EAB 3002 FINAL EXAM REVIEW
EAB 3002 FINAL EXAM REVIEW EAB 3002
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sheyla Moliner on Wednesday January 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to EAB 3002 at Florida International University taught by in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 397 views. For similar materials see Behavior Analysis in Psychlogy at Florida International University.
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Chapter 8 Stimulus control All controlling stimuli A controlling stimulus S is said to alter the probability of an operant in the sense that the response is more or less likely to occur when the stimulus is present Sd Discriminative stimulus SD a controlling stimulus that sets the occasion for reinforcement of an operant Sde a Sdelta S or extinction stimulus a stimulus that sets the occasion for nonreinforcement or extinction of an operant Save controlling stimulus that signals an aversive stimulus Emitted vs occasioned Difference between emitted and occasioned Operants can and do occur in the absence of any eliciting stimulus they are said to be freely emitted However when an SD comes to control occurrences of an operant to alter its probability of occurring then it is said that the SD occasions the operant The term occasion dictates that the operant is under the stimulus control of an antecedent stimulus The use of the term occasion as a verb can be de ned as creating a situation in which something in this case the operant is especially likely to occur ELLICTED COMES BEFORE RESPONDENT EMitted come after operant Respondent Elicited reliably occurs when the stimulus is presented Behavior that increases or decreases by the presentation of a stimulus or event that precedes comes before the response or re ex Presentation of the stimulus regulates or controls the response Sa R EX A bright light shone into an eye creates constriction of the pupils food placed on the tongue creates salivation Operant Does not depend on an eliciting stimulus Behavior is strengthened or weakened by the events that follow the response reinforcement or punishment Occur more or less often depending on the consequences they produce EX If you have learned that cutting coupons on Sundays saves money you will be more likely to do it in the future Differential reinforcement When an organism makes a response in one situation but not in another we say that the animal shows a discrimination between the situations The simplest way to train a differential response or a discrimination is to reinforce an operant in one situation and withhold reinforcement in the other Differential reinforcement alternating between periods of reinforcement and extinction Stimulus control refers to a change in behavior that occurs when either an SD or SA is presented When an SD is presented the probability of response increases when an SA is presented the probability of response decreases Discrimination index One way to measure the stimulus control exerted by the SD and at any moment is to use a discrimination index ID This index compares the rate of response in the SD component to the sum of the rates in both SD and SA phases IDSDrateSDrate SA rate Multiple schedule Behavior analysts often use multiple schedules of reinforcement to study stimulus control in the laboratory On a multiple schedule two or more simple schedules are presented one after the other and each schedule is accompanied by a distinctive stimulus A unique SD corresponds with each schedule Behavior contrast positive and negative Positive or negative contrast contrast refers to a negative correlation between the response rates in the two components of a multiple schedule as one goes up the other goes down Two or more simple schedules that alternate Subject does not get to choose on which schedule to respond Positive contrast when rate of response in an unchanged setting increases with a decline in behavior in another situation when your gf is having a lot of sex with you you stop having sex with the side chick Negative contrast when rate of response decreases in an unaltered situation with increases in behavior in another setting when your gf has little sex with you you start having more sex with the side chick Negative Behavioral Contrast A decrease in response rate in one component of a multiple schedule of reinforcement because the conditions of reinforcement in another component have become more favorable Positive Behavioral Contrast An increase in response rate in one component of a multiple schedule because the conditions of reinforcement in another component have become less favorable Both positive and negative contrast are commonly reported Produced by the change in reinforcement in the other component Relative rates of reinforcement have changed Contrast effects are key in demonstrating that reinforcement in other situations can alter behavior in the present environment Generalization stimulus generalization generalization gradient and p shift An organism that responds in one situation but not in another is said to discriminate between the settings An organism