Study guide for Midterm 1
Study guide for Midterm 1 Psych 2740
Popular in Social Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Forest Harmon on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 2740 at DCH Regional Medical Center taught by Dr. Treinen, Evelyne in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at DCH Regional Medical Center.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
O 33 ch1 Q What is social Psych 0 Scientific study of how people are affected by others and how they are affected by others 0 the power of situations 0 draws conclusions based on scientific method 0 ABCs l Affect l Behavior I Cognition O Psychological spectrumdifferent disciplines l neurobiology clinical cognitive developmental personality social 0 Halo effectone positive attribute will predispose a person to be perceived as having other positive attributes even when not actually present 0 Emotional embodiment if your body language does not match your internal emotions the fact that your body is outwardly showing some emotion will make you begin to feel that emotion internally as well 0 Intuition is a poor method for discovering truth 68 ch2 0 Research methods 0 The scientific method 0 state the problem I what problem are you trying to solve or understand 0 what makes faces attractive Q notatestable question 0 does facial symmetry make faces attractive I decide whether the question is an applied or a basic research question I what do I already know about the question or problem I what do I need to know about the question 0 review literature 0 formulate a testable hypothesis I What kind of educated guess or prediction can I make about what I think will happen I Experimental design Q If then statement predicts an outcome Q If a face is symmetrical then it ought to be rated as more attractive than an asymmetrical face I Non experimental design Q noncausal relationship between variables 0 the more a face is symmetrical the more it is considered attractive 0 positive correlation l Define the theoretical constructs to measure the variables I Dependent variablesattractiveness ratings 0 operational response 0 observable behavior produced by a person I Independent variablessymmetry of the face 0 can be manipulated Q and or can be measured l construct validity Q theoretical responsedependent variable 0 theoretical stimuliindependent variable 0 design the study I non experimental 0 no control 0 no random assignment 0 correlations I Quasi experimental 0 no random assignment 0 manipulation of variables 0 uses existing groups I experimental Research controls procedures uses random assignment allows establishment of causation independent and dependent variables either between or within participants 0 betweentwo groups one rates symmetrical other rates asymmetrical O Withinall test subjects look at both symmetrical and asymmetrical Q Factorial designmore than one independent variable 0 Main Effecteffect of single variable ignores the effects of other variables O Interactioneffect of more than one variable acting together on the dependent 0 Internal validityconfidence that independent variable caused the change in dependent variable 0 Confounds individual effect of two variables are mixed together and cannot be separated 0 External validitystudy findings are likely to generalize to other settings and people more 0 stimulus sampling use several different stimuli to ensure difference is between categories not between specific stimuli 0 Experimental realism is more important than mundane realism to determine external validity l experi mentalevents successfully simulate the real world I Munda nesettings in lab generalize to the real world I Non experimental Q correlation approach 0 does not allow establishment of cause and effect 0 relationship between two variables 0 either positive negative or no correlation O computated by the correlation coefficent I Correlation more more less less eanked related connected people who sleep more remember I Causation increase decrease causes if then affects Benefits enhances improve undermines sleep 0 memory retention is enhanced by l Laboratory basic question low in mundane realism high level of control I Field applied question outside laboratory less control high experimental realism O collect data I gather the information necessary to be able to make a conclusion who will you collect data from what participants or sites will be studied which permissions do you need 0 IRVinstitutional review board 0 Informed consent from Participants 0 Permissions to use video recordings or Images 0 Permissions from people at research sites eg schoolhospital I what information will you collect what instruments will you use and how will you confirm validity l how will you administer data collection I Participant sampling 0 Quantitative data collection 0 easily measured 0 Qualitative data collection specifically select people or sites that may improve understanding of phenomenon 0 may lend more insight to question 0 useable when a smaller sample size is used I Sample size 0 