PSY: 315Final StudyGuide
PSY: 315Final StudyGuide PSY 315
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily.nicole on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 315 at Syracuse University taught by T. Palfai in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see Drugs and Human Behavior in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
Psychology Exam 4 mechanism of action amphetamines o Mechanisms 0 Work on Catecholamines DA and NE Produce formidable adrenergic response at both peripheral and central nervous synapses Release newlysynthesized catecholamines Release larger quantities of catecholamines Resemble NE false neurotransmitter Block catecholamine reuptake Inhibits MAO 0 Strong effect on 5HT neurons 0 Decreased tryptophan hydroxylase activity at certain area impaired synthesis of 5HT Caffeinemechanism of action Block adenosine receptors naturally occurring depressant in the body 2ncrease cell metabolism Release Ca releasegt increase muscle contraction Release NANEfeel better Adenosine antagonism peristalsis It s how food gets down your throat through your stomach through your small intestine then through your large intestine to it s final destination the rectum Peristalsis or peristaltic action is what moves food through your entire digestive tract When things go wrong with peristalsis you can end up with bowel cramps constipation diarrhea abdominal pain etc and other things like GERD Problems Caffeine alcohol and cigarette smoking are all suspected of causing problems with peristalsis Some people have more nerve endings or pain receptors in their intestines which can cause spasms in response to food irritants Psychology Exam 4 Caffeine is a stimulant and bowel irritant which can speed things up to the point of diarrhea Alcohol can mess things up too possibly do to the mind gut connection mentioned below effects of opiates 0 Effects on CNS euphoria and analgesia 0 Medulla inhibits respiration center raise C02 threshold Inhibits vasomotor center hypotension Stimulates CTZgt depress emetic center 0 Hypothalamus Reset the body s thermostat Release ADH Inhibits release ACTH Depress afferent input 0 Limbic Raise threshold on amygdale 0 Cortex Lower evoked potential slowing EEG reduce REM 0 Effects on GI constipation 0 Increase intestinal contractions but interferes with peristalsis to relieve diarrhea and dysentery o Behavioral Effect 0 Analgesia relief 0 Sedation quietly happy 0 Eupho a 5 Clinical Application 0 Analgesia diarrhea and cough opiates Psychodynamics o Poorly absorbed from GI tract 0 It is used through inhalation 0 Prepared as morphine sulfate 0 Optimal dose for analgesia is 515 mg 10 mg is the standard effective dose 2 Opiate Receptors o Enkephalin endogenous opiate made in the brain 0 Endorphin endogenous opiate that contains the enkephalin molecules in the structural sequence 3 Mechanisms of action 0 Enhances 5HT synthesis so reserpine could impair morphine effect 0 Prevents release of NE at postganglionic sympathetic site 0 Incorporated into cell functiongt affect cell metabolism 0 Inhibition of protein synthesis with antibioticsgt tolerance 4 Pharmacological Effects Psychology Exam 4 o Is a prototype of the opiates 0 Effects on CNS euphoria and analgesia O Medulla inhibits respiration center raise C02 threshold Inhibits vasomotor center hypotension Stimulates CTZgt depress emetic center 0 Hypothalamus Reset the body s thermostat Release ADH Inhibits release ACTH Depress afferent input 0 Limbic Raise threshold on amygdale O Cortex Lower evoked potential slowing EEG reduce REM 0 Effects on GI constipation 0 Increase intestinal contractions but interferes with peristalsis to relieve diarrhea and dysentery o Behavioral Effect 0 Analgesia relief 0 Sedation quietly happy 0 Euphoria 5 Clinical Application 0 Analgesia diarrhea and cough 6 Side Effects 0 Nausea and vomiting some people experience vomiting and never try opiates again 0 Constipation 0 Respiratory depression 7 Heroin o More potent 3 times when inject IM or IV It is dangerous sharing needles 8 Codeine 0 Natural alkaloids derived from opium Primary cough suppressant Opiate Agonists and Antagonists o 3 groups 0 Morphinelike agonists stimulate specific opiate receptors 0 Antagonist naloxone block specific receptors 0 Mixed action opioids partial antagonist agonistantagonists 1 Naloxone 0 Pure antagonist 0 Has a higher affinity for the receptors than morphine non competitive antagonist 0 Blocks morphine s action for a few hours 0 Have less activity at the receptor Psychology Exam 4 0 Application