SW1000 Helpful Notes to Review for Final
SW1000 Helpful Notes to Review for Final SW1000
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kennedy Sherman on Wednesday January 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SW1000 at Ohio University taught by Michael Ashton in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 177 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Social Work and Social Welfare in Nursing and Health Sciences at Ohio University.
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Chapter 7 Notes The JudoChristian Tradition 39 The major in uence on the current attitudes toward sex in western culture 39 Based on the words of the Old Testament 39 Approved of sexual intercourse only within marriage 39 The only purpose of sex is to conceive children 39 Masturbation homosexuality and all other sexual expressions outside of marriage were viewed as sinful 39 Prohibited premarital and extramarital sexual relations 39 Purpose of sex children and to strengthen the bond between husband and wife The Protestant Reformation 39 Protestant Ethic 39 Began in the early 16th century 39 Advocated a strict and repressive sexual code 39 Emphasized the importance of hard work 39 Asserted that it was morally wrong to engage in pleasurable activities of any kind 39 Denial of sexual urges refraining from sexual activities except those for procreation were seen as virtues 39 Led to Aesthetic Life 39 Self denial of pleasurable activities Victorian Morality 39 Incorporated the strong views of the Protestant Ethic 39 Prominent in the 19th and early 20th century 39 It banished sexuality from discussion 39 Modesty was stressed 39 Established two types of women 1 Good Women 2 Fallen Women Chapter 8 Notes Drugs and Drug Abuse 39 A drug is any substance that chemically alters the function or structure of a living organism 39 Drugs create and exasperate all social problems 39 Drug abuse is the regular or excessive use of a drug 39 The Consequences of Excessive use 39 Effects relationships 39 The health of the user 39 Jeopardizes society itself Legal drugs Caffeine Alcohol Tobacco Aspirin Over the counter drugs occurs when doctors overprescribe opium Often cause more harm than illegal drugs 39 Dependency is the developed recurring craving for a drug Dependence can be psychological andor physical Tolerance is requiring increasing amounts of a drug overtime to achieve the desired effect Something people pride themselves on Always requires more Sociological Theories of Drug Abuse 39 Anomie Theory Used to explain deviant behavior People are driven to abuse drugs Society has both approved goals such as making a lot of money and approved means for attaining these goals such as highpaying jobs It is a condition in which the acceptance of approved standards of conduct is weakened Results in people setting goals they know that they can achieve When certain members of society want these goals but have insuf cient means for attaining them a state of anomie results and the individual seeks to attain that goal through deviant means The drugs are used as an escape Substitute their goals for the high Drug abuse can be reduced if society 39 Sets realistic goals that people can attain 39 Establishes legitimate means available to everyone for attaining these goals Fails to explain drug abuse by people who are achieving these goals 39 Labeling Theory Drug abuse largely comes from occasional users being labeled abusers This theory suggests that drug abuse can be reduced by avoiding labeling by refusing to treat occasional drug users as if they were abusers Selfful lling prophecy Fails to explain drug abuse among those who were already abusers before they were labeled Differential Association Asserts that behavior is determined primarily by the values and actions that are considered important by the small groups of people that one associates with People will learn and take on the drug use norms of the small groups they associate with Drug Subcultures 39 A group of peers who advocates the use of one or more drugs 39 Most drug use occurs in a social group that approves the use of the drug 39 Membership encourages further drug use and instructs the newcomer to reject established norms and instead accept the norms of the group Facts about and Effects of Commonly Used Drugs Depressants Alcohol Alcohol is a depressant Alcoholism the repeated and excessive use of alcohol to the extent that it is harmful to interpersonal relations to job performance or to the drinker s health Alcoholics Anonymous Believe that untreated alcoholics will die 39 Believe that absence is the only cure for alcoholism The lifeexpectancy of alcoholics is 10 to 12 years shorter than that of nonalcoholics 19th of all arrests for minor crimes are alcohol related 40 of car accidents are alcohol related Alcoholism Gene Theory alcoholism is assumed to be caused by both environmental and genetic factors Environmental Alcoholism Theory Combining alcohol with other drugs can have a negative