should be as large as is practically and statistically required 0 when population size is small sample size should be large and vice versa I consider data analysis strategy before Data coHec on l Methods 0 Surveys 0 Interviews 0 Observationsvideo recordings 0 questionnaire 0 reaction time measures l Identify time needed for data I informed consent 0 anonymity Q permission to use materials I random assignment I guide participants through different steps of experiment I Debriefing about purpose of the study especially if deception is involved I compensation 0 test the hypothesis with dataStatistical anaysis l Prepare Dataset 0 clean up your dataset and verify subject data correspondence 0 Identify Problematic subjects and outliers 0 Explore your data 0 descriptive statistics 0 check data distribution normally 0 age gender I Choose the correct analysis 0 depends on experimental design 0 depends on the nature of independent and dependent variables 0 categoricalgender O continuousweight reaction time Q lntervalsage19 282938 0 Ordinallevel of educa on O conclude and communicate results I Science requires communication of results to other scientists and the general public 0 Meet with colleagues 0 Oral presentation at conferences 0 Written presentation at conference 0 Peerreviewed journals I then communicate to the public I The media books TV News outlets l Formulate results comprehensively for the audience I Content of scientific communications Q APA writing and citation 0 Authors contact information I Title and an abstract Introduction Method Results Discussion I include graphic representation of your data 113 ch3 Culture and Human nature 0 Nature and HUman Behavior 0 Evolutionary psychology is an approach to psychology l Functional explanations of behavior are hard to prove wrong need to be integrated with other approaches l nomological approachhow does the findings of this study support my evolutionary theoryrisk for contradictions if this logic is not adopted 0 might be evolutionary reasons for a behavior and the exact opposite of that same behavior I knowledge and principles from theory of evolution are applied to research I Is an area of study not a paradigm interdisciplinary l Mostly focuses on Darwin s theory of evolution 0 natural selection 0 occurs when a characteristic which is genetically transmitted is helpful for survival 0 it is the characteristic not the individual that is selected I Modular minds 0 out brain is composed of different mechanism which evolved to deal with recurring threats and opponunMes l Follow your nose I incest avoidance mechanism for faces that look like yourated more trustworthy but less attractive I Outgroup homogeneity effect reversed for angry 0 generally remember a face of your own group 0 however if the face is angry or could be perceived as a threat you are more likely to remember it Q Determinism l Genes hormones brain structure dictate one39s choices and actions I Justification for negative attitudes and behaviors prejudice O Becoming a more integrated approach 0 Culture and human behavior 0 culture an information based system that includes shared ideas and common ways of doing things I shared 0 ideas 0 systemsfood chains 0 praxis ways of doing things ie driving on the right side of road theory 0 Information and meaninglanguage l Why do we need culture 0 according to terror management 0 the fear of death must be present behind all out normal functioning in order for the organism to be armed toward self preservation but the fear of death cannot be present constantly in one39s mental functioning els the organism could not function 0 culture is what distracts us from our fear of death 0 Without culture we would be scared to death 0 lndividualistic cultures 0 lower of social entity statements I am a Pi kapp Q collectivistic cultures 0 higher of social entity statements I am tired O Collectivism l Collectivism dominates parts of asia japan india china and also many parts of africa l Individualism dominates western culture US and western europe I This trait accounts for many cultural differences 0 how people explain social behavior 0 preference for unique things individualistic Q markus and kitayama researchers 0 The Cultural approach 0 what can we learn about the mind and behavior from examining cultural differences I collectivistic vs individualistic interdependence vs independence Q What can we learn about the transmission and development of culture by examining cultural change 0 How does the culture act upon the person as well as how does the person become a means for creation and transmission of culture 0 Eg gender socialization 0 Example of findings l european americans value extreme emotional states more Asian populations value calm emotional states more 0 Transmission of Memeswhat ideas and behaviors are communicated across generations 0 Transmission of culture via nonverbal expression and perception 0 Transmission of behavior in primates how this relates to development of culture 0 Nature and Culture interacting 0 Nature shapes culture I