that behaves similarly in different situations is said to generalize across circumstances Generalization is common in everyday life and is not always a bad thing Common properties of different stimuli set the occasion for operant behavior Stimulus generalization occurs when an operant that has been reinforced in the presence of a speci c discriminative stimulus also is emitted in the presence of other stimuli The process is called stimulus generalization because the operant is emitted to new stimuli that presumably share common properties with the discriminative stimulus Generalization and discrimination refer to differences in the precision ofstimuus contraand generalization involves less precise regulation of operant behavior Discrimination refers to the precise control of an operant by a stimulus and generalization involves less precise regulation of operant behavior A generalization gradient shows the relationship between the probability of response and stimulus value Peak shift a shift that occurs in the peak of generalization gradient away from an extinction or sdelta There are other ways of showing relational control by stimuli To study generalization gradients and peak shift the researcher usually arranges the presentation of SD or SA so that one follows the other This is called successive discrimination The research by Guttman and Kalish 1956 Absolute and relative stimulus control Absolute stimulus control means that the probability of response is highest in the presence of the stimulus value used in training In fact absolute stimulus control occurs when reinforcement no extinction training is the only procedure used to establish stimulus control Relative stimulus control means that an organism responds to differences among the values of two or more stimuli Errorless discrimination and fading ways of training to not make errors Errorless discrimination is successful because the trainer or teacher does not allow the organism to make mistakes by responding to the extinction stimulus Involves two basic procedures 1 Early introduction of the SA 2 Gradual transfer of stimulus control Errorless discrimination involves gradually introducing the SA initially at a very weak intensity such that responding to it is at a very low probability Over repeated trials the intensity of the SAis gradually increased Eventually the SA can be presented in its full intensity and the subject will not respond to it A discrimination between the SD and the SA was acquired without the errors of responding to the SA FADING Involves transferring stimulus control from one value of a stimulus to another Done by gradually changing a controlling stimulus from an initial value to some designated criterion An antecedent stimulus progressively changes while the response stays the same Example If teaching a child different fruits you may initially hold up a ashcard and ask child to repeat banana Once learned you may then hold up a real banana and say quotwhat is thisquot Once this is mastered if their repertoire permits you may ask quotwhich fruit do monkeys eat that is yellow Chapter 9 Choice and preference An individual makes many decisions throughout the day varying from ones of great importance to ones of small consequence From a behavioral view choice is concerned with the distribution of operant behavior behavior controlled consequences among alternative sources of reinforcement ie options Preference when an alternative is selected more frequently than others You may prefer taking one route home instead of another because it is a shortcut You may prefer to take a pay cut when choosing between a difficult job and a laidback relatively easy job From a behavioral perspective your likes and feelings are real but are also subjective Therefore they do not provide an objective scienti c account of what you decide to do Therefore it is necessary to identify responseconsequence relationships that affected your preference for a particular selection or decision Concurrent schedules of reinforcement are useful for understanding choice and preference Contingencies of reinforcement contribute greatly to choice behavior The more reinforcement higher rate provided by an alternative the more time and energy spent on the alternative Matching law Matching Law is when two or more concurrentinterval Fl Vl schedules are available and the rate of response equals the relative rate of reinforcement 0 LE The relative frequency percentage of responses equals the relative frequency percentage of reinforcers The matching law can be used to predict preference Exclusive preference develops for the alternative with the higher rate of reinforcement The equality of rates of response and reinforcement is called a law of behavior because it describes how a variety of organisms choose among alternatives The matching law describes the distribution of individual and group behavior across species types of response different reinforcers and a variety of settings An organism shows matching when the distribution of behavior equals the distribution of reinforcement Even animals demonstrate matching in choice situations