effect 39 When two drugs are taken together they can have a synergistic interaction meaning that they create an effect much greater than either would produce alone 39 Other drugs can have an antagonistic response meaning that one drug negates the effects of the other Dynamics of an Alcoholic Family Roles 1 2 Alcoholic Chief Enabler the person who assumes the primary responsibility for the family functioning Hero the child that works hard at making the family appear to be better than they are The hero is the overachiever they are usually the oldest child They provide the family with self worth The Scapegoat gets all of the blame Their role is to distract the attention away from the dependent person alcoholic and onto something else This role helps the family avoid addressing the problem of chemical dependency The Lost Child is uninvolved with the rest of the family yet never causes trouble The purpose of this role is to provide relief to the family because there is a child that neither requires much attention nor causes any stress Mascot has a good sense of humor and appears not to take anything seriously They are the ones that provide the family with a little funhumor Avoiding Treatment for Alcoholism 39 Many alcoholics do not seek help because they deny they have a drinking problem 39 Denial allows you to believe that it is somebody else39s fault 39 Denial must be confronted if the person wants to be helped Stimulants Caffeine 39 Legal drug 39 Is the most widely used stimulant Amphetamines 39 Uppers 39 The high is followed by mental depression and fatigue Sleep disturbancesInsomnia 39 Apathy Cocaine and Crack 39 Powerful stimulant and antifatigue agent 39 Feeling of euphoria 39 Highly addictive 39 Side Effects 39 Increased blood pressure 39 Loss of appetite 39 Insomnia 39 Increased pulse rate Narcotics 39 Sleepinducing 39 Analgesic painkillers 39 Derived from the opium poppy 39 Feeling of euphoria 39 Usually smoked or injected 39 Effect the central nervous system Heroine is the most widely used narcotic 39 Most common narcotics 39 Opiates 39 Heroin 39 Morphine Hallucinogens Top 5 l Ecstasy LSD Mescaline from the ower of the peyote cactusorganic hallucinogen Psilocybin organic shrooms Psilocin synthetic Psilocybin 39gt Tobacco 39 1 killer Kills more people than all of the other drugs combined 39 Reduces life expectancy Signi cantly increases the risk of strokes and heart disease 39 Acts as a depressant stimulant and a tranquilizer 39 Causes Emphysema 39 Cancer 39 Ulcers Marijuana 39 Hashish compressed andor broken down more powerful 39 Acts as sedatives Produces a relaxed feelingfreedom from inhibition 39 Can produce paranoia 39 Was used to treat asthma 39 Causes physical and psychological dependency 39 More psychological than physical Rehabilitation Programs The Three Strengths of the AA Model 1 Expertise and Knowledge of the membershighly motivated 2 All members have a sponsor they can call When they have an urge to drink or need to talk to someone Who will understand their situation 3 Helper Theory Principle as the sponsor The belief that they can help themselves as they help others Understanding and Treating Codependency Codependency unhealthy behavior learned amid chaos Person loses their own identity in the process of managing the daytoday trauma caused by the addict Chapter 9 Notes Nature and Extent of Crime 39 Crime is an act committed or omitted in violation of a law 39 Law is a formal social rule that is enforced by a political authority 39 Laws re ect our laws and our values 39 Laws change as the norms of society change The Uniform Crime Report UCR is the most comprehensive statistical summary of crime in the US 39 It is published by the RBI 39 It reports violent and property crimes The US has the highest crime rate of any industrialized nation Who is arrested 39 The demographics of criminals 39 Young males males2females 4 1 39 Racial minorities Poor Urban If whitecollar crimes were included in the UCR the demographics of those arrested would be 39 Older 39 Wealthier White 39 Suburban Crime Statistics Most crimes go unsolved 39 Poor people commit highrisk lowyield crime 39 Wealthier people commit lowrisk highyield crimes embezzlement 39 Statistics are manipulated by the police and public officials 33 of actual offenses are reported 39 Est 50 of violent crimes are not reported Crime Causation Theories Early Theories Demonology Crimes and criminals were thought to be caused by evil spirits 39 Those who engaged in deviant behavior were possessed by the devil 39 The only way to cure the behavior was to remove the spirit through prayer rituals and torture 39 Classical and Neoclassical Theory 39 A person makes a decision about whether to engage in criminal activity based on the anticipated balance of pleasure and pain 39 MarxistLeninist Theory 39 Assumes that all crime results from exploitation of workers and from intense competition among people Exploitation of the lower class 39 The basis of the communist revolution Believe that crime