remedy for opiate poisoning 2 Mixed Action Opioids o Nalbuphine Nalline pentazocine Talwin 3 Methadone Dolophine 0 History near the end of WWII 0 it was used as a substitute for diminishing supplies of morphine o Psychodynamics 0 Oral use 0 mimics morphine but have milder withdrawal 0 for addiction treatment 0 Treatment of Opiate Abuse 0 Methadone maintenance programs 0 Therapeutic communities TCs 0 Heroin maintenance methadone 4 Methadone Dolophine 0 History near the end of WWII 0 it was used as a substitute for diminishing supplies of morphine o Psychodynamics 0 Oral use 0 mimics morphine but have milder withdrawal 0 for addiction treatment 0 Treatment of Opiate Abuse 0 Methadone maintenance programs 0 Therapeutic communities TCs 0 Heroin maintenance a powerful medication that is part of a group of drugs called opioids Methadone is prescribed by a doctor to treat people who have been addicted to opioids It has similar effects to heroin but doesn39t deliver the same degree of buzz or high as heroin When methadone is sold or given to someone it is not prescribed for it is very dangerous appication of amphetamine weightcontrol programs to suppress appetite and to treat narcolepsy They were used as vasoconstrictors in inhalant therapy to shrink nasal mucous membranes in such conditions as nasal allergies and asthma now such inhalants have been banned because of their toxicity consequences of amphetamine use 0 Side Effects 0 Increased sweating blurred vision dilation of pupils nystagmus quick jerky movements of the eyes Psychology Exam 4 0 Sympathetic effects pulse rate and blood pressure rise danger 0 Anorexia insomnia Jaw tension 0 Dangers the product is not pure different types of amphetamines Other substituted Amphetamines o DOM STP is in the substituted amphetamine class of hallucinogens o MDA a mescaline analogue o MMDA another substituted amphetamine o KHAT the fresh leaves contain cathinone a stimulant that can be shew or smoked 3 PCP Phencyclidine gt angel dust o Anesthetic similar to cocaine 0 Related to ketapine or ketamine 0 Ex super weed and krystal o Inhale o Inhale peak at 1530 min or oral onset at 3060 min peak in 25 hr 0 Side effect often mimics mental illness cause depression 4 Ketamine o Rapidlyacting general anesthetic 5Fentaniloss o Is an excellent heroin substitute used regularly as an anesthetic usefulness of cocaine History reieve from cold and hunger 0 Clinical application 0 Local anesthesia loss of sensation without loss of consciousness and without impairment of central vital functions like circulation of respiration which of the following statements of cocaine s history is false see above 0 mechanism of action for ecstasy Mechanism 0 Strong effect on 5HT neurons 0 Decreased tryptophan hydroxylase activity at certain area impaired synthesis of 5 HT another 2 questions of ecstasy o Pharmacodynamics O A methylated amphetamine molecule 0 Oral use 0 Behavioral effect 0 Positive mood changes 0 Feel an intimacy O Pathogen 0 Anxiolytic reduces anxiety 0 Side Effects Psychology Exam 4 0 Increased sweating blurred vision dilation of pupils nystagmus quick jerky movements of the eyes 0 Sympathetic effects pulse rate and blood pressure rise danger 0 Anorexia insomnia Jaw tension 0 Dangers the product is not pure PCP4 Questions PCP Phencyclidine gt angel dust o Anesthetic similar to cocaine 0 Related to ketapine or ketamine 0 Ex super weed and krystal o Inhale o Inhale peak at 1530 min or oral onset at 3060 min peak in 25 hr 0 Side effect often mimics mental illness cause depression smoking 0 Contains lots of substances other than Nicotine 0 Causes 0 the inhibition of hunger through several mechanisms Inhibit hunger contractions in the stomach Slight increase in blood sugar Some deadening of the taste buds from smoke in the mouth 0 shortness of breath 10 of all hemoglobin may be found occupied by CO unable to carry 02 O abnormal pregnancy Pregnant females who smoke have twice as many aborted or stillborn babies 0 Withdrawal may gain weight 0 It is the nation s largest preventable cause of death cancer 0 Why people smoke The most influential teachers are one s adolescent peers effective ingredient of coffee tea and chocolate2 questions Xanthines methylxanthines o It includes 0 caffeine from coffee and colanut 0 theophylline from tea 0 theobromine from chocolate from cacao tree 0 History 0 oldest stimulant coffee 900 AD Arabia tea 780 AD China 0 history of coffee use Psychology Exam 4 Coffee House University Penny University England recyclable hallucinogenshroom o Muscarine