Matching equations are useful in applied settings ie the classroom where students behavior is often maintained on concurrent schedules of reinforcement Motivating operation renamed establishing operations AAters the effectiveness of some stimulus object or event as a reinforcer and B Alters the current frequency of all behavior that has been reinforced by that stimulus object or event Establishing evocative abolishing abative Value altering effect behavior altering effect o Valuealtering effect is either 0 A an increase in the reinforcing effectiveness of some stimulus object or event ESTABLISHING OPERATION E0 0 B a decrease in reinforcing effectiveness ABOLISHING OPERATION A0 0 EX Food deprivation is an E0 that increases the effectiveness of food as a reinforcer and evokes all behavior that has been reinforced with food 0 Behavioraltering effect is either 0 A an increase in the frequency of behavior that has been reinforced by some stimulus object or event EVOCATIVE EFFECT O B a decrease in the current frequency of behavior that has been reinforced ABATIVE EFFECT O EX Food ingestion satiation is an A0 that decreases the effectiveness of food as a reinforcer and abates all behavior that has followed by food reinforcement READ MORE ON THIS IN THE SLIDES Examples of unconditioned motivating operations Valuealtering effects that are unlearned classi es a UMObehavior altering effects of an M0 are usually learned 0 In other words we are born with the capacity to be more affected by food reinforcement as a result of food deprivation but we have to learn most of the behavior that obtains food e asking for some going to where it is kept O UMO s for humans 0 Deprivation and satiation UMO s O UMO s relevant to sexual reinforcement 0 Temperature changes o Painful stimulation 0 Deprivation and satiation UMO s O Reinforcerestablishing and evocative effects Deprivation with respect to food water oxygen activity and sleep 0 Reinforcerabolishing and abative effects Food ingestion oxygen intake engaging in an activity and sleeping O UMO s relevant to sexual reinforcement 0 Learning plays a strong role in determination of sexual behavior for humans 0 The effect of hormonal changes in the female on the female s behavior as is the role of chemical attractants on the male s behavior is unclear 0 However both male and female seem to be affected by the passage of time since last sexual activity functioning as a UMO with establishing and evoking effects 0 Orgasm functions as a UMO that abolishes the effectiveness of sexual stimulation as reinforcement and abates behavior 0 Temperature changes Becoming uncomfortably cold is a UMO that establishes becoming warmer as a reinforcer that evokes behavior that has had that effect A return to a normal temperature condition is a UMO that abolishes an increase in warmth and abates behavior that has had a warming effect 0 UMO s work the same when you are uncomfortably warm 0 Painful stimulation Increase in pain stimulation establishes pain reduction as a reinforcer and evokes the behavior escape behavior that has achieved such reduction O Painful stimulation in the presence of another organism evokes aggressive behavior toward that organism and Skinner attempted to analyze anger and the emotions of love and fear in this regard III 1 quot if ig li quotiquot 339quot quot i i 1 r Chapter 10 Conditioned reinforcement O Conditioned reinforcement occurs when behavior is strengthened by events that have an effect because of a conditioning history The critical aspect of this history involves a correspondence between an arbitrary event and a reinforcer 0 Once the arbitrary event increases the frequency of an operant it is called a conditioned reinforcer O EX Praise good grades the bells on a slot machine compliments gratitude etc Unconditioned reinforcement 0 An unconditioned reinforcer is a stimulus that has acquired its properties as a function of species history and is unearned O EX Food water oxygen etc Different chain schedules of reinforcement tandem multiple mixed review table in book 0 A chain schedule of reinforcement involves two or more simple schedules Intermittent schedules such as CRF FI VI FR etc each of which is presented sequentially and is signaled by an arbitrary stimulus each has its own 5 quot Only the nal or terminal link in this chain results in unconditioned reinforcement O EX Getting in your car and driving to a restaurant to eat requires many responses a nd ea Ch sequence in the chain sets the occasion for the next response 5 Each component in the chain must be completed in sequence to move to the next ie opening the door putting your keys in the ignition turning the keys putting the car in drive etc Getting to your destination produces the terminal reinforcer food 0 Tandem schedule A sequence of two schedules such as an FR150 FI 120 seconds in which distinct 595 do not signal the different components 0 Tand FR150 FI 120 seconds means that after the participant has responded 150 times the rst correct response after 120 seconds will be reinforced 0 Both requirements must be met to produce reinforcement O Identical