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Exam 1 study guide

by: Rebeca Cotton-Baez

Exam 1 study guide Psyc 390

Rebeca Cotton-Baez
SUNY Potsdam
GPA 3.3
Tests and Measurements
Dr. Williams

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About this Document

Study guide for the first exam- has examples
Tests and Measurements
Dr. Williams
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebeca Cotton-Baez on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 390 at State University of New York at Potsdam taught by Dr. Williams in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Tests and Measurements in Psychlogy at State University of New York at Potsdam.


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Date Created: 10/18/15
Hypothetical constructs Theoretical ideas can39t see them cannot observe them directly or measure them directly 0 Examples Intelligence anxiety depression sadness memory 0 Can be about phenomena that are A B Or relatively uid like mood Ex IQ Person 1 Person 2 10average Relatively stable like IQ OR A Broad intelligence social skills B Speci c like ne motor dexterity easier to nd reliability and validity Math Vocabulary 10 12 7 12 Standard deviation 15 Person 2 is very good at vocabulary but is very bad at math They are 2 standard deviations away from the mean in their math skills IQ is a hypothetical construct How do we know that intelligence exists 0 O O 0 Observe Example individual differences made in the same situation opening a door when you39ve never seen a door before Some people will be faster and better at it than others who does a job more ef ciently How did they gure it out How did they do it so fast INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Political leaders verbal skills 0 Observations 0000 School performance Solving everyday problems Reacting to novel situations Scienti c evidence shows signi cant correlations between situations that call for manipulations of information and tests of cognitive ability Ex Asshole as a construct individual difference make you higher or lower on the scale High on the asshole Scale Low on the asshole Tests are made to answer questions eg do smart people have higher levels of neurosis IQ test and neurosis scale 0 How do we measure HC 0 You choose the type of test or questions based upon the type of question you are asking Eg if you want to measure learning performance you might use multiple choice essay TF or ll in the blank People vary on individual preferences so maybe you can use questions in every style 0 We often measure the same construct in multiple ways Eg the intelligence scales on the WAIS measure performance in different ways visual spatial block design vocabulary o If you want to measure personality traits you might use Likerttype scales Scale of 15 or 17 odd numbers especially 57or 9 are the best psychometrically because nobody can choose the middle What is a Test Rorschach o Is it a psychological test Why or why not o Is it reliable o lsitvaHd o What kind of info could we gain from this that we couldn39t gain from interview eg perceptions people aren39t good at reporting their own expe ences A psychological test is a measurement instrument that has 3 de ning characteristics 1A psychological test uses a sample of behavior eg circling the number on a likert scale 2The sample of behavior is obtained under standardized conditions very clear rulesinstructions People lling out the MMPI in waiting rooms NOT standardized must be standardized procedures 3 There are established rules for scoring the test Why do we use tests Tests are used to make decisions about individuals 0 Major concern is whether the use of tests leads to better or worse decisions than would be reached without tests 0 How are tests different from other forms of measurement 0 1 sample of behavior A Tests measure behaviors subject has to DO something xray No performance or behavior 50 meter swim Yes swimming is behavior Visuamotor coordination Yes tracing mirrored image is behavior B A test does not measure all possible aspects of a construct or all possible occurrences C The quality of the test is largely determined by the representativeness of the sample of items Eg an IQ test that only asks math questions would be poor 0 2 Standardization A sample of behavior collected under standardized conditions SAT levels the playing eld 0 3Scoring rules A To come up with quantitative measure a number score etc Ex I love SUNY Potsdam test Question 7 I want to marry SUNY Potsdam True or False Ex The inkblot example could have qualitative and or quantitative scores they are measured by responses on the commonality list or does it actually look kind of remotely like it could relate to the response B Tests can have objective hard and fast rules or subjective human judgment is an integral part What if there were no scoring rules 0 The results or interpretation would be based on the examiner and would be different from psychologist to psychologist Transformations and Norms Raw scores do NOT usually provide useful info eg number correct we don39t know how many questions there were so we need to transform them into a more informative scale 0 Do not change the person39s score but simply reexpress the score in different units 0 Eg total of questions correct89 reexpressed 89 or perhaps 89 Transformations Norms and standard scores 1 Age norms the median score on a test obtained by people of a chronological age 2 Grade norms the median score on a test obtained by people of a given grade These imply that the rate of increase in skills is consistent over timenot true Eg reading teacher know what level of reading is appropriate for each kid based on their grade level Implies that there39s a linear relationship between grade and reading skills High school graduation reading level is around 8th or 9th grade level 3 Percentages raw and total possible percentile ranks for norm based tests eg GRE 4 Linear transformations Reliability 0 Consistency of measurement o If we could give one person 2 tests at exactly the same time the scores should be identical 0 To be reliable a test must at least assign scores in a consistent fashion 0 Eg in baseball each umpire must consistently call balls in the same range o Is Bob being rated in the same range of Bobness each time he39s tested Test of Bobness measures levels of Bobness must be in the same range to be reliable Reliability is really a property of test scores not tests 0 Person 1 85 9290 88 Person 2 65707570 All in same range reliable o In general reliability is higher if the variability is greater 0 The more variability in scores the more consistency can be seen because you will see individual differences 0 Sources of consistency and inconsistency Lasting and general characteristics of the person eg overall ability personality Lasting but speci c characteristics eg skill on this type of test consistency Temporary but general eg health motivation fatigue moods voices inconsistenct Factors affecting the administration of the test eg adherence to test time limits freedom from distractions inconsistency Other variance chance luck momentary distraction 0 We want tests to consistently measure characteristics that don39t change much personality 0 OR to consistently measure levels of characteristics that do change mood a thermometer shouldn39t have the same number all the time unless the temperature never changes 0 Observed test score true score error X Te T all the factors that lead to consistency of the measurement of the construct Errors in measurement e XT o Eg a kid takes a test who gets 905 on everything but ONE test makes him look dumb measurement error is high do NOT make decisions based on this test Methods of Estimating Reliability 0 The goal is to determine how much of the variability in test scores is due to errors in measurement and how much is due to variability in true scores 0 Variance the statistic measure the difference between each person39s score and mean test score divided by the number of people Variance is the average of the squared deviation scores must square to get away from zero sum x mean xquot2N 10 7 3 2 9 8 7 1 2 1 6 7 1quot2 1 4 7 3quot2 9 284 20l45 Variance5 Then take the square root to put back into the same unit of measurement variance is not psychological meaningful to get standard deviation 0 Wais Mean1013 Variance300 Standard deviation173 Methods of estimating reliability 0 Testretest Administer the test to a group of people gt Pen test we administer those on the rst oor they must be administered the same each time Readminister the same test to the same people at a later time gt Ex I feel like shit test 1 200 people test 2 maybe 100 people come back Correlate the 2 tests Possible Problems 60 Reactivity the experience of taking the test can change the person39s true score can learn more and thus have more knowledge eg answered that MLKJr is the rst black president if I go home and google it then I39ll know the correct answer oz Carry over effects person may remember their original response 0 Alternate forms Administer form A of the test to a group of people Administer form B to the same people either at the same time or some later time Eg WRAT 2 forms 15 minutes a piece Carry over effect is less of a problem with alternate forms Reactivity is partially controlled Expensive 0 Split half Administer a test items in half in some way Compute the 2 halves and correlate them to each other Ex Spelling test 2 word from each grade level oddeven split 0 Internal consistency Administer a test to a group of people Compute the correlations among all items and then compute the mean of these correlations Computer the internal consistency formula to estimate reliability Eg The Taylor Manifest Anxiety scale testretest 82 Internal consistency 88


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