Ach agonist 0 From fly agaric mushroom Amanita Muscaria in northern hemisphere O Psychodynamics Eating 5 to 10 mushrooms cause severe intoxication active ingredient is well absorbed orally The hallucinogenic principle of the mushrooms is excreted unchanged and remains active in the urine can be recycled for 4 to 5 times colergernic hallucinogens Cholinergic Agonistsgeneral effects of cholinergic agonists o Muscarine o Physostigmine 0 AchE antagonist O From Calabar bean Physostigma venenosum 0 Clinical application chemica amine hallucinogensstructural formula Structurally DMT is analogous to the neurotransmitter serotonin 5HT the hormone melatonin and other psychedelic tryptamines such as 5MeODMT bufotenin psilocin and psilocybin LSD5 questions 0 LSD 5HT Hallucinogens 0 History Belongs to ergot alkaloids from ergot a poisonous fungus that infects rye and other grains 0 moldy grain Hallucinations St Anthony s Fire First synthesized March 19 1943 by Albert Hofmann Timothy Leary was the guru of LSD movement 0 Psychodynamics Derive of lysergic acid basic chemical structure indole nucleus orally effective at 03 to 05 mg largest amount is concentrated in the liver Psychology Exam 4 lowest amount is concentrated in the brain Highest levels in the visual areas especially the LGN Limbic system and in areas of the reticular formation NOT very lethal in human Tolerance to LSD develop rapidly 0 cross tolerance with mescaline and psilocybin 0 Pharmacological effects Key mechanism working at 5 HT synapse DA and 5HT systems involved Behavioral effects 0 Vision blind peoplegt olfactory 0 Improve monosynaptic reflex 0 Has sympathomimetic action 0 Sensitized sensory collaterals of the ARAS 0 Clinical use very little therapeutic use schedule 1 0 Side effects It depends on the context Hallucinations panic flashback LSD mechanism of action alterations in brain serotonergic function have been implicated in the mechanism of action through stimulation of a specific brain serotonin receptor subtype the affinities of these compounds for radiolabelled 5HT many numbered forms DMT the businessman s lunch When ingested DMT acts as a psychedelic drugl11 Depending on the dose and method of administration its subjective effects can range from shortlived milder psychedelic states to powerful immersive experiences these are often described as a total loss of connection to conventional reality with the encounter of ineffable spiritualalien realms mechanism of action of methadone Methadone is a muagonist a synthetic opioid analgesic with multiple actions qualitatively similar to those of morphine the most prominent of which involves the central nervous system and organs composed of smooth muscle The principal therapeutic uses for methadone are for analgesia and for detoxification or maintenance in opioid addiction The methadone abstinence syndrome although qualitatively similar to that of morphine differs in that the onset is slower the course is more prolonged and the symptoms are less severe Some data also indicate that methadone acts as an antagonist at the NmethylDaspartate NMDA receptor The contribution of NMDA receptor antagonism to methadone39s efficacy is unknown Other NMDA receptor antagonists have been shown to produce neurotoxic effects in animals Psychology Exam 4 student manual questionsregarding opium timothy leary3 questions gave prisoners mushroom felt like their life changed less aggression not happy with being in prison use of peyote a small spineless cactus in which the principal active ingredient is mescaline This plant has been used by natives in northern Mexico and the southwestern United States as a part of religious ceremonies Mescaline can also be produced through chemical synthesis used in Native American churchlegal smoking behavior The use of tobacco also took on a new social meanings as it was marketed to fulfill psychosocial needs such as a attaining independence or being part of a quotcoolquot trend The result was widespread and frequent usage particularly through the smoking of cigarettes High consumption has since produced devastating health effects Although early opponents had to rely primarily on moral and emotional persuasion epidemiological evidence of tobacco39s impact on morbidity and mortality now provides the principal impetus to develop policies to prevent smoking usefuness of THC reduces nausea for cancer patients helps relieve pressure in eyes for patients with glaucoma THC contains 0 NO nitrogen O NO alkaloid o difficult to isolate THC contains 0 NO nitrogen O NO alkaloid 0 difficult