EBIO: Diversity of Life 1010 Tulane Second Midterm Study Guide
EBIO: Diversity of Life 1010 Tulane Second Midterm Study Guide EBIO 1010-02
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ian Seaman on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to EBIO 1010-02 at Tulane University taught by Doosey, Michael in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 180 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life in Biological Sciences at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
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porifera Coccus euglenozoa platyhelminthes Anabaena amoebozoa roundworms Oscillatoria chlorophyta cnidaria Subkingdom Parazoa Eumetazoa animals set aside distinct tissues symmetry embryos have 3 layers Endo Ecto Meso divided into 2 kinds Radiata Bilateria Symmetry Radiata Bilateria Phyla Porifera Cnidaria Platyhelminthes Rotifera Parazoa Eumetazoa Eumetazoa Eumetazoa Lacks symmetry Radial Bilateral Bilateral na na Protostomes Protostome na na Spiralia Spiralia Platyzoa Sponges Jelly sh Flatworrns Roundworms Spicules Diploblastic 2 layers Triploblastic all 3 Exoskeleton endoderm and germ layers mesoderm acoelomate acoelomate acoelomate Pseudocoelomate uses spongocoel to uses nematocysts to only has one opening Uses corona to feed by capture prey they the pharynx is used to feed and to swim choanocytes discharge venom bring in food corona is ciliated amoebocytes Gastrovascular Cavity Gut is used in digestion Mastax pharynx transport food site of digestion waste is used to grind up sperm and eggs discharge gametes food Hermaphroditic Hermaphroditic Hermaphroditic 2 Sexes Reproduces by Zygote planktonic mostly sexual some can males are rare fragmentation planula motile polyp do asexual parthenogenetic euphyra medusa unfertilized eggs develop into female adults Larva is motile adult is sessile 2 Body Forms Polyps sessile and Medusa Umbrella freeliving na na freeliving freeliving freeliving or parasitic freeliving or parasitic Phyla Nematoda Mollusca Annelida Ecdysozoa Lophotrochozoa Lophotrochozoa Bilateral Bilateral Bilateral Protostome Protostome Protostome neither spiral nor radial Spiral Spiral Roundworms Mollusks Clams Snails Squid Segmented Metamerism Worms Triploblastic 3 germ layers Mantle secretes shell bounds mantle cavity Hydrostatic skeleton coelom is lled with uid Pseudocoelomate Eucoelomates they have a hemocoel a small coelom around the heart Eucoelomates has complete digestive tract with mouth and anus Radula tonguelike scrapes algae and other food Setae tiny chitinous bristles on each segment metameres separated by septa that help in burrowing all aquatic habitats most are aquatic some are terrestrial terrestrial and aquatic sexually dimorphic there s both male and female most have two separate sexes some are asexual fragmentation hermaphroditic or two separate sexes Eutely xed number of cells Visceral Mass where digestive and reproductive organs are kept Annuli rings that mark each body segment Septa larva stage na Foot means of locomotion Setae is circular way of locomotion na Trochophore free living Trochophore freeliving or parasitic free living freeliving Phyla Arthropoda Echinodermata Chordata Eumetazoa Eumetazoa Eumetazoa Bilateria Bilateria Pentaradial Bilateria Symmetry Protostomia Deuterostomia Deuterostomia Ecdysozoa na na Spiral cleavage Radial cleavage Radial cleavage Insects Crustaceans Spiders Sea Stars Sea Urchins shes reptiles birds mammals Exoskeleton chitin and Endoskeleton Endoskeleton internal protein undergo ecdysis skeleton Eucoelomate Eucoelomate Eucoelomate Segmentation and Jointed Appendages Regeneration many are able to regenerate lost parts Muscles are segmented Ecdysis molts to grow sheds outer skeleton grows new one WaterVascular System madreporite stone canal ring canal radial canal tube feeder lNerve Cord Dorsal 2 Notochord 3 Pharyngeal SlitsPouches 4 Postanal Tail open circulatory system tracheal system terrestrial and gills aquatic Ampullae bulb at the end of the tube feet Eustachian tube what39s left after Pharyngeal slits are lost Terrestrial and Aquatic Mostly Aquatic Aquatic and Terrestrial Sexes are separate Mostly sexual most have separate sexes Sexual Reproduction Tagmata segmentation Head Thorax Abdomen longitudinal muscles thousands of them pull organism along Postanal tail typically regresses coccyx bone highly