Popular in Introduction to Sociology
Popular in Sociology
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra Reshetova on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Goss in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at Georgia State University.
Reviews for Exam 2
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/18/15
Introduction to Sociology Exam 2 Recent Changes in Capitalism Income Effect the more money people have the more expensive products they will buy Substitution Effect if prices go up on goods and services then people will buy cheaper products or business operations Henry Fordfounder of Ford Motor Company mass production Family Wage salary that was paid to the male worker in order for him to support his children and dependent wife Ford s Policy Living Wage to have a living that can be considered normal a wage that is greatly sufficient must be paid to keep it everyone has to have thisaccording to the people who were for the family wage If the man had no proof of his wife s dependency then he would not get the family wage Traditional Family Model dependent woman and the male breadwinner If the man was chosen to receive the family wage then he and his family would be checked on now and then by scientists Ford s Sociology Department The things they would check include finances gambling habits drinking sexual patterns and health Family wage a patriarchal bargain according to feminist sociologists Women s wage intended to provide 1 necessities of life Women in order to economically live well had to marry and stay married Heidi Hartmann Men 1 bene t from women s unpaid domestic labor in the home 2 have a material advantage over women 3 advantage gives them a superior sense of self Nancy Folbre Women 1 used as a exible reserve army to keep the peace among white male workers 2 if you dangle the threat of cheaper women before male workers employers were better bale to break strikes defy unionization and assert over labor Womenunrealizable American parents have less disposable income now then they did in the 1960s Americans work longer hours than the most of industrialized nations Juliet SchorUS worker had added an extra 164 hours to work year Until the Great Recession US work hours had been on the rise Americans receive little vacation time US do not have baby leave paid Family and Medical Leave Act Bill Clinton 12 weeks leave but not really paid no to part timers Arlie Hochschild life centers on work family suffers Studied Amerco pro family policies part time hours and explace Flexplace workers working from home Flextime workers can change their schedule o Horchschild discovered workers work long hours even though they were in an environment that was family friendly 0 Horchschild saysworking parents don t take advantage of familyfriendly corporate policies 0 Working mothershigh self esteem less depressed happy more feel more valued better mental health anxious tired The Service Sector 0 Service sector the section of the economy that involves providing immaterial intangible goods services 0 Grown over last 30 years 0 Examples restaurant work health care provision higher education legal or financial advice computer tech support truck transportation messenger services and warehousing information sector services securities commodities and other financial investment services rental and leasing services professional scientific and technical services administrative and support services waste management and remediation arts entertainment and recreation services Service work poses challenges to Smith s and Simmel s theories Globalization 0 Defined as a multi dimensional set of social processes that create multiply stretch and reinforce worldwide social changes and interdependence 0 An increase in trade and economic exchanges among individuals corporations and states in different areas of the globe o 4 recent globalization that make it new 1 new markets 2 new means of exchange 3 new players 4 new rules 0 Champagneglass distribution the unequal global distribution of income as named for its shape The Reign of the Corporation 0 Corporationsinstitutions that structure economic life 0 Corpusmeans body in Latin 0 Corporationa body of people that has authority to act as an individual 0 14th Amendment also grants corporations the legal status of persons The Corporate Psychopath 0 Corporations act like psychos 0 Corporations are selfinterested o Monopolythe form of business that occurs when one seller of a good or service dominates the market to the exclusion of others potentially leading to zero competition when business not competitive 0 Oligopoly the condition when a handful of firms effectively control a particular market 0 Collusioncoordinationset prices through these 0 Oligopoly can reduce supply or drive up demand or drive down costs and get big profits Not good for social welfare Can shut out competitors from the market can enter through government back door can dominate the market by offering low prices The Environment Low costs need to maintain efficient methods of production Environment is effected when industry spreads to a developing nation Examples pollution dumping toxic accidents BP oil spill Labor Sweat It or Bust It To reduce production lower labor costs Offshoringa business decision to move all or parts of a company s operations abroad to minimize costs Costs less to produce a good in a country other than USA Corporations based in the developed world would get access to cheap and pliable workforce from offshoring Workforce Composed of women youth and uneducated rural migrants Can receive public criticism due to this strategy Levi Strauss first to establish a conduct of labor Union an organization of workers designed to facilitate collective bargaining with employers Union Busting a company s assault on its worker s union with the hope of dissolving it Unionization is protected under the freedom of association in the first amendment Decline of US unionization rates Unionized workers get contract benefits Workers today want to be part of a union Workers do not unionize because they are aware of management hostility to collective action Disadvantage of having a union bad relations between employees and employers Chapter 7 Stratification arranged social inequality or systematic inequalities between groups of humans that arise as intentional or unintended consequences of social processes and relationships Social equalitya condition whereby no differences in wealth power prestige or status based on unnatural conventions exist J ean Jacques Rousseau The Scottish Enlightment and Thomas Malthus Population out grows food supply leads to stravation Dialectic a two directional relationship both ways conversion with two people Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Ontological Equality the notion that everyone at birth is made equal J effersonian notion Bible Equality of Opportunity the idea that people have an equal chance to get social prestige wealth and power because rules of game are the same for everybody Monopoly Bourgeois Society a society of commerce in which the maximization of profit is the first business incentive modern society capitalist Equality of condition that idea that people should have an equal beginning point Equality of outcome a position that argues each person must end up with the same amount and it does not matter of the fairness of the game Free Rider Problem the notion that when more than one human is responsible for getting something accomplished Estate System politically