to the chained schedule of reinforcement however there is not an SD associated with each component of the chain 0 In equivalent tandem vs chain schedules performances will differ on the chain showing that the distinct signals serve as both 595 and conditioned reinforcers O A mixed schedule of reinforcement O Presents 2 or more simple schedules of reinforcement in an alternating usually random sequence 0 The simple schedules occur successively and independently and does not use any discriminative stimuli O EX Mix FR 10 Fl 1 means that sometimes reinforcement will occur after completion of 10 responses and sometimes occurs with the rst correct response after a 1 minute interval O MULTIPLE CHAIN SCEDHULE Homogenous and heterogeneous chains 0 Operant chains are classi ed as homogeneous when the topography or form of response is similar in each component Le a similar response requirement is in effect in all components 0 A heterogeneous chain requires different responses in each link 0 Each different response is occasioned by speci c stimuli and results in conditioned reinforcement O EX Brushing your teeth taking a shower tying your shoes 0 Chain schedules illustrate how sequences of behavior are maintained by conditioned reinforcement O Conditional reinforcers in chains remain effective because the terminal link continues to produce unconditioned reinforcement Generalized conditioning reinforcement O A generalized conditioned reinforcer is any event or stimulus that is associated with or exchangeable for many sources of unconditioned reinforcement O A powerful reinforcer that has been paired with many other unconditioned and conditionedreinforcers O Generalized reinforcement does not depend on deprivation or satiation ED for any particular form of reinforcement to be effective 0 Generalized social reinforcement for human behavior mediated by the behavior of others 0 Exs Praise attention affection approval status 0 Misbehavior by school children results in attention from teachers 0 Submissiveness as a result of aggressive behavior resulting in escalation of aggression 0 Awards scholarships and prizes support an enormous range of human activity 0 Token reinforcement has been demonstrated in chimpanzees O Chimpanzees were trained to exchange poker chips for raisins After tokens and fruit were paired the animals learned how to select one of several patterns to get poker chips that were later exchanged for raisins 0 Because the discriminative operant pattern selection was maintained the chips became conditioned reinforcers Token economy 0 Other conditioned reinforcers are economic since they are exchangeable for goods and services Probably the most important such reinforcement is money Money is a generalized conditioned reinforcer O A token economy is a set of contingencies based on token reinforcement the contingencies specify when and under what conditions particular forms of behavior are reinforced with tokens Tokens are exchangeable for a variety of backup reinforcers which ensures that the tokens become conditioned reinforcers O Token reinforcement have been used to improve the behavior of psychiatric patients alcoholics drug addicts juvenile delinquents among other groups 0 A means of gradually introducing patients and clients into the contingencies of the real world 1 Contrived reinforcement of the token system is slowly reduced or faded and at the same time natural consequences outside of the therapeutic setting are contacted 2 Also schedules of reinforcement tokens are changed from the schedules given by practitioners to the intermittent schedules produced by the environment Chapter 12 Verbal behavior In contrast with the term language verbal behavior deals with the performance of a speaker and the environmental conditions that establish and maintain such performances Verbal behavior refers to the vocal written and gestural performance of a speaker writer or communicator This behavior operates on the listener reader or observer who arranges reinforcement of the verbal performance Verbal behavior concerns the functions of what we do with words that are spoken written or signed Verbal behavior allows us to affect the environment indirectly in that verbal behavior only works through its effects on other people Reinforcement of a verbal response is not automatic since many conditions may affect what the listener does Although verbal behavior is usually equated with speaking however vocal responses are only one of its forms Verbal behavior can also include Gesturing and body language ASL Verbal operants Verbal behavior operates on the listener reader observer who arranges for reinforcement of the verbal performance in a particular setting A similar effect is produced if something is written EXAMPLE The operant of writing your order on a piece of a paper at a restaurant will be reinforced when food gets to the table 5 basic verbal operants Manding type of verbal operant in which a speaker asks for or states demands implies etc what he needs or wants It is a response class of verbal operants whose form is regulated by speci c establishing operations