Org Behavior Test 2 Review
Org Behavior Test 2 Review Mana 3318
Popular in Management Organizational Behavior
Popular in Business, management
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashlie Meckley on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Mana 3318 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Janice Baldwin in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see Management Organizational Behavior in Business, management at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
Test 2 Review 0 Motivation 0 Def Arousing and sustaining goal directed behavior 0 Internal I Motivation from within I Def Psychoanalysis method for delving into the unconscious mind to better understand a person s motives and needs 0 External I Motivation from circumstances and interactions I Def Selfinterest what is in the best interest of and benefit to an individual 0 Process will NOT be on test 0 Max Webster 0 Internal 0 Protestant work ethic theory I Corner stone of free enterprise system 0 2 principles I Work itself is good I Employers work had value to workers society not just employees alone 0 No work Society doesn t work 0 Sigmund Freud 0 Internal 0 Human motivation based on unconscious behavior I Ex Dreams 0 Organizational life founded on compulsion to work and power of love 0 Adam Smith economist 0 External 0 quotInvisible hand 0 Helping with free enterprise system 0 Most productive by enlightened self interest 0 Fredrick Taylor 0 Father scientific management I Emphasized cooperation between management and labor to increase profit 0 Labor efficiency 0 Believes pure science principles could be applied to workplace I Eiredesign every job to smallest part 0 Hawthorne Studies 0 Direct research in work environment 0 What can we change in work place to make employees work harder I Eilight level or temperature hep productivity 0 People work differently when the boss is around 0 Money productivity o Maslow s Big 5 o Selfactualization needs I Realization of ones dreams 0 Esteem needs I Want to improve themselves self improvement 0 Social needs love I Desire to be around others 0 Safety and Security needs I Seeking life without violence war and crime 0 Physiological needs I Big 3 food water clothing shelter Applies to everyone Anyone can move up but few get to highest Only move up NOT down Don t skip Only unmet needs motivate us 091 WN 2 maior critiques I Too rigidly 0 People can go backwards I Expectations 0 Not enough expectations to change theory 0 a starving artist 0 McGregor Theory 0 Only applies to managers 0 Theory X I Def set of assumptions managers might apply to individuals who are motivated by lowerorder needs bottom 2 of Maslow s I Separations between managers and employees I Obey unquestionably I Prefer to be lead people are lazy 0 Theory Y I Def set of assumptions managers might apply to individuals who are motivated by higher order of needsltop three Maslow s I Support team approach I Lead to team approach I Ask employees help I Active and develop amp grow 0 Alderfer s Theory 0 1St researcher to prove that human beings to regress on hierarchy I Regression is a motivator I quotdon t know you love something until its gone 0 Existence relatedness amp growth I 3 instead of5 hierarchy o McClelland s Theory 0 Def Manifest Needs learned or acquired needs that are easily perceived o 3 Needs I Need for Achievement 0 Def concerns excellence competition challenging goals persistence and overcoming difficulties 0 competitive enjoys hard projects I Need for Power 0 Def concerns the desire to influence others change people or events and make a difference in life 0 Impact in world make a difference control I Need for Affiliation 0 Def need to establish and maintain warm close intimate relationships with other people 0 Social warm human relations work though issues don t like conflict 0 One is dominant in every person I Taken too extreme could be negative 0 Herzberg 0 Two Factor Theory I Motivation Factor 0 Work conditions that satisfies the need for psychological growth I Hygiene Factor Table I7l Halthorn Motivational and Hygiene Factors work condltlon that L Hygiene Job Dissatisfaction Motivators Job Satisfaction I generates dissatisfaction due Achievement I to discomfort MW l W rk39 If I What motIvates IndIVIduals 395 j Responsibility j I Do they affect work Advancmm I Which ones do effect work 39Gth I I Wages amp Salary fall in both Emmy 9 CymdAdmmm on S 39 o Spillover effect mm H Interpersonal Relations 0 money IS a motivator I Working Conditions 0 Process for Good Incentive Programs Sam 1 Direct Relationship Stath 2 Payment close in time I Absenteeism 0 Cause excess employees I E Daily Attendance award next Monday 0 Stress O O Distress negative Eustress positive I Def Healthy normal stress 0 Social Exchange amp Equity Theory 0 0 Interaction with environment amp social processes Motivation behaviors to get equity I Committed relationships 0 Whole heartedly embraces I Calculated Partnerships o Demands specific things before relationships is formed I Alienated prison 0 Hate org and what it stands for 0 Adams Theory of Inequality O O O 0 Def neguity