● Declarative memory
● Information about specific events in our lives is held in episodic (autobiographical) memory
● Facts are stored in semantic memory
● Von Restorff Phenomenon is an example of the beneficial impact of primary distinctiveness (isolation effect)on memory
○ says that words in the middle of a list will be remembered better if it stands out more
● state dependent learning is when performance is better if learning takes place in the same state as recall
○ can be emotional, chemical, or physical states
○ Studying in the same room as taking the exam in would be an example of a physical state
● Context dependent learning is when performance is better because of the presence of the same cues at encoding and retrieving We also discuss several other topics like Who is the architect of the pyramid of khufu (cheops), old kingdom, dynasty iv in egypt?
○ such as being wet or dry
● Transfer appropriate processing finds that retrieval is best when it matches the style of encoding
○ semantic retrieval (meaning test) is only better when learned through semantic encoding (meaning cues), versus rhyme tests and cues If you want to learn more check out Who co-discovered natural skeleton with charles darwin?
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○ rhyme test proved to be more difficult than meaning test, overall ● Repetition of simple exposure is NOT enough for stimuli to become encoded in long term memory
○ In order to correctly recognize a penny, we would need to go further and organize the information, which links prior knowledge to new information ● Levels of Processing Theory
○ shallow: repetition of surface level information with little attention to meaning
■ associated with maintenance rehearsal (like repeating a phone number in your head)
○ deep: involves attention to meaning
■ associated with elaborative rehearsal (relating it to prior knowledge or creating a mnemonic device)
● The change in serial curve from A to B could be caused by the von Restorff Effect, which could cause a word in the middle of a list to be remembered because it stands out, such as being all capitalizedIf you want to learn more check out What is formal organization?
● Blocking: failure to retrieve known information
○ “Tip of the tongue”effect is the failure to retrieve words you know that you know
■ Can usually remember how the word starts and how long the word is without actually identifying the word
■ names are common with this effect
● Priming is known as the facilitation in the processing of a stimulus from prior exposure to related stimulus
○ changes the way a person responds to test stimulus based on the priming stimulus
○ repetition priming: seeing the word “bird” may make someone later recall or respond more quickly to the presentation of birds
● Autobiographical memory: the interplay between episodic memory and semantic memory to remember specific experiences from our life.
○ For example, remembering something that happened last night would be an example of episodicmemory, with the inclusion of semantic
memories related to those experiences
○ personal semantic memories are facts specifically related to personal experiences We also discuss several other topics like Who is franz anton krager?
● People with amnesia typically show a deficit in declarative memories ○ Retrograde amnesia patients cannot remember existing declarative memories, but can form new ones
○ Anterograde amnesia patients cannot form new declarative memories, but can remember old ones
● Misattribution: failure to connect all the parts of a memory at retrieval ○ familiarity: how easily the memory comes to mind
○ source: where the memory came from
■ Ella misattributed the source from which she got her information ○ contents: information to be remembered
● Measuring implicit memories
○ savings from learning
○ performance measures
■ priming and word completion
○ physiological measures
■ Eye movements and ERPs
● Measuring explicit memories
○ cued recall
■ recollection and familiarity
● deja vu is suggested to be caused by fluency misattribution, or the misattribution of ease of process with prior exposure
● When presented with a criminal lineup, people are most likely to choose the most familiar looking person, even if they are familiar from an innocent context, such as having been seen on TV
● In order to avoid memory failures due to misinformation, authorities should implement cognitive interviewingfor the most accurate retrieval ○ mentally reinstating the environment and personal situation in which crime occurred Don't forget about the age old question of What are the two major concepts of the theology of calvin?
○ encourage report of all details
○ recounting events in different orders
○ changing perspectives and retelling
● in order to encourage memory failures, authorities should incorporate suggestibility while interviewing
○ leading questions and the misinformation effect
○ using words like “smashed” instead of “hit” while questioning about a video of a car accident makes participants more likely to report higher speeds and even seeing broken glass
● Flashbulb memories are experiences that are remembered vividly due to high levels of events and emotional arousal
○ these memories are consistently reported with high confidence but low accuracy
● Distinction between implicit and explicit memory:
○ Implicit memory is not affected by levels of processing, and depends on modality and other perceptual characteristics
○ explicit memory is unaffected by modality change
● Baker/baker paradigmfound that people are more likely to recall someone’s occupation rather than their last name, even if it was the exact same word ● Flashbulb memories are characterized by..