we all need food and water and shelter 0 presence of pathogens in environmentmore pressure to conform higher likelihood of collectivistic cultures 0 Culture shapes Nature l Having only one girlfriend I morality laws and self control against impulses and wishes Q We need both aspects to be able to make sense of human behavior I allow for will functioning in society and the fulfillment of the need for acceptance l interdisciplinary science 0 Human behavior is a result from the combination of Nature and Culture 0 Nature and Culture interact to allow us to function well 0 People vary on how much they include social entities in their definition of themselves 0 Some behaviors and universal others vary across cultures individual vs coHec ve 147 ch4 The Self 0 Self conceptself knowledgewho we feel we are 0 Executive functionagent selfresponsible for control and decision making 0 Public selfinterpersonal selfpart we show to other people helps createa and maintain relationships 0 Self concept 0 5 personality traitsOCEAN l openness to experience 0 wide imaginative vs narrow interests simple I conscientiousness Q organized vs careless I extraversion O Sociable vs shy l agreeableness O l neuroticism Q tendency to be stressed 0 Changes over timefrom more abstract to more complex opposing attributes can be reconciled at a later age 0 Also changes from moment to moment I working self conceptphenomenal self 0 image of self that is currently active in a person s thought 0 different relationshipssituations O Eg in class vs in pany O stereotype threat condition 0 Context matters 0 I am scale I independentwhat makes you different I interdependentwhat connects you to the group I The extended selfother people are included in the self 0 we won national soccer team 0 they lost tend to distance oneself 0 Social Comparison theory 0 people constantly compare themselves to the people around them Q Upwardscompare yourself to somebody who is better than yourself 0 Downwardscompare yourself to somebody who is inferior to you Q We compare ourselves strategically to feel good I when we compare downwards we can either take it as motivation to better ourselves or we can attempt to disregard 2 O Selfesteem maintenance model tesser l social comparison extended self 0 3 factors determining effect of social comparison on self I performance am I better or worse I relevance of domain how important is this specific trait to you I Closeness relevance of comparisonhow close is the person too you 0 Self esteemself evaluation 0 unconscious evaluation only know end result O Rosenberg self esteem scale how you feel in generalstable across time strongly agree agree disagree strongly disagree Strongly agree 3 agree 2 disagree 1 strongly disagree 0 x x x x x x x x Total 1 5average X x Q What is self esteem for 0 High vs Low self esteem 0 Terror management theoryhelps us to feel significant and deny or existential anxiety 0 Sociometer theoryit measures our social acceptability and is a warning mechanism when our fundamental need to acceptance is not met Monitors out interactions with others lnforms our behavior Motivates us to change behaviors Q Is especially sensitive to inclusionexclusion 0 High 0 Low seek and expect success risk takerinitiative con dence Avoid failure and rejection no risk taker doubtful affected by negative events 0 Too much self esteemnarcissistic selfish sometimes violent Q Fooling ourselvesself deception O we prefer self enhancement and consistency rather than finding out the truth We generally overestimate our good qualities and our uniqueness we overestimate the control we have we are unrealistically optimistic Strategies l self serving bias claim credit for success not 0000 failure I Social comparison 0 Public Selfinterpersonal self 0 Self presentationany behavior we use to convey a specific image or specific information about the self to others 0 We do stupid things in order to be well regarded or included I tanning good impression but risk for skin cancer I Women eat 6080 less in presence of desirable man I self handicapping surprise others with success hangover for exam 0 Can be used to claim an identity I wear black clothes to become part of metalheads 0 Individual differ in the extent to which they are concerned about self presentation I self monitoring 0 who does this situation want me to be and how can I be this person 0 Who am and how can I be me in this situation 185 ch5 Social Perceptionpeople perception is a central theme of social psych Q Decoding person cues 0 Human visual system is adapted for perception of our conspecifics O 3 types of cues I face 0 receive the most attention when perceiving another person 0 humans are able to identify an incredible large number of individuals 0 Holistic processing of facewe see the whole face 0 face inversion effect difficulty recognizing inverted faces 0 face composite effect difficulty identifying a person when the top and bottom halves of a face are from different people I body 0 also attracts a lot of perceivers attention 0 like faces bodies are