to isolate effects of THC Primary active ingredient of both below THC o It comes from Cannabis plants 0 Marijuana dried mixture of crushed seeds fine stems leaves and resinous flowering tops 0 Hashish grows throughout the world s temperate and tropic zones Psychology Exam 4 Behavioral effects 0 animal 0 Sedation and hypnosis o For human 0 Increase pulse rate dry mouth and throat dizziness enhance sensory experience decrease aggression increase confidence 0 NO changes in blood pressure and pupil size 3 Clinical effects 0 Good treatment for glaucoma 0 also reduces nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy 4 Side effect 0 tolerance 0 It has reverse tolerance flashbacks and dangers OOOOO tea ceremoniesLondon and Cali Theophylline o It is in tea leaves 0 Japanese tea ceremony 8th century 0 Effects 0 Similar to caffeine bronchodilation central nervous and heart stimulation 0 Relax smooth muscles used as an antiasthmatic treatment 0 Heart stimulation 0 Clinical use 0 Used for antiasthmatic treatment relax smooth muscles in the periphery magic mushroom of Mexico Mexicana magic mushroom in land of the Aztecs The effects of psilocybin mushrooms come from psilocybin and psilocin They create shortterm increases in tolerance of users thus making it difficult to abuse them because the more often they are taken within a short period of time the weaker the resultant effects are effects of Nicotine3 Nicotine o Psychodynamics Psychology Exam 4 Inhale is odorless and colorless liquid volatile alkaloid exist in two mirrorimage forms isomers reaches brain in 10 sec 90 crosses through the bloodbrain barrier Accumulations bladder Special affinity to NicotineModel for bladder cancer 0 Pharmacological effects 0 A stimulant but also have some calming properties smoker s behavior titration 0 Two phase action at cholinergic synapses Attach directly to the nicotinic receptors stimulate and then go from agonizing to antagonizing 0 Increase NE releasegt sympathetic reaction 0 In GI tractgt increase muscle activity 0 Low dose stimulates both vomiting and respiratory centers 0 Excretion O Kidney Rate determined by acidity urine 0 Biphasic effects 0 Parasympathetic salivary gland wet vs dry 0 Side Effects 0 Very powerful poison Toxic dose at only 10 mg Lethal dose at 60 mg 0 by central depression of reparation and from inhabitation of ACh in the peripheral muscles 0 Increase risk of coronary heart disease OOOOO Effective ingredients of plants mentioned2 gt plantas o Anadenanthera peregrina virola elongata O Cohoba tree 0 Yanomami indians 0 Effective ingredient DMT bufotenin O Poorly absorbed orally should be inhaled or injected 0 Banisteriopsis caapi 0 Harmala alkaloids Inhibits MAO 0 Effective ingredient DMT bufotenin O Psychotria viridis leaves Toman como t o Ololiuqui Psychology Exam 4 0 Morning glory plant 0 Effective ingredient Lysergic acid amine cholinergic hallucinogens family Solanaceaepotato 1 antagonistsmustt contain atropine amp scopolamine A deadly nightshade belladonna Deadly nightshade3 o Atropine 0 Antagonizes AChE inhibitorgt Ach anatomist O From deadly Nightshade Atropa belladonna 0 Effects First cheerful and talkative followed by a confused state marked by a loss of speech and then crisis in which violent convulsions followed by sleep or death a sense of flight Low dosegt no effect on behavior or EEG Moderate dosegt excitement delirium blurry vision 0 Application acts against the cholinergic agonist muscarine 0 Side effect no cross tolerance B mandke contains atropine scopolamine and hyoscyamine witches C Henbane toxic to deer and most birdsharmful to hens contains scopolamine hyoscyamine and atropine D Daturacontains atropine scopolamine and hyoscyamine caled Jamestown weed jimson weed devil s apple and zombie s cucumber It is related to the myth of zombie 2 cholinergic agonists A muscarine Ach agonist 0 From fly agaric mushroom Amanita Muscaria in northern hemisphere O Psychodynamics Eating 5 to 10 mushrooms cause severe intoxication active ingredient is well absorbed orally The hallucinogenic principle of the mushrooms is excreted unchanged and remains active in the urine can be recycled for 4 to 5 times 0 Pharmacological effects Acts directly stimulating certain Ach receptors in both the CNS and periphery O Psychological effect pleasant 0 Peripheral effect deeply unpleasant B physostigmine 0 AchE antagonist Psychology Exam 4 O From Calabar bean Physostigma venenosum 0 Clinical applicationtreatment for glaucoma and myasthenia gravis
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