will disappear when society achieves a classless status Physical and Mental Trait Theories Phrenology 39 Maintained that criminal behavior was related to the size and shape of the human skull 39 Lombrosian Theory Criminals are born Criminals inherit certain abnormalities or stigmata The more stigmata they have the more they were likely to be predisposed to a criminal career 39 Mental Deficiency Theory Criminal behavior results from feeblemindedness Impaired their capacity to acquire morality and selfcontrol or to appreciate the meaning of laws 39 Morphological Theory There is a fundamental relationship between psychological makeup and physical structure Muscular individuals were more likely to become criminals Did not assert that this likelihood was inherited Psychological Theories Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud Delinquent behavior results when the restraining forces in the superego and the ego are too weak to curb the instinctual antisocial pressures from the ID Psychopath a person who is thought to have no moral constraints against engaging in criminal activity Deviant behavior was viewed as stemming from unconscious con icts xations and repressed traumatic eXperiences Current behavior was largely controlled by early childhood eXperiences 39 Psychodynamic ProblemSolving Theory Views deviant behavior as contrived by the personality as a way of dealing with some adjustment problem Con icts among the personality FrustrationAggression Theory Frustration produces an agressive responce 39 SelfTalk Theory The reasons for any criminal act can be determined by examining what the offender was thinking before and after the time the crime was committed Is an approach for identifying the underlying motives for committing a crime Sociological Theories Differential Association Theory Criminal behavior is the result of a learning process that primarily occurs in small intimate groups 39 A person becomes delinquent because of the excess of de nitions favorable to violation of the law over de nitions unfavorable to violations of the law 39 Past and present learning eXperiences in intimate personal groups thus de nes whether a person should violate laws 39 Anomie Theory Criminal behavior results when an individual is prevented from achieving highstatus goals in a society 39 Unable to achieve goals through society s legitimately de ned channels they then seek to achieve them through illegal means 39 Higher crime rates occur among groups that are discriminated against 39 Deviant Subcultures Theory 39 Some groups develop their own attitudes values and perspectives which support criminal activity Societal Control Theory 39 Assumes that all of us would naturally commit crimes and therefore must be constrained and controlled by society from breaking the law 39 Three factors for preventing crime 1 A strong conscience and a sense of personal morality 2 A strong attachment to small social groups family etc is thought to prevent individuals from breaking the law because they fear rejection and disapproval 3 Fear of being arrested and incarcerated Labeling Theory 39 Asserts that criminals learn to break the law 39 Similar to differential association theorists Labeling a person as a delinquent or a criminal encourages rather than discourages criminal behavior Critical Theory 39 The capitalist economic system is the root cause of our crime problem 39 Capitalism fosters crime by encouraging and requiring the exploitation of one group by another and by promoting the sel sh quest for personal gain as if it were the inevitable goal for all human behavior Types of Crimes pg 295306 Organized Crime 39 Largescale operations 39 Welldesigned plans developed by a large organization seeking to maximize its overall pro ts 39 Relies on public demand for illegal services 39 Activities Include 39 Gabbling 39 Drug traf cking 39 Loan sharking 39 In ltrating Legitimate Businesses 39 Labor Racketeering 39 Prostitution 39 Extortion WhiteCollar Crimes 39 The most frequent crimes 39 Committed by respectable middleclass and upperclass citizens 39 Work related offenses committed by people of high status The public is often tolerant of Whitecollar crimes Activities Include Embezzlement 1 of whitecollar crimes 39 Stealing Income tax evasion Expense account fraud frequently overlooked 39 Misuse of Government funds Bribing Public Officials 39 False advertising 39 Stock manipulation Violation of food and drug laws 39 Littering Price xing agreements 39 Corporate Crimes Illegal labor practices 39 Insider trading in financial institutions Environmental crimes Illegal credit card manipulation Defrauding of pension plans Falsifying company records Fraud Intimidation of competitors and employees Computer Crimes Crimes Include 39 Hacking 39 Identity Theft 39 Pornography Hate Crimes 39 Violent acts aimed at individuals or groups of a particular race ethnicity religion sexual orientation or gender PublicOrder Crimes 39 Constitute the largest category of criminals Crimes include Traffic