arranged in a typical configuration 0 inverse body effect recognition of static body postures decreases if inverse body I motion 0 O Invariant person knowledgeconceptual person knowledge that can be derived about other social agents and is stable across different processing contexts l physical attractiveness l personality traits l categorical knowledge I person identity 0 Personality trait inferences l judgements drawn from Q facial features 0 outer appearance 0 demeanor l People tend to agree on traits and qualities they attribute to others consensus at zero acquaintance l Trustworthiness Q faces may automatically be screened for trustworthiness regardless of goals or intention of perceiver 0 takes less than 100ms of exposure to face enough to draw inference about trustworthiness Q invest more money in trustworthy looking faces 0 greater facial widthless trusted and less trustworthy O Categorical knowledgeimpressions and evaluations of others are influenced by social categories to which they belong and the stereotypes associated with these groups I biological cues race gender age dominate social perception more than non biological cues clothing 0 sex by estrogen or testosterone redder in males predictive of sex 0 O OO 0 hair shape of faceshaped skin tonedarker and eyebrows mouth nose body shapemovementmore about body shape 0 age posture 0 race featureslips noses eyes 0 Person identity 0 O O O facial signs of aging body shape and skin tone shape of facial I based on perception of familiar appearance 0 familiarity through repeated exposure 0 focus on external features for newly met faces vs internal features for familiar faces I Emotional response 0 intact in prosopagnosia lacking in Capgra s syndrome patients with capgras syndrome can recognize faces but cannot experience emotional familiarity l Spontaneous retrieval of personspecific semantic knowledge 0 when one encounters a known target in an atypical setting often times one is unable to retrieve target specific knowledge 0 Variant person knowledge 0 emotions O eyegaze l eyes are special to writers and scientists alike 0 evolution increased visibility of eyes unique shape and color 0 evolved from darker eyes to whites around pupils this can be used as means of communication 0 high sensitivity of eyes looking at us 0 sensitivity to direct gaze O faces with direct gaze captures and maintain attention l hard to look away fromslower to see objects in the periphery l eye contact leads to arousal and changes in the body either a threat or a prospective partner 0 context matters in gaze perception 0 high general accuracy in gxe perception up to about 18 feet accurate to 28 degreese O tuned to a particular configuration of eyes and face 0 impaired if changes made to either face or eyes such as flipping face or changing shapes of shadows 0 Facial emotion happy and angry faces seem to exhibit eye contact 0 direct eye gaze approach signal 0 fearful faces seem to exhibit averted eyegazeavoidance signal I Language of the eyes 0 others eyes attract out attention to objects person39s and events in our environment 0 Joint attention requires that two individuals are attending to the same object 0 gaze followingoccurs when one observes another attending to an object and is then able to attend to the same object because of this 0 shared attentionsimilar to joint attention but both parties are aware they are looking at the same thing 0 Developmentstarts very early but at some point people are suddenly able to do it about 18 months old begin to understand referential nature of eye gaze 0 language connecting objects in the world to words I ability to follow gaze at 10 months is related to larger vocabulary 0 Social and cognitive skills l 20 months gazefollowing predicts theory of mind abilities at 44 O Gaze followingmain deficit in autism l mindb Hndness Q How powerful are others eyes in directing one s attention 0 does gaze following still depend on context in adults 0 Gaze cuing paradigm 0 measures reaction times 0 different versions I did the le erappear I did the letter appear on the right or the left I was the letter a t or an f 0 average reaction times to cued vs uncued trials across many trials 0 faster reaction times appear when a valid cue appears 100500ms before the le er 0 this reaction is unintentional however possible volitional control over attention after 600ms 0 head and body cues can interfer with echother if not congruent O Stronger cueing effects observed in women than men 0 Schizophrenics are hypersensitive while autististics are oftentimes numb to the e ec 0 windows to the soul able to infer emotions simply from eyes 0 theory of mindunderstanding that others have minds independent from our own 0 reading the mind in the eye test indicitive of empathetic tendencies 0 Eyes are critical in social world 0 perspective taking 0 understanding intentions 0 understanding emotions 0 eye gaze is used in commercials O we prefer objects which are looked at O mimetic desiresgaze induced liking l liking an object receiving others attention I