Review of Test 2
Review of Test 2 MSCI 311
Popular in Biology of Marine Organisms
Popular in Marine Science
This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katie Hathaway on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MSCI 311 at University of South Carolina taught by Griffen in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see Biology of Marine Organisms in Marine Science at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
Energy metabolism Key Concepts 0 Water biological molecules and energetics o Nutrients Thermodynamics and energy 0 Activation energy and enzymes 0 ATP Oxidationreduction reaction Oceans are warming and due to the fact warm water holds less oxygen this leads to smaller sh in all worlds oceans The larger the females the more eggs to allow population increase A decrease in size will lower Build up of atmospheric oxygen over geologic time Life evolved without oxygen until cyanobacteria produced it through photosynthesis about 22 mya Surface to volume ratio of a cell is important for material transfer The larger the volume of the cell the smaller the surface area This prevents material from traveling through cell quickly Nutrients Micronutrients and vitamins cannot be synthesized by organisms must be obtained from environment lron limitation low primary production due to limiting factor mostly from dust that blows from land Thermodynamics controls all metabolic processes 0 Energy is constant can not be created or destroyed Amount of useful energy decreases when energy transformations occur entropy increases Photosynthesis highest where nutrients are abundant coastal areas from land runoff upwelling Chemosynthesis may have been the original source of energy for life Use methane from black smokers or hydrogen sul des Found symbiotic bacteria in mussels using hydrogen Energy transfer is imperfect Some energy used for biological processes catabolism etc 0 Some lost as heat to environment Energy gained Sunlight energy reaches earth or chemical energy harnessed Producers secure and convert to forms of energy sugars that can support cellular work Energy lost With each conversion some lost as heat Lower mass of organisms as move up the food chain Bacteria 3050 of oceans primary production DOM eaten by bacteria micro agellates then consume bacteria and zooplankton eat these Jellies appear to be increasing across most of the world due to 0 increase in nutrients from river runoff increased primary production 0 As water temperature increases metabolic rates increase 0 Reduction of predators due to over shing and bycatch Change in marine web microbial loop now includes jellies Mucus has higher CN ratio than typically found More carbon dioxide because it cant sustain bacterial growth Endergonic requires energy Exergonic produces energy Activation energy energy required to Align reactive chemical groups Destabilize electrical charges 0 Break bonds Enzymes are proteins that speed this process Puts chemicals in an 39activation state 0 Brings low concentration chemicals together Aligns reactive chemical groups Shuts out water molecules Induces t between substrate molecules Allosteric activators and cofactors As metabolic rates increase they will need to consume more energy cells Phosphorylation any phosphate group transfer ATP ADP AMP adenine ribose Metabolism Metabolic pathways enzymemediated sequence of reactions in Biosynthetic anabolic require energy input Degradative catabolic net release of energy Oxidationreduction reactions redox are coupled Oxidation reduced compound reducing agentoxidized lose electronscompound is oxidized Reduction oxidized compound oxidizing agentreduced gain electronscompound is reduced Cell Respiration Key Concepts Aerobic respiration o Glycolysis o Krebs cycle 0 Electron transfer phosphorylation Anaerobic respiration o Fermentation alcoholic and lactate Cellular handling of lipids proteins and carbohydrates 0 Geologic build up of oxygen and rise of aerobic respiration Aerobic respiration always occurs by default if oxygen is present because more energy is released during redox than any other entropy increases as much as possible Slide 12 of professor lecture review of steps Molecules involved in respiration Glucose Fructose Pyruvate AceytolCoA Citric Acid Oxaloacetate ATP Glycolysis starts in cytoplasm aerobic completed in mitochondrion Differences in amount of ATP produced Energyrequiring glucose ATP l glucose6phosphate ATP I fructose16biphosphate l 2 PGAL Slide 16 of professor lecture PGAL NAD and Pl 13bisphosphoglycerate ADP I 3 phosphoglycerate l 2phosphoglycerate H20 l PEP ADP l pyruvate Between 2 PGAL 4 ATP produced enzymes inside uid of inner compartment Krebs Cycle Two pyruvates cross the inner mitochondrial membrane 8 NADH 2 FADH2 2 ATP The 6 carbon atoms from 2 pyruvates diffuse out of the mitochondrion then out of the cell as 6 C02 Slide 21 of lecture coenzyme A helps break pyruvate to acetyleCoA Electron transport chain is embedded within inner membrane NADH and FADH2 give up electrons to transfer chains Electrons transferred through and unbound hydrogen is