situation in which a person perceives that he or she is receiving less than he or she is giving or is giving less than he or she receiving Receiving less than giving Motivates them Consider inputs and their outcomes 0 Expectancy Theory 0000 People s perceptions Rewards or consequences to individual behavior Def Valence value persons places on reward Def Expectancy effort leads to performance Def Instrumentality performance is directly related to rewards o How we learn active practice 0 1 2 3 Def Learning a change in behavior acquired through experience Classroom Doing Selftaught 0 Classical Conditioning Def Modifying behavior by using a stimulus to bring on an unconditioned response Criticism 1 Humans are more complex then dogs so it wouldn t work on humans 2 Real life is much more complicated then labs 3 Human beings are different then animals because we have free will and can change our minds 0 Operant Conditioning Def Modifying behavior by using positive or negative consequences of specific behavior Dr Scinner 0 Leader of operant conditioning 0 Ethics problems 0 Mice amp electric shock o Maze go wrong way get shocked 0 Made live maze for his daughter to run through and see if it worked on her Reinforcement can be negative or positive 0 Def a strategy to cultivate desirable behavior by wither bestowing positive consequences or withholding negative consequences 0 Def Positive Consequences results of a behavior that a person finds attractive or pleasurable 0 Def Negative Consequences results of a behavior that a person finds unattractive or aversive o Withholding something of value 0 Increase desirable behavior with positive consequences Punishment 0 Def discourages undesirable behavior with negative consequences or withholding positive consequences Extinction usually used with children 0 Def Weaken behavior by attaching no consequence to it Two new areas of research 1 Social Learning Theory 0 Positive 0 Def Task specific selfefficacyIndividual s internal expectancy to perform a specific task effectively 0 Learning occurs by observing others amp modeling their behaviors 0 Negative 0 Child research 2 Cognitive Theories 0 Whole is greater than a part Goal Setting at work 0 Def Process of establishing desired result that guide and direct behavior 0 Functions 0 Increase work motivation higher goal higher performance and task performance 0 Reduce role stress associated with conflicting or confusing situations ambiguity leads to conflict 0 Improve accuracy and validity of performance evaluation 0 Validity direct relation to job description amp performance 0 Management by obiectives M30 0 Def goal setting program based on interaction and negotiation between employees and managers 2 3 Performance appraisal instrument 0 Def evaluations of a person s performance 2 vital parts 0 Planning and evaluation All levels have to be involved in planning starting with management each year Regular communication by supervisor amp employee at least one a quarter 0 Rewarding Performance can be demotivator if promote or raise pay of slacker o Correcting poor work performance 1 2 3 Def Performance Management a process of defining measuring appraising providing feedback on and improving performance Identify primary cause not symptom or responsibility Determine problems source employee or company Develop corrective plan of action 0 Kelley s Attribution Theory managers drawing conclusion off observation Consensus 0 Def information cue indicating the extent to which peers in the same situation behave in a similar fashion 0 Supervisor compared current event with employee to others employees 0 Ex john acting differently from his peers today Distinctiveness 0 Def informational cue indicating the degree to which an individual behaves the same way in other situations 0 Behavior with how he has acted in similar situation in past 0 Ex has Susie acted this way before Consistency 0 Def informational cue indicating the frequency of behavior over time 0 Behavior current events over time 0 Ex how often has Mark acted this in last 3 months 0 Mentoring Def Work relationship that encourages development and career enhancement for people moving through the career cycle Formal program upper management No program learn from management quotSuccess and achievement are NOT guaranteed in life Def Stress unconscious preparation to fight or flee that person experiences when faced with any demand Def Distresslstrain adverse psychological physical behavioral and organizational consequences that may arise as a result of stressful events Def Stressor persons or events that triggers stress reaction o 4Approaches 1 HomeostaticMedical I Physical self I Physical response to emergency situations I Increase stress we prefer for fight or flight syndrome I External demand upsets homeostasis 0 Def homeostasis individual equilibrium steadystate of balance I React 4 ways release chemicals activate nervous and endocrine system Redirects blood to brain Senses heightened vision hearing touch Glucose in blood stream releases to increase energy Bodily function diminished PWP o Suppressed immune system 2 Cognitive Appraisal Approach I