even dog s gazes create a bias in our liking of objects 0 we only like other objects which others are looking at when we are attending to the person and when there is communicative intention in the gaze 0 if one looks at an object with disgust we are less likely to like it Q trustworthiness and gaze induced liking I used 55 participants I saw people looing at some paintings and away from others I expose d to a trustworthy and untrustworthy target I Found that objects attended to by trustworthy people were prefered however if an untrustworthy person looked away from the other object the test subject was more likely to prefer that object over the object attended to by the trustworthy person I Conclusion 0 perceiving others offers a wealth of information that is potentially relevant for both person understanding and social interaction 0 invariant and variant person knowledge can be derived from face body and motion cues Q perceiving others eye gaze orients out attention to our importnat features in the environment allows us to communicate and to infer others internal world 230 ch 6 Q Emotiona conscious state which includes evaluative reaction to something conscious O Mooda feeling or state which is not clearly linked to anything 0 affectdivided into positive and negative it is a mapping of all emotions into a single dimension I all emotions are regulated in the limbic system of the brain 0 Automatic affecta quick response of liking or disliking toward something 0 Arousal a physiological reaction quickened heartbeatfaster breathing which are linked to most conscious emotions Q emotional arousal 0 james Lange theoryidea that the bodily processes of emotion come first and the mind s perception of the reactions is what constitutes the subjective feeling of emotion Stimulus then physiological arousal then emotional experience I Facial feedback hypothesis facial expressions can evoke or magnify emotions because the brain reacts to what the facial muscles are doing 0 cannon bard theorythe proposition that emotional stimuli activated the thalamus which activates both the cortex and the hypothalamicautonomic nervous system simultaneously The cortex is responsible for producing the subjective experience while the hypothalamic and autonomic nervous system produce the physiological response Stimulus leads simultaneously to experience and physiological arousal O schachter singer theory The idea that the emotional experience is composed of both the bodily state of arousal and the cognitive label that identifies the emotion Emotional experience is composed of cognitive label and physiological arousal O misattribution of arousal O Excitation of arousalthe idea that arousal from one event can transfer to a later event 0 some important emotions O happiness I Affect balance the frequency of positive emotions minus the requency of negative emotions I Life satisfaction an evaluation of how one s life is generally and how it compares to some standard I Hedonic treadmill the theory proposing that people stay at about the same level of happiness regardless of what happens to them O angeremotional response to a real or imagined threat or provocation l Catharsis theoryidea that expressing negative emotions produces a healthy release of those emotions and is therefore good for someone O guilt and shame I guilt an unpleasant moral emotion associated with a specific instance in which one has acted badly or wrongly Q survivor guilt an unpleasant emotion associated with surviving a tragic event involving much loss of life I Shame a moral emotion which like guilt involves feeling bad but unlike guilt spreads to the whole person 0 disgust a strong negative feeling of repugnance and revulsion Q Why do we have emotions O emotions promote belongingness l Affect as information hypothesis the idea that people judge something as good or bad by asking themselves how do feel about it instead of referring to some objective standard or morality l Affective forecasting the ability to predict one s emotional reactions to future events I O emotions cause behavior 0 emotions guide thinking and learning 0 anticipated emotion guides decisions and choices I Affective forecasting the ability to predict one s emotional reactions to future events I Risk as feeling hypothesis idea that people rely on emotional processes to evaluate risk with the result that their judgments may be biased by emotional factors 0 Positive emotions counteract negative emotions I broaden and build theory idea that positive emotions expand an individual39s attention and mind set and also prepare an individual for later hard times filled with negative emotions 0 other benefits of positive emotions 0 Group differences in emotion O differences across cultures l six basic emotions have been observed across numerous cultures Anger Surprise Disgust Happiness Fear Sadness O Across gendersNo gender differences in either frequency of emotions fealt nor intensity of said emotions I In fact research suggests men are actually slightly more emotional than women but women