developed sensory organs nervous system is a nerve ring no brain na Phylum Cnidaria Classes Class Anthozoa Class Cubozoa Class Hydrozoa Class Scyphozoa anemones coral box jellies hydroids jelly sh solitary colonial strong swimmers Portuguese medusa is more polyps ManofWar complex symbiotic sting may be fatal large colony of ring of muscle dino agellates polyps photosynthesis Phylum Platyhelminthes Classes Class Turbellaria Class Trematoda Class Cestoda Planarians Flukes Tapeworms freeliving endoparasites for humans parasitic aquatic marine Neodermis extratough epithelium to resist digestion Scolex modi ed anterior end with hookers and suckers Proglottids series of segments some eat cnidarians for spreads through human hermaphroditic defense waste liver cirrhosis Phylum Mollusca Classes Class Polyplacophora Class Gastropoda Class Bivalvia Class Cephalopoda Chitons Snails Slugs Clams Oysters Octopus Squid adapted to hard basic chiton twisted lter feeder lack marine predators surfaces rocks into a spiral shell radula tentacles grab prey dorsoventrally attened Torsion visceral mass twists 180 dgs incurrent siphon complex brains highly complex eyes feeds with radula burrows in sand tentacles are lined with suckers for motion mantle cavity is lined with blood vessels only mollusks with closed circulatory sys Phylum Annelida Classes Class Polychaeta Class Oligochaeta Class Hirudinea Benthic occupy sea bottom Earthworms Leeches no clitellum burrows in soil mostly freshwater most segments have parapodia which bear a lot of setae Peristaltic Movements contraction of circular muscles in anterior no setae may have dorsal ganglia nervous system Anchoring contraction of longitudinal muscles in forward segments gut is specialized to hold a lot of blood important part of the food chain Food goes from Crop Gizzard Intestine developed suckers for attachment no permanent seX hermaphroditic hermaphroditic there are different sexes they fertilize each other crossfertilization Clade Clitellata both class oligochaeta and class hirudinea Phylum Arthropoda Subphyla Chelicerata Myriapoda Crustacea Hexapoda spiders scorpions centipedes crabs lobster insects 6 pairs of millipedes too largely marine all habitats but sea cephalothoraX Chelicerae first pair of appendages are fangs or piercers 3 segments tagmata cephalothoraX 3 body regions head thorax abdomen lack mandibles and antennae 2 pairs of antennae Hemimetabolous or Holometabolous suck liquid food Biramous appendages that are twobranched Tympanum thin membrane detects sound head has pair of mandibles and 2 pairs of maxillae has sensory setae that are hairlike Phylum Arthropoda Classes Class Merostomata Class Chilopoda Class Diplopoda Class Malacostraca Subphylum Subphylum Subphylum Subphylum Crustacea Chelicerata Myriapoda Myriapoda horseshoe crabs centipedes millipedes craw shes shrimp Class Arachnida Class Insecta Subphylum Chelicerata Subphylum Hexapoda two tagmata all habitats but sea most are predaceous 3 body regions head thorax and abdomen pedipalps are modi ed for sperm transfer sensory organs digestive tract is a tube midgut Pheromones used in communication Two Simple Metamorphoses Hemimetabolous stages similar to adult nymphs Holometabolous larva pupae molt into adult Phylum Arthropoda Orders Araneae Scorpiones Acari Isopoda Amphipoda Decapoda Class Class Class Class Class Class Arachnida Arachnida Arachnida Malacostraca Malacostraca Malacostraca Spiders Scorpions Ticks Mites Craw sh 4 pairs of nocturnal medically dorsally compressed 5 pairs of walking legs feed on important attened laterally walking legs 2 pedipalp 8 insects and some are carapace eyes spiders parasitic covering Phylum Echinodermata Classes Extant Asteroidea Echinoidea Ophiuroidea Crinoidea Holothuroidea sea stars sea urchins brittle stars sea lilies sea cucumbers predators lack arms arms are equal feather stars endoskeleton 525 arms moveable spines very brittle pentaradial Phylum Chordata Subphyla Urochordata Cephalochordata Vertebrata marine shallow marine water spinal column chordates cellulose cloak buried in sand endoskeleton larvae are tadpolelike lter feed through pharyngeal slits Vertebral Column encloses dorsal nerve chord adults lose tail and notochord Closed circulatory adults are sessile feed on the bottom of sea oor segmented muscle convergent evolution Neural Crest group of embryonic cells Head Distinct and