violations 39 Pornography 39 Gambling Prostitution 39 Vagrancy Drunkenness 39 Curfew violations 39 Loitering 39 Forti cation SeX Offenses Rape Prostitution 39 Soliciting 39 Forti cation 39 Sodomy Incest Human Traf cking 39 The recruitment transportation or receipt of people for the purpose of slavery forced labor or servitude Traf cking takes away the basic human rights of the victim 39 Women are at a higher risk Homicide and Assault 39 Criminal Homicide The unlawful killing of one person by another Criminal Assault The unlawful application of physical force on another person 39 Most homicides are unintended outcomes of physical assaults Most murders occur between relatives friends and acquaintances Crimes of Passion Theft Illegally taking another persons property without their consent Crimes include Pickpocketing Burglary Financial schemes Forgery 39 Counterfeiting Extortion Blackmailing 39 Shoplifting Juvenile Delinquency Youth Crimes 39 20 of all people arrested are under the age of 18 Status Offenses 39 Acts that are de ned as illegal if committed by juveniles but not if committed by adults 39 Crimes include 39 Being truant 39 Having sexual relations 39 Running away from home 39 Violating curfew 39 Became unruly offenses 39 Gault Case 1967 39 A child ran away and the police held him for 4 days without informing his parents Juvenile Gangs 39 Four types of youth gangs 1 Criminal Gangs exist to commit crimes Their primary goal is material gain through criminal activities Crimes include theft extortion fencing and drug traf cking 2 Con ict Gangs turf gangs Respect is highly valued and defended 3 Retreatist Gangs focus on getting high Individuals join this type of gang in order to secure continued access to drugs for their own consumption 4 CultOccult Gangs engage in evil or devil worshiping Cult is the systematic worshiping of evil or the devil Occult implies keeping something a secret or hidden or a belief in the supernatural or mysterious powers The majority of occult members are adults The Criminal Justice System 39 Consists of 39 Criminals 39 Courts 39 Correctional system 39 Courts are criticized for the actionsharshness of the police 39 Harshness of sentences rasism The Two Goals of the Criminal Justice System 1 Crime control 39 The need to control crime and protect society from lawbreakers 39 Emphasizes speedy arrest and punishment for those who break the law 2 Due Process 39 The need to protect and preserve the rights and liberties of individuals The Police 39 The gatekeepers for the criminal justice system 39 Can t arrest everyone because the jails would be overloaded and society would collapse Only 1020 of the calls that police receive are classi ed as criminal 39 Lack resources and almost always encounter hostility The Courts Adversary system 90 of convictions in the US are obtained through plea bargains between the prosecuting attorney and the defendant Four key positions in a court 1 Prosecuting attorney 2 Defense attorney 3 Judge 4 Jury Being locked up while waiting for the court date contradicts the idea innocent until proven guilty Bail discriminates against the poor Judges base their sentences on such factors such as the seriousness of the crime the motives for the crime the background of the offender and their attitudes toward the offender The rst juvenile court was established in Illinois in 1899 Juvenile judges focus more on punishing than on treating juvenile offenders Correctional System Only rarely do the punitive and treatment components complete each other The Punitive Approach Approaches used to punish offenders Physical Torture Social Humiliation Reducing the social status of an offender is another method of punishment Financial Penalties Fines EXile Death Penalty Imprisonment Objectives of Incarceration To reform offenders so they will no longer commit crimes 39 To incapacitate criminals so they cannot commit crimes for a period of time thereby protecting society Achieve retribution for the victim and to some extent for the state 39 To serve as a warning to the general public a deterrent effect 39 A problem with these objections is that some of the components con ict with the others Association with other offenders may result in inmates learning additional lawbreaking techniques Incarceration may label the offender as a lawbreaker Segregating criminals may force them into a career of criminal activity Institutionalization 39 The idea that some prisoners may come to likeprefer prison life compared to the outside society The Treatment Approach 39 The punitive approach has the continuous effect of decreasing the efficiency and effectiveness of treatment programs 39 Counseling 39 Oneonone and group counseling Prison Education 39 Has two objectives 1 To give inmates formal academic training comparable to schools 2 To resocialize inmates attitudes and behaviors 39 Vocational Training Prison Labor Good Time 39 Reduced sentence for good behavior Parole and Probation
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