shuttled across membrane to outer compartment Oxygen is the nal acceptor of electrons Hydrogen concentration and electric gradients now exist H follows gradients through interior of ATP synthase to inner compartment drives formation ADP P ATP 36 ATP produced from entire process class example pathogens and pollutants impair blue crab metabolic processes aerobic respiration not enough oxygen present to break down glucose Anaerobic respiration Alcoholic fermentation algae biodiesel production review podcast Glycolysis produces 2 ATP and pyruvate then 2 acetaldehyde l 2 ethanol Lactate fermentation Glycolysis produces 2 ATP and pyruvate then 2 lactate Build up of atmospheric oxygen over geologic time allowed for grater energy to be harnessed 36 compared to 2 ATP Allowed for greater evolution of life Fish will be smaller due to less oxygen metabolic rate low Slide 39 different food intake effects on process different levels of efficiencies sh oil more ef cient than increasing shmeal Gas exchange Slide 2 relation between organ systems Respiration Physiological process by which oxygen moves into internal environment and carbon dioxide moves out Respiratory system Acts in concert with the circulatory system to deliver oxygen and remove carbon dioxide and helps regulate acidbase balance Oxygen relatively constant in sea water 46 ppm Less soluble in warm water think of soda The oxygen minimum layer is between m depth minimum layer is created where usage is greater than replenishment by convection 4001000 m Carbon dioxide most dissolved as HCO3 and leads to ocean acidi cation Carbon dioxide takes up of gas in the sea 75 Respiration easy because oxygen levels fairly constant Pressure unit of force per given area Partial pressure pressure a gas would have if it alone occupied a vmume Can determine partial pressure of oxygen using atmospheric pressure about 160 mm Hg at sea level Gases diffuse down their pressure gradients across respiratory membranes Lower concentration inside body compared to atmosphere Pressure exerted by the weight of the air on objects on Earth39s surface is Atmospheric pressure Ficks law Diffusion across a membrane is o Proportional to surface area 0 Proportional to difference in partial pressure across membrane 0 lnversely proportional to distance over which diffusion occurs According to ck39s law which of the following is not something an organism can vary in order to in uence the diffusion of oxygen across its respiratory surface a the difference in partial pressure of oxygen across its respiratory membrane b the temperature c the surface area of the respiratory surface d the thickness of the respiratory surface Boundary layer found next to all solid surfaces The stronger ow initially will cause it to be more compressed Caused by uid viscosity Maximize surface area due to boundary layer and water has relatively low content The velocity of a viscous uid including seawater decreases the closer you get to an object so that there is no ow directly adjacent to the object the noslip condition this area of decreasing velocity is known as the Boundary layer As animal size increases surfacetovolume ratio decreases This allows small animals to use body surface for gas exchange while large animas must have special structures to increase respiratory surface Gills attached to thoracic appendages Ventilation produced by gill bailer and setae lter incoming water especially important in burrowing species truefalse moisture is not always required in invertebrate respiration False are organisms where the respiration occurs across their body wall Cnidarians most have blood vascular system echiura Echinoderms have that are out pocketings that do the same thing as air sacs and increase surface area drawn in for protection as well dermal branchii Major cucumber respiratory organs where muscles generate a tidal ow of oxygenated seawater in and outare they are anal breathers Respiratory trees In what organisms do the gills extend the length of the body on both sides and water passes in from the sides across the gills and out the posteriorly molluscs chitons In what organisms does water pass in through anterior holes across the gills and out posterior holes molluscs abalone In what organisms do they have a single gill that is folded to create greater contact between water and gill so greater diffusion and the water passes over a gill as it circulates through mantle cavity molluscs snail In what organisms are there very large paired gills that fold back on self many times that are used in respiration and also in feeding and siphons draw water in with cilia molluscs bivalves In what organisms are there very large paired gills and muscle generates movement of water across the gills and gas exchange is across the body wall as well molluscs cephalopods Stresses presented to respiration in intertidal organisms temperature uctuations salinity uctuations exposure to air variable oxygen supply adaptations of intertidal organisms respiration in air and water as long as are moist close valves to avoid desiccation but keep cracked to allow gas exchange 