deprivation aversive stimulation etc EXAMPLES Asking for a hug when there is an M0 for physical contact Asking for a second plate of food when you are still hungry quotGive me the whistlequot when someone keeps blowing it unnecessarily and the noise has become an aversive stimulus Manding includes speaking or writing commands asking questions requesting objects or things giving attering comments etc Mands are the only type of verbal behavior that directly bene ts the speaker meaning that the mand gets the speaker reinforcers such as edibles toys attention or the removal of aversive stimuli Very important for the early development of language and for the daytoday verbal interactions of children and adults Mands comMANDS deMANDS Can I have the cookie please edibles Give me the toy please tangibles Look at me Excuse me for attention Tacting is a response class of verbal operants whose form is regulated by speci c nonverbal discriminative stimuli and is maintained by generalized conditioned reinforcement from the verbal community Type of verbal operant in which a speaker names things and actions that the speaker has direct contact with through any of the sense modes Examples quotYellow carquot when a child sees a car outside quotDo you feel the way you lookquot beauty is nonverbal SD attention is reinforcement quotThe sun is orangequot when a child looks up at the sky The form of the response cannot distinguish manding from tacting quotThe sun is orangequot when a child looks up at the sky The form of the response cannot distinguish manding from tacting To train tacts a speaker must emit a verbal operant whose form is a function of a nonverbal discriminative stimulus A second requirement is that the response is maintained by generalized conditioned reinforcement from the verbal community Manding is verbal behavior under the control of an establishing operation and speci c reinforcement Tacting is verbal behavior controlled by a nonverbal SD and generalized reinforcement nonverbal discriminative stimulus which is an object or event or a property or combination of properties of an object or event An intraverbal is a class of verbal operant controlled by a verbal discriminative stimulus but without a pointtopoint correspondence between the intraverbal and its 5 The intraverbal produces generalized conditioned reinforcement and plays an important role in continuing conversation and further stimulation Also allows a speaker to answer questions and to talk about and think about objects and events that are not physically present If you overhear me saying quotI ll be damnedquot to which you covertly reply quot I sure hope soquot your response is an intraverbal Intraverbals are a typical part of an educational curriculum Learning that the spoken question quot4 x 6 equals quot to which quot24 is given as a verbal or written response is an intraverbal Echoic Echoic behavior is de ned as a class of verbal operants regulated by a verbal stimulus in which there is pointtopoint correspondence AND formal similarity between the stimulus and the response EXAMPLE If you swear at hitting your thumb with a hammer and your fouryearoldson subsequently repeats your expletive his response is an echoic The contingencies of echoc behavior require formal similarity While the contingencies of textual behavior do not Pointtopoint correspondence occurs when the between middle and end of the responses matches with the beginning middle and end of the verbal stimulus Formal similarity requires that the verbal stimulus and the product of the response be in the same mode auditory visual etc and have exact physical resemblance eg same sound pattern A textual is a verbal operant in which the verbal SD and the response to it correspond to each other but not with a formal similarity Reading out loud or covertly is textual behavior The verbal stimuli are visual are tactual ie in one modality and the response is auditory ie in another modality and the auditory response matches the visual of tactual stimuli EXAMPLE If you nd a lengthy note on your windshield explaining a dent in your car door you may initially just attend to and read quotmy apologiesquot quotabout the dentquot quotmy phone number is 555 692 7050quot Textual behavior is also observed when a secretary takes dictation from his or her boss In other words the boss sets the occasion for the secretary writing the words he is speaking When memorizing a song you choose to listen to the song and simultaneously write its lyrics You hear quotMary had a little lambquot Auditory You write Mary had a little lamb Textual Using two different modalities creates the distinction between Textual Relations and Echoics which must be the same modality A mand repertoire allows a speaker to ask questions A tact repertoire permits verbal behavior about an object or events that is present An intraverbal repertoire allows a speaker to answer questions and to talk about objects and events that are not physically present An echoic repertoire enables all the other operants to occur difference between formal similiarities and point to point correspondence The