Social Stratification; Races and Ethnicity; Crime and Deviance
Social Stratification; Races and Ethnicity; Crime and Deviance 1500
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by DawnManuelle on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 1500 at Youngstown State University taught by Gregory C. Rocheleau, Ph. D. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology 1500 in Sociology at Youngstown State University.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
Introduction to Sociology by Gregory C Rocheleau PhD Note taker s Note The following definition that are highlighted has been taken via verbal explanation of the professor Social Stratification Race and Ethnicity Gender and Sexuality Social Stratification Social Stratification classified differences in social classes Social Class FACTORS Income amount of money a person earns a pay check Wealth value of assets owned by an individual Social Stratification Classes Social Stratification Classes different types of classes in the society based on the individual s income and wealth Upper Class a class in which they have the highest status the richest among the richest Middle Class a class in which they have an average income Lower Class a class in which they called Under Class a class in which they are in the lowest position of the society people that are not working or people that are living rough on streets Socioeconomic Status a combined set of income education and occupation of an individual Inequality Economic Inequality differences in status in economy Income amount of money a person earns around 1970 s United States experienced an expansion of income inequality Median Family Income the amount that divides the income into two areas half of the income is above the quantity and the other half is below the quantity Disparity differences of income of people at different types social classes Wealth value of assets owned by an individual made a large gap to the latest economy of the society Median Family Income the amount that divides the income into two areas half of the income is above the quantity and the other half is below the quantity Greater Disparity greater difference of income of people at different types social classes Mobility Socioeconomic mobility movements in social hierarchy Vertical Mobilityrising and downward mobility the movement of the status from higher rank to lower rank or vice versa Horizontal Mobility the individual might be changing his locations but the social status remains the same and intact Intergenerational Mobility movements of social class between generation to generation Intragenerational Mobility a sudden change of social status of an individual for a lifetime Trends Socioeconomic Trends developments occurring to social and economic status Decreased Mobility most changes are from the specific higher rank of social class decreasing to the lower rank of social class after how many years Explanations Technology jobs for human are becoming less because of technology ex machines that are automatically operated Globalization an area of business was moved to another location for a better access of commercial services ex Businessmen will shut down a factory on a certain place because they will move to a bigger city of another country in which the business will be more productive Politics political resolution in terms of minimum wage some jobs who aren t paying high has been disoriented to some jobs that are paying more Discretionary Income and Debt lesser discretionary income income that is left after paying expenses and greater in debt Poverty Poverty can be define as absolute and relative a situation in which an individual lacks money for his daily needs Absolute Poverty Line Relative Race and Ethnicity Race a social definition based on some physical traits or biological traits of an individual Ethnicity a social definition based on cultural or traditional traits of a group Social Construction of Race Genetic Evidence It has an insufficient variation of genes between a group compare to other groups but it has sufficient variation of genes within each group Fossil DNA Evidence anthropologists trace ancestor s track through discovering fossils Subjective and uid categories the meaning of race changes by the society over a period oftime subjective selfdefinition uid what is being define as distinct race or ethnicity changes Race and Ethnicity Relations Race and Ethnic Relations Majority and minority groups related to race and ethnicity and other mode in the society Majority group a group in which they are in control in relation to power wealth and prestige Minority group a group in which they have less control in relation to power wealth and prestige Strength minority refers to classification of power not about numerical superiority Race and Ethnicity Interaction Race and Ethnic Interaction Pluralism the existence of some groups with different ethnic or spiritual background within the society but preserving their individual qualities which were their cultural differences Assimilation in which the minority group takes on the culture of a dominant group Segregation De lure Segregation legal division or separation of groups in our society De Facto Segregation not legally separated by law but it occurs by action Racial Scurry Genocide an attempt or systematic elimination of an entire ethnic group Race and Ethnicity Stereotypes Racism and Privilege Stereotypes Racism a particular racial or ethnic groups which are biologically inferior and practices their controlling power to other different races Institutional Racism White Privilege advantages of having a special treatment to white people mostly in terms of work compared to other races Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice related to unfavorable feelings or opinion regarding to minorities prejudging somebody Discrimination related to an unfavorable action or treatment regarding to minorities Consequences of the prejudice and discrimination affects a lot the society Merton s 1949 Typology a sociologist classified some categories towards prejudice and discrimination Unprejudiced nondiscriminator integration there is no prejudice nor discrimination towards minorities Prejudiced discriminator outright bigotry prejudiced occur the same as to discrimination towards minorities Prejudiced nondiscriminator latent bigotry there is prejudice but they don t discriminate towards minorities Unprejudiced discriminator institutional racism there is no prejudice but they do discriminate towards minorities Psychological Sources Psychological Sources of Prejudice and Discrimination Frustration hostile behavior applied on describing prejudice towards discrimination Projection when an individual have negative and bad thoughts or feelings about themselves and they re ect it to other individuals Authoritarian an individual that is authoritative more likely racist prejudice or to discriminate Social Sources Social Sources of Prejudice and Discrimination Socialization expectation in your behavior as an individual or it could be a learned behavior in the society Stereotyping in control of prejudice and discrimination Ethnocentrism an individual thinks that his culture is more superior compare to other cultures Con ict and Competition in which there are different groups or races together in a society and the resources become limited that is where competition enters and prejudice and racism increases so as con icts Gender and Sexuality Sex Sex genetic individualism of males and females based on their differences in reproductive parts and functions Intersexed an individual who have some union of both male and female genetalia or reproductive organ Transexual an individual who have a genitalia or reproductive organ that is the o osite of the sex he she considers himself herself with Gender and Sexuality Gender Gender a distinction of the sex of an individual through his physical and behavioral features Gender Identity Transgender a term describing an individual who changed his gender identity considered they undergone surgery to transform his physical structure Gender Roles Definition Masculinity manly tough Feminity womanly emotional Crime and Deviance Definitions Crime an act prohibited by law enacted by legally authorized officials enforcing in the society Deviance behaviors or characteristics that are different from an accepted standard behavior Statistical definition deviance considered not a normal average Absolute definition part of the act of being totally deviant Normative definition the deviance depends on the views of the audience Reactivist definition indicates deviance as a behavior that provokes negative reactions Relations between Crime and Deviance Crimes in our society are considered as deviance on the other side deviance is not necessarily named as a crime Types of Crime Types of Crime 1 Part I Offenses a Violent b Property 2 Part II Offenses a Many other offenses Punishment Strategies 1 Deterrence to prevent some criminal behavior by fear or giving warning of the possible punishment 2 Incapacitation prevents future offending through elimination of opportunities to do wrong 3 Retribution punishment given as a vengeance to something he has done Crime Rate
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