are more likely to report their emotions and claim to have stronger feelings Q Arousal Attention and performance O Yerkes dodson law proposition that some arousal is better than non but too much can hurt performance 0 emotional intelligenceThe ability to perceive access generate understand and reflectively regulate emotions O affect regulation 0 how to cheer up 0 affect regulation goals 0 gender differences in emotional control strategies Q Is affect regulation safe 262 ch 7 Q Attitudes and preferences 0 Global evaluations towards some object or issue 0 Preference 0 an attitude that is more favorable towards one objectissue than towards another objectissue 0 different in that it compares multiple objectsissues Q can be aimed towards O a person or social group 0 thing or type of thing 0 action 0 abstract contact 0 NOT a personality trait 0 Social behavior thought to be based on attitudes 0 Gordon allport O attitudes are the most distinctive and indispensable concept in social psych 0 Measuring l Asking what they think I Lead to self report measures l problems experimental demand and social desirability l how can real attitudes be measured I first designed questionnaires which assess one39s social desirability tendency I then reduced participants time to think 0 express attitudes quickly 0 perform a secondary task I Develop indirect attitude measurements 0 participants do not self assess the attitude that is being measured 0 lmplicit association test IAT O assesses strength of association between categories l reactio n times for good and bad words associated with an attitude object variety of attitudes 0 used to assess a l various versions race sexual orientation obesity age gender self 0 Affective priming procedure 0 Affect misattribution procedure AMP Q Extrinsic Affective Simon task 0 Attitudes towards bob l bloc 1 behavioral descriptions of bob 0 picture of bob with positive descriptions on 100 screens 0 and negative word appealing subliminally 25ms before each screen I Attitudes towards bob time 1 0 measured in two ways scales measure lAT O O explicit rating on likert indirect attitude I Bloc 2 reversed bhavioral descritptions 0 pictures with negative behavioral descpn on Q subliminally presented positive world I Attitudes towards bob time 2 Q measued in two ways I Findings 0 block 1 bob as positive showed negative attitude 0 Block 2 bob negative showed positive attitude I Conclusion 0 O O OO explicit lAT explicit measure rated implicit measure findings were flipped explicit measure rated implicit measure Q can we simultaneously form contradictory attitudes towards the same person 0 studies like this seem to show that implicit and explicit attitudes have a poor correlation 0 over time people realized that people have an implicit and an explicit attitude best measured independently by respective tests 0 lmplicit automatic unaware unintentional efficient uncontrollable associative process no validationtruth check 0 Explicit deliberate aware intentional requires effort and resources controllable propositional process validity of evaluation is checked 0 Attitude formation process 0 mere exposure 0 endowment l refers to a positive evaluation which is associated with the self I we think objects are more valuable if we own them Q Embodiment 0 Classical conditioning O O Evaluative conditioning I Change in the valence of a stimulus resulting from pairing this stimulus with another positive or negative stimulus I used in advertising I happiness cocacola Q Theories of personal continuity O Heider s balance theory I relationships a can be balanced or unbalanced Q prefer balanced or consistency Q If I like jessica and jessica likes family guy I am quite likely to like family guy Q If I like parks and rec and jessica does not I will probably not like jessica 0 plus plus plus plus balanced Q plusplusminusminusunbalanced Q minusplusminusminusunbalanc ed 0 plusminusplusminusunbalanced Q minusminusminusminusunbalan ced 0 Cognitive dissonance theory I if one notices that their behavior is not consistent with their attitude they experience discomfort especially if the behavior is performed in public I when this happens one can either rationalize behavior or change their corresponding attitude 0 The AB problem 0 inconsistency between attitudes and behaviors Q How can it be solved l strength of attitude I accessibility of attitudes l behavioral intentions l match between specificity of attitude and behavior improves relation 0 Implicit attitudes seem to be better predictors of spontaneous behavior than explicit attitudes Q theory of planned behavior 0 behavioral attitude subjunctive norms perceived behavioral control all add to the intention to behave 0 also a direct link between perceived behavioral control and behavior 0 Conclusion 0 attitudes help categorize things as bad or good 0 attitude research distinguished between implicit and explicit attitudes O attitudes can be formed through many different ways and are quite resistant to change
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