0 increased vascularization withstand great water loss up to 25 of body weight anaerobic respiration brie y Gas exchange in vertebrate marine organisms Behavioral adaptations close when hot to avoid desiccation open when cool for gas exchange Oxyconformers Reduce metabolic rate Gradually include anaerobic pathways Regulators Change ventilation rate 0 Respiratory pigments The acid test Dissolve shells o Disorient sh Broadcast spawning release sperm Gills Covered by operculum plate for protection Countercurrent exchange enhances absorption of gases Blood and water ow in opposite directions partial pressure of oxygen in water slightly higher than that of blood if same direction less because it can only occur for half buccal pumping ram ventilation ray nned sh outpockets became gas bladders lobe nned sh became lungs gave rise to tetrapods control or breathing medulla oblongata sets rhythm brain detects excess H increases breathing Magnitude of breathing depends on concentration of and oxygen and H whales and dolphins only turn off half of the brain while asleep shift dissociation of oxygen to hemoglobin Bohr effect 0 eft lower temps increasing pH 0 right higher temps decrease pH whale respiratory adaptations assist with diving 0 have smaller lungs large tidal volume 8590 of air 0 larger red blood cells and more of them 0 more myoglobin than terrestrial mammals 0 oxygen shunted away from nonvital organs during dives anaerobic muscle function high tolerance for lactic acid 0 can tolerate high carbon dioxide in blood when a circulatory system maintains volume composition and temp of extracellular uids it is said to be in homeostasis Respiratory pigments Hemoglobin vertabretes in cells Hemocyanin anthropods mullusks in blood Hemerythrin in blood or muscle cells Chlorocruorin annelids dissolved in blood Marine organisms with gastrovascular cavities have no specialized circulatory systems cnidarians atworms Circulatory systems 0 Open 0 Arthropods and most mollusks o Spaces or cavities in body tissues 0 Less susceptible to pressure and greater control of body temperature 0 Less control over oxygen delivery and less ef cient ltration Closed 0 Annelids and vertebrates 0 Slow ow rate Crab blood contains amebocytes for phagocytosis and clotting Platelets Membranebound cell fragments that release substances to initiate clotting Horseshoe crab blood used by pharmaceutical companies to test responses horseshoe crab blood protects public health because its blood contains what main bacterial toxin endotoxin Cephalopods are the exception for mollusks very similar to our system What is the evolutionary link between the following aspects of marine organisms biology body size gas exchange gradient in circulatory systems all vertebrates have closed systems heart must pump blood through entire circuit and heart is oxygenated using spent blood slide 20 for variations on sh system 2 problems with the standard sh plan of the circulatory system 1 heart must push blood through entire circuit 2 heart is oxygenated using 39spent39 blood Functions of mammal blood Transports oxygen and nutrients to cells carries carbon dioxide and wastes away from cells helps stabilize internal pH carries infection ghting cells and helps equalize temperature Blood transport Heartgtarteriesgtarteriolesgtcapillariesgtvenuesgtveinsgtheart Red cells are most numerous in blood to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide continuously replaced and formed from stem cells in blood marrow Diving physiology most are short and shallow but can be long and deep Adaptation for lungs and rib cage modi ed for collapse due to lack of sternum Respiratory bene t of collapsed alveoli Reserving gas and limit problems of the bends slowing of the heart is called bradycardia a circulatory adaptations for diving mammals when muscles use oxygen stored in myoglobin and or anaerobic respiration this is called regional vasoconstriction circulatory adaptations for diving mammals Sound pollution harmful to marine mammals whale stranding Paci c coast dead zone Gulf of Mexico from nutrient run off water is enriched with nutrients and sediments from Mississippi river Harmful algal blooms cause hypoxic zones Amount of dead zones are increasing per year Reduces benthic biomass and diversity massive sh kills from hypoxia reduced shery yield Prevent by using fewer fertilizers or adjusting timing control animal waste monitor sewage treatment and careful industrial practices colonial life forms are genetically identical so may facilitate more virulent pathogens because do not have to evolve open populations allows for rapid transfer of disease over large geographical areas human impact overharvesting dolphins health shed light on human and ocean health diseases are similar to those of humans human bacterium killing corals in Florida keys white pox disease many bacteria examples withering foot syndrome white band disease virus small DNA or RNA enclosed why are viruses on the rise Pollution climate change 0 over shing 0 increased human populations
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