welldifferentiated pOSSCSSlIlg SCHSOI39y organs Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata Classes MyXini Cephalaspidomorphi Chondrichthyes Actinopterygii Sarcopterygii Hag shes Lamprey Sharks Rays ray nned shes lobe nned sh marine marine and rst to form teeth diversity of size direct ancestor deep sea freshwater lateral line system of amphibians glands long larval period long gestation Beluga Sturgeon Coelacanth produce ammocoetes only periods and very slime reproduces in few offspring freshwater lack jaws lack jaws pocket shark was Paedocypris lung sh tropical ns discovered by freshwater Professor Doosey Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata Classes Class Amphibia Class Reptilia Class Aves Class Mammalia rst to exist on land dry skin their success is due to the feather fewest number of species direct descendant of thoracic breathing feathers grew from majority of species Sarcopterygii reptilian scales are very small legs Internal feathers hair lungs Fertilization ight skeleton Mammary Cutaneous Improved Glands Respiration Circulation secretes Pulmonary milk Veins Specialized Partially teeth Divided Heart Plant Digestion reproduction is still in All are Ectothermic Endothermic Endothermy depends water heat comes from an produces heat upon metabolic rate external source internally Tiktaalik Flight adaptations Placenta organ that transitional fossil between fish and efficient respiration and ef cient brings the fetal and maternal tissue 0 present in class Reptilia Aves and Mammalia 0 includes 4 cell membranes 0 Amnion Chorion O o Yolk Sac O Alentae Ichthyostega circulation blood together 3 Orders 4 Orders 2 Subclasses Anura Chelonia Prototheria Caudata Rhynchoceph Theria Apoda alia Squamata Crocodylia Amniotic Eggs Other Notes 5 Key Transitions in Animal Evolution 1 Symmetry a sponges parazoa porifera lack symmetry b two types of symmetry i Radial central aXis ii Bilateral only one plane right and left are mirror images c Sessile organisms tend to have radial d advantages of radial i awareness of food ii no effort e disadvantages i limited food ii can t escape predators iii mating f advantages of bilateral i cephalization sense organs at one end ii motile can seek out food and mates 2 Tissues a Sponges lack tissue b eumetazoa all have defined tissue 3 Body Cavity a Eumetazoa have 3 germ layers i outer ectoderm ii middle mesoderm iii inner endoderm b Body Cavity uidfilled cavity isolated from environment c 3 kinds of body plans for bilateral animals i Acoelomates no body cavity ii Pseudocoelomates body cavity between mesoderm and endoderm iii Eucoelomates body cavity within mesoderm d advantages i advanced organs ii circulatory system 4 Different Patterns of Development a mitotic cell divisions cleavages of egg from Blastula 5 Segmentation a allows redundant organ systems b allows exible movement Kingdom Animalia Subkingdom Eumetazoa Bilateria Lophotrochozoa Protostomia Bilateria Deuterostomia Protostomes Deuterostomes Spiral Cleavage Radial Cleavage Fate of Cells Determinate Fate of Cells Indeterminate Fate of Blastopore becomes mouth rst Fate of Blastopore becomes anus rst Formation of Coelom Split Formation of Coelom Out pocketing Advantages of a Coelom 0 Tube in a tube 0 allows uid circulation in coelom 0 acts as hydrostatic skeleton o more space for organs and gametes 0 allows segmentation parts can become specialized Kingdom Animalia Subkingdom Parazoa Phylum Porifera Sponges Slimplesponge anatomy watr out 39 osmium central sponge eaawty wall flagelllm cellar nu leus cellar cell 39 Bh 39 bu spams mimin flagellar fibrils amoebic cell Steps of Digestion 1 Outer Epithelium a water comes in through ostia pores 2 Mesohyl a Where the spicules are b Spicules calcium carbonate bers that help keep its shape c Spongin tough bers d amoebocytes 3 Choanocytes a agellated b engulf and digest the food in the water 4 Flagella pull out the food a digests through phagocytosis Characteristics of Phylum Chordata l Nerve cord 2 Notochord 3 Pharyngeal slits 4 Postanal tail gtl All of these characteristics are present at some point in a vertebrates lifetime 5 Fish characteristics 959959 Vertebral column Hag sh and lamprey are exceptions Jaws and paired appendages Hag sh and lamprey are exceptions Internal gills Singleloop blood circulation Nutritional de ciencies
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