Individual differ on appraisal of events and people 0 Problem Focused 0 Manage stressor o Emotional Focused 0 Manage their response to stressor 3 Person Environment Fit I Tried to combine psychology amp sociology social psychology I Cognitive Dissonance 0 Different value and ethics then us cause tension I Confusing and Conflicting expectations 4 Psychoanalysis I Freud I 2 elements of stress 0 Def Egoideal embodiment a person s perfect self what you want in life 0 Def Selfimage Actual thinks of him or herself I Greater discrepancy more stress 0 Work Demands source of stress 1 Task demands job itself 2 Role Demands job description 3 Interpersonal Demands 4 Physical Demands sweat shops 0 Non work demands 1 Home demands I Sandwich generation parental control 0 Having to take care of parents grandma and grandpa 2 Personal demands Def Workaholism imbalanced preoccupation with work at the expense of home and personal life satisfaction 0 Yerkes Dodson law 0 How we respond and effects on us 0 Individual Distress Medical illness heart attacks ulcer strokes Behavior Problems Work relates psychological disorder depression burnout psychosomatic disorders 0 Organizational Distress Participative Problems Def cost associated with absent absenteeism tardiness strike turnover Looking for symptoms Performance Decrement Def cost resulting from poor quality or low quality of production grievances and unscheduled machine downtime and repair Quality of product or service decreasing Losing customers Compensation Award 0 Stress Prevention 0 Job redesign 0 Goal setting Performance The YerkesDodson Law Optimal Stress Good Stress Bad Stress Low Medium High 1 l Stress Def Organizational cost resulting from court awards from job distress 0 Role negotiation territorial disputes 0 Social support system 0 Type A amp Type B Behavior Patternsonly talked about A 0 Type A Increase cost workers comp claims law suits Def Type A Behavior Pattern complex of personality and behavioral characteristics including competitiveness time urgency social status insecurity aggression hostility and a quest for achievement Competitive Time Urgency Social Status insecurity Aggression Hostility Quest for achievements 0 Personality Hardness Def Personality Hardiness personality characterized by commitment control and challenge and hence resistant to distress Degree to which personality resist stress 3 C s I Challenge threat stress increases I Commitment alienation stress increases I Control powerless stress increases Def Transformational Coping way of managing stressful events by changing them into less subjectively stressful events 0 SelfReliance Def a healthy secure interdependent pattern of behavior related to how people form and maintain supportive attachments with others Social relationships have impact on physical and mental health How people form and maintain attachments to other people Def Counterdependence an unhealthy insecure pattern of behavior that leads to separation in relationships with other people Def Overdependence an unhealthy insecure pattern of behavior that leads to separation in relationships with other people 0 Prevent Stress Management 1 Def organizational philosophy according to which people and organizations to which people and organizations should take joint responsibility for promoting health and preventing destress and strain Primary Prevention I Def stage in preventive stress management designed to reduce modify or eliminate the demand or stressor causing stress I Seek to reduce or eliminate things causing stress I Technigues 0 Positive Thinking o Optimism o Pessimism leads to negative effects 0 Time Management 0 Improves planning and prioritizes activities 0 Leading cause of stress 0 Leisure Time Activity 0 Balance work and nonwork activities 2 Secondary Prevention I Def stage in preventative stress management designed to alter or modify the individuals or the organizations response to demand or stressor I Modify response to stressor I Technigues 0 Physical Exercise o Improves cardiovascular function and muscular flexibility 0 Relaxation Training o Lowers all indicators of the stress response E o Lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease and improves overall physical health 3 Tertiary Prevention I Def the stage in preventive stress management designed Message to heal IndIVIdual or Sender 1 3h Receiver organizational symptoms of distress and strain I Increase stress seek to heal individual I Technigues 0 Opening up 0 Releases internalized traumas and emotional tensions 0 Professional help 0 Provides information emotional support and therapeutic guidance 0 Communication 0 Def evoking of shared or common meaning in another person 0 Occurs between 2 or more people 0 Def Oneway communication in which a person sends a message to another person and no feedback questions or interaction follows 0 Def Twoway interactive form of communication in which there is an exchange of thoughts feelings or both 0 Def Gateways openings that break down communication barriers mg 0 2 or more people 0 Basic Interpersonal Communication Model 0 Def communication between two or more people in an