based system of stratification characterized by limited social mobility Feudal Europe Caste System religion based system of stratification characterized by no social movement India Varna System Class System an economically based rank system distinguished by cohesive oppositional groups and loose social movement position in economic market Proletariat the working class sells work to bourgeoisie Bourgeoisie the capitalist class take surplus value from working class Contradictory Class Locations the idea that humans can be settled in locations in the class structure that fall between the two pure classes managers Petit Bourgeoisie craftsmen professionals small business owners Status Hierarchy System a system of stratification based on social status Weber Elite Mass Dichotomy System system of stratification where a few leaders hold power in society or the governing elite Vilfredo Pareto C Wright Mills negative view Meritocracy a society where rank and movement are based on individual ability traits and achievement Pareto Socioeconomic Status SES a person s position in an arranged social order Income money given by employers or by government Wealth total net worth in a family Upper class economic elite Middle Classpeople with nonmaterial jobs that pay more than the poverty line very debated USA white collar workers are middle class manual labor working class There is an increase in low wage service sector Income Gap between mother and CEO has increased Employment changing so there is more money available Poor not unified group Working poor need help Nonworking poor don t work but can Underclass other class Globalization increase of trade of services and goods across national boundaries Food production on the rise Montesquieu geographical differences Social Mobility the mobility between different positions within a system of social stratification in any given society Sorokin Structural Mobility movement that will happen fromchanges in the economy Exchange Mobilitymovement in which people trade jobs not to onetoone but in a way that balances out Status Attainment Model approach that ranks people by socioeconomic status and seeks to detail the characteristics of people who end up in wanting work positions The death Tax estate tax Chapter 8 Feminism a consciousness raising movement to get people to understand that gender is an organizing principle of life the underlying belief is that women and men should be accorded equal opportunities and respect Sex biological differences that tell who is man and who is women Sexuality sexual preference want behavior sexual identity Gender a social position the set of social arrangements that are built around normative sex categories Essentialism a line of thought that explains social phenomena in terms of natural ones Biological determinism a line of thought that explains social behavior in terms of who you are in the natural world Hegemonic masculinity the condition in which men are dominant and privilegedand this dominance and privilege is invisible Gender roles sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one39s status as a male or female Patriarchy a nearly universal system involving the subordination of femininity to masculinity Structural functionalism theoretical tradition claiming that every society has certain structures the family the division of labor or gender that exist in order to fulfill some set of necessary functions reproduction of the species production of goods etc Sex Role Theory Talcott Parson39s theory that men and women perform their sex roles as breadwinners and wivesmothers respectively because the nuclear family is the ideal arrangement in modern societies fulfilling the function of reproduction workers Homosexual the social identity of a person who has sexual attraction to andor relations with other persons of the same sex Sexism occurs when a person39s sex or gender is the basis for judgment discrimination and hatred against him or her Sexual Harrassment an illegal form of discrimination involving everything from inappropriate jokes on the job to outright sexual assault to sexual quotbarterquot all intended to make women feel uncomfortable and unwelcome particularly on the job Glass Ceilings an invisible limit on women39s climb up the occupational ladder Glass Escalator the promotional ride men take to the top of a work organization especially in feminized jobs Chapter 9 Race group of humans who have characteristics that are the same and who have the same bloodline Racism the belief that people of separate races have different and unequal traits Scientific Racism 19th century theories of race that has a period of investigations into the explanations origins and classification of race Ethnocentrism the belief that one culture is above others Ontological equality the religious and philosophical notion that people are created equal Social Darwinism survival of the fittest Darwin Eugenics well born theory of controlling the fertility of people to in uence traits that go from generation to generation Nativism protect land from immigrants that is indigenous One Drop Rule one drop of black blood makes you black miscegenation forbidden Miscegenationinterracial marriage mixing of kinds exogamy Racialization development of new racial identity in which ideological boundaries of difference are drawn around a group of humans that were not noticed Ethnicity one s ethnic quality or af liation Symbolic Ethnicitya nationality identifying with a future or past nationality Native Americans were considered not civilized forced assimilation African Americans slavery 14 percent is black in USA more entering country than during slave trade Latinos in between group intermediate status Asian Americans first wave laborers second wavehighly skilled and educated Middle Eastern Americansnegative stereotyping Straight Line Assimilation how immigrants assimilate model by Robert Park The importance of being white free white persons Primordialism explanation of ethnic ties because they are fixed in primordial ties to one s culture Pluralismthe presence and engaged coexistence of a lot of distinct groups in one society Segregationthe social or legal practice of separating individuals on the basis of ethnicity or race Genocide mass killing of a lot of people Subaltern tells about an oppressed group of individuals Collective Resistance an organized effort to change a power hierarchy on the part of a lesspowerful group in a society Prejudice feelings and thoughts about an ethnic group or racial group Discriminationnegative or harmful acts against individuals who are thought to be inferior Institutional Racism social and institutional dynamics that look race neutral but put minority groups in a disadvantage Poverty Amid Plenty Absolute Poverty the point at which a household s money goes below the level to buy food to sustain the family Relative Poverty a measurement of poverty based on a percentage of the median money in a given location 0 Parenting Stress Hypothesis stress is heightened When there is a lack of inferiority from social classes lack of cultural resources and not stable employment leads to parenting practices such as yelling and hitting not healthy Why is the United States So Different America is not equal Does not fit a model of other countries that are industrialized Difficult to make a safety net there are three branches of government Race in America shadow looming on it America has more wealth Don t forget to read the D2L readings
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'