contingencies of echoic behavior require formal similarity While the contingencies of textual behavior do not Pointtopoint correspondence occurs when the between middle and end of the responses matches with the beginning middle and end of the verbal stimulus Formal similarity requires that the verbal stimulus and the product of the response be in the same mode auditory visual etc and have exact physical resemblance eg same sound pattern identify which verbal operants have each quot sign language STUDY AUGMENTATIVE COMMUNICATION IN THE SLIDE Chapter 13 Behavior analysis Applied behavior analysis is a eld of study that focuses on the application of the principles methods and procedures of the science of behavior to improve human performance or solve social problems A concentration on research and a scienti c analysis of human behavior The behavior of people is the focus problems of behavior are directly addressed via analysis of the environmental events that generate and maintain behavior ABA involves 2 major areas of research involving the application of operant and respondent principles to improve human behavior A great amount of literature found in the journal oprpied Beha vior Analysis MBA and The journal of the Experimental Analysis ofBehavior jEAB documents the success of Applied behavior analysis These journals focus on experiments and applications that show basic conditioning principles that can be used in a variety of settings ABA focuses on the observable behavior of people Applied behavior analysts treat behavior as the focus of treatment not as the expression of some alleged inner cause personality cognition or attitudes E For a person who wants to cut back or quit smoking the number of cigarettes smoked is the behavior to be addressed not some ctional quotoral xationquot Applied behavior analysts focus directly on the environmental events that generate and maintain the target behavior Smoking would likely be shown to be maintained by nicotine and social reinforcement both social and nonsocial antecedent events would be demonstrated as occasions to light up a cigarette Different types of differential reinforcement STILL NEED DRA AND OTHER A DRO delivers a reinforcer whenever the problem behavior has not occurred during or at speci c times Reinforcement is contingent on the absence or omission of target behavior EX A hyperactive child s behavior that never remains in his sit is reinforced when he remains sitting calmly in a chair after an entire interval of 10 minutes Recognize limitations If another nontargeted problem behavior occurs it is reinforced May need to shorten interval May need to include other problem behaviors in de nition Set initial DRO intervals that assure frequent reinforcement Calculate mean baseline interresponse time IRT Set interval that is equal to or slightly less than mean IRT Do not inadvertenty reinforce other undesirable behaviors Make rule must have absence of target problem behavior and other inappropriate behaviors Gradualy increase the DRO interval Three options Increase by constant duration of time Increase intervals proportionately Increase based on learner s performance Extend to other settings and times of day Combine with other procedures DRA extinction of a problem behavior while reinforcing behavior topographically dissimilar looks different not incompatible to problem behavior EleDiInforcing a behavior that is topographically incompatible with the behavior targeted for reduction DRO reinforce at end of time period ONLY if behavior DOES NOT occur Guideline of using dridra dro Behavior contract A behavior contract objectively specifies what is expected of the client and the consequences that will follow a particular behaviorresponse A behavioral plan of action that includes a statement of target responses consequences that follow different actions and long term goals Components of a behavior contract Description of the task Who will perform the taskreceive reward o What is the task to be performed When the task must be completed How well the task must be completed Specify the target behavior Describe the behavior in a way that an observer may count or time Collect baseline data on the frequency of response or time spend responding Identify consequences that may be used to increase desired behavior positive and negative reinforcers Find people who will monitor the behavior and provide the consequences Write the contract in clear statements of behavior and consequences Collect data on frequency of response or time spent responding and compare with baseline Modify the contract if the desired behavior does not increase eg different consequences Gradually remove arbitrary consequences and replace with natural reinforcers rewrite the contract and monitor the behavior Plan for generalization implement the contract in a variety of settings Research designs multiple baseline design changing criterion and reversal ON SLIDE Identify graph for each research design ON SLIDE Event recording interval record and all time sampling ON SLIDE Duration recording ON SLIDE
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