organi7ation 0 Best communicators orally and written do b C mmunicat r o Perceptual Screens 39 COHfliCt I Def window through which one interacts with other 0 Affect ity accuracy and clarity of the communication I Quality clarity and awareness I Barriers 0 Factors that distort disrupt or even halt successful communication 0 Feedback is possible 0 Def Message thoughts and feelings that the communicator is attempting to evoke in the receiver 0 Def Language words their pronunciations and the methods of combining them used and understood by a group of people 0 Information Richness and Data 0 Data capacity I Def interpreted and unanalyzed elements of a message I Sending data to other people 0 Information richness I Def data that have been interrupted analyzed and have meaning to some users I Ability to evoke meaning 0 Reflective Listening 0 Def listening to a message and immediately repeating it back to the speaker o Skill to help communicator to fully understand and make sure they are actually delivered 0 4 Verbal Techniques o Affirming Contact I Provides reassurance communication attentiveness o Paraphrase I Paraphrasing what has already been expressed I Bolds empathy openness acceptance 0 Clarify the implicit I Bring out unspoken thoughts and feelings I Builds greater awareness o Reflect quotcorequot feelings I Restate important thoughts and feelings I Danger of overreacting o NonVerbal Techniques o Silence not golden I Speaker 0 Useful thinking 0 Determine how to express ideas or feelings I Listener 0 Sort out thoughts and feelings 0 Identify and isolate personality 0 Eye Contact I Useful to open relationship I Improves communication I Culturally driven 0 Moderate eye contact 0 No eye contact privacy or control 0 Asia don t look superior in eyes o Defensive Communication I Def Messages that are aggressive malevolent passive or withdrawn I Cause alienation hurt feelings and retaliation o Nondefensive Communications I Def Assertive direct and powerful I More favorable o Defensive Tactics I Power Play quotfinish report by months end or lose your job Overt aggression put down to gain dominance I LabeHng quotyou must be a slow learner your report is still not done To show someone is defiant I Hostile Jokes quotcan you finish the report or are you to stupid Not good humor created at expensive of others 0 Nonverbal Communications I Def all elements of communication that do noninvolved words or language I Proxemics b d I Kinesis Def study of an individual s perception and use of space Territorial Space 0 Def bands of concentric spare radiating out of body 0 Differs based on culture Perception and use of space Intimate 0 Personal space 0 Closest to us no one can invade without permission in advance I Always have reaction Personal Distance 0 Friendship 0 Very to 18inch 4ft US 2ft Social Distnave o 4ft 12ft 0 Business associates coworker acquaintances Public Distance 0 Past 12ft US gt 6ft 0 Socially acceptable for strangers 0 Universal stick tongue out 0 Def Study of body movements and posture I Facial and Eye Behavior 0 Communicate an emotional state reveal behavioral intentions cue the receiver or give unintentional clues 0 Universal smile I Paralanguage 0 Variation in speech 0 Pitch loudness tone speed 0 Information Communication Technology ICT 0 Def extensive category of new developments in interpersonal communication that allow fast even immediate access to information Information databases Email Voicemail OOOO Smartphone no guarantee of privacy 0 Video conferencing 0 Written Communication 0 Formal reports I Annual and quarterly I Letter vs memos 0 Letter 3rel party Movie day regarding ch 8 0 word of mouth was the lst way people got word o newspapers was 2nd 0 Vietnam war lst time dead bodies were shown 0 Juneteenth the day Texas was informed that civil was over via horseback o techno dualism the positivenegative aspects of technology 0 carpal tunnel disease increased via keyboard 0 social media impact in news etc all forms of communication have biases o reality tv impact avg 100 hrs of filming for 1 hr of show 0 technological advances 0 movies39 influence during WWII 0 environmental stress 0 shaping opinions After the movie Chapter 8 continued Oneway communication comm in which a person send a message to another person and no questions feedback or interaction follow 0 good for giving simple directions o efficient but often less accurate two way communication an interactive form of comm in which there is a exchange of thoughts feelings or both 0 good for problem solving good communicator in companies move up in ranks fast speaking and writing Five keys to effective supervisory communication 0 expressive o empathy and sensitivity to subordinates o persuasion o informative Barriers to communication factors that distort disrupt or even halt successful communication 0 physical separation 0 status differences 0 gender differences 0 cultural diversity 0 language How do men differ from women when it comes to communication gtWmen don39t need to look at one another to communicate as opposed to women who need eye contact lt
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