 What were the ight numbers and carriers of the four planes involved Flashbulb Memories cont d 0 Individuals who report a greater emotional reaction to 911 more accurate with semantic memory or factual details Smith Bibi amp Sheard 2003 0 Individuals who were physically closer to the WTC remembered more factual details semantic Pezdek 2003 0 Individuals who were physically farther to WTC remembered more personal details episodic Pezdek 2003 8 Be familiar with internal mnemonics and the different types mentioned in class 9593 Fall 2014 9 Internal strategies I Mnemonics creating artificial bonds connections among items to increase retrieval Acronym making a word out of first letters of items to be remembered ROY G BIV Acrostic making sentences using words that start With same letters as toberemembered words in same order e g Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally Songs and rhymes eg Alphabet Song Internal strategies gcont d 2 I Pictorial mnemonic linking information to imagespictures younger and middle aged adults benefit more I Pegword mnemonic combination of acrostics rhymes images I Useful When items that need to be remembered must be recalled in a particular order I First step is associate words that rhyme With numbers on a list one and gun two and zoo I Second step to visualize first item you need to remember as being shot out of a gun visualize second item as being in a zoo I Methodofloci associating toberemembered items with familiar locations 9 Be familiar With external strategies used to improve memory External strategies I Calendars I Writtendigital notes I Establishing a set routine I Using environment itself as an aid 10 Be familiar With the differences mentioned in class between older and younger adults in terms of recall of information with respect to the prefrontal cortex Prefrontal lobes are active When older adults engage their memory although activation pattern differs from that of young adults a Recalling info activates regions predominantly lateralized in right prefrontal cortex for younger adults b Recalling info activates both right and left prefrontal regions for older adults CHAPTER 9 11 Be familiar with the four primary approaches to cognition Four approaches to intelligence 1 Psychometric perspective emphasizes measurement and assessment of intelligence 2 Cognitive perspective emphasizes information processing uid and crystallized intelligence 3 Contextual perspective emphasizes everyday problemsolving and personenvironment interactions 4 NeoPiagetian perspective emphasizes development from formal analytical thinking to Wisdom 12 What is the purpose of IQ tests Intelligence tests used for diagnostic purposes in clinical and school settings Intelligence tests yield an Intelligence quotient IQ comparison of mental age with chronological age 13 Be familiar With the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS What are the 4 key areas measured by the WAIS READ SLIDES 7 Fall 2014 10 14 What are the research findings on IQ and age from longitudinal studies a Based on longitudinal studies Intelligence increases in young adulthood stabilizes in middle age declines in early 60s and beyond Seattle Longitudinal Study 1956 to 1984 i Those who started with high scores in young adulthood maintained high scores ii Individual difference and variations exist 15 Know the differences between uid and crystallized intelligence How does each of these change across adulthood How does uid intelligence in areas of expertise change across adulthood Fluid intelligence Comprised of skills needed to transform and process information such as abstract reasoning and perceptual speed Assumed to be biologically controlled and depends on basic physiologically determined brain functioning Functionally similar to working memory Declines with age 0 Loniitudinal studies show declines but at a veri slow rate Decline more noticeable after 70 CI VStELiZBd Intelligence Consists of knowledge gained through educational and cultural systems such as common vocabulary and mathematical skills semantic memories 0 Re ected in verbal abilities and exposure to a specific cultural environment Increases until middle age Plateaus until very late adulthood Slow decline in oldold age 0 Both Fluid and Crystallized intelligence in uenced by Educational achievement Type of occupation 0 Daily activities Chronic diseases 16 Be familiar with Level 2 of Kohlberg s theory of Moral Development READ SLIDE 36 17 Know the research findings on gender and moral development No empirical evidence for Gilligan s claims 0 There are more similarities than difference in moral reasoning across gender 0 Moral reasoning strongly predicted by education level and age and effect of gender is very small and inconsistent across studies 18 Be familiar with Sternberg s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence Be familiar with the three types of intelligences READ 2021 19 Know which skillability is considered a better predictor of older adults competence in daily living Two types of everyday problems 1 Welldefined problems Clearly structured so that the starting point ending point and problem solving procedures are defined 2 Illdefined problems offer little clarity Fall 2014 11 Best predictor at everyday functioning involves combination of well and illdefined problems 0 Ability to solve everyday problems is a better predictor of the quality of daily functioning than age or standard intelligence scores Fall 2014 12
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