○ vividness= T
○ accuracy= F
○ emotion and surprise= T
○ confidence= T
● False memory evidence suggests..
○ Fluency of processing being mistaken for prior exposure= T
○ confidence correlated with accuracy= F
○ False memories occur even in people who have strong memories= T ○ false memories occur in various modalities= T
● Template models assume that mental representations are many templates that are created and stored in memory through visual experience; Feature models assume that mental representations are composed of several lists of features, composed of separable parts
○ Describing a letter based on its line characteristics is an example of the featuremodel
○ each line in the letter F is a feature
● Higher recognition of consistently configured parts (set A) would support a templateprocessing model, because the recognition would depend on a general pattern. Higher recognition for differently configured objects (set b) would support a featuremodel, because the objects/features are scanned for and considered recognized when enough features line up.
● Structural modelsbreaks up objects into general shapes and their spatial relations
■ geons are a basic set of shapes used to make up more complex objects
■ flawed in that not all objects are made up of geons, shapes are broad enough to not distinguish much information, and the view of geons varies depending on perspective
■ desirable, because it suggests a smaller pool of information to pull from than a long list of features
■ the recognition of occluded objects can be achieved through the use of geons
● Template models recognize objects by comparing stimuli to a set of existing templates and matching visual patterns
● Template model
■ Memory representation is built directly from perceptual information. ■ Works well for limited numbers of fairly distinct items (e.g.,
numbers on checks).
■ Need many templates even for one object.
■ Search through all the necessary templates would seem to take too much time.
● Feature model (viewer centered)
■ Allow more flexibility than template models
■ Visual search experiments show that objects with distinct features can be found more quickly.
■ Some neurobiological support for feature detection.
■ Unclear on how features are determined
■ Still need many feature lists, for multiple views of the same object (e.g., letter A upright and upsidedown)
● Geon model
■ Relationships between features are built in.
■ We might be able to pick out features based on general grouping principles.
■ Experimental data suggest that people are better at recognizing degraded objects when more of the geon information is intact.
■ Not all objects are welldescribed by geons (bread).
■ Shape can’t always distinguish between two objects (orange vs. apple vs. potato)
■ People show some viewpoint dependence.
Faces and Categories
● Prospagnosiais the specific inability to recognize familiar faces ● Bruce and Young IP model
○ 1) recognizing a face as familiar
○ 2) retrieving biographical knowledge about the familiar face
○ 3) retrieving the name of the person
■ model suggests that name cannot be retrieved before the face is recognized and biographical knowledgehas been retrieved
● Faces are unique for recognition because
○ hold social information
○ visually very similar
○ must be identified at an individual level
● The effect of altering the pattern of faces suggests the importance of configurationof faces, or the spacial relations between features
○ Inversion effect
■ processing of configuration is limited to faces presented in an
■ illustrates that human face perception has some important
processing limits for nontypical views.
● Similarities in problems with recognizing faces and houses in prosopanosics suggests that configuration is also a key to recognizing houses ● According to the Bruce and Young IP model..
Concepts and Categories
● Classical view states that objects are classified using properties that are necessary and sufficient, and an object only fits into that category if it contains all of these features or properties
● Probabilistic viewclassifies objects by features that are usually true of all category members, and is determined by levels of similarity
○ prototype view
■ summary representation including all the typical properties
■ contains a unitary description that is always true of category
○ exemplar view
■ separate descriptions from a large set of instances
■ no unitary description; flexible
■ can be used in different contexts
■ collection of category members (or exemplars)
● problems: requires a lot of time and space to sift through
○ both assume that similarity is the core to categorization
○ core difference between the two is that the exemplar view is more flexible than the prototype view, because there is no unitary description
■ exemplar view accounts for people seeing robins as more birdlike than penguins, because birds are typically small and can sing.
■ Jalessa may think of blackbirds as being more similar to bats,
because they look more similar; but if she thinks blackbirds are
more similar to flamingos, she would be using more knowledge and theory based categorization
● Knowledge based views emphasize that sometimes, similarity is not enough for categorization
● Categories and schemas are important because they allow for shortcuts in interpreting vast amounts of information at once
○ F (classical view)
● Alexia patients have the distinct inability to read written words
● The word superiority effect is an example of top down processing ○ would not hold true in different languages
○ demonstrated naturally by the McClelland and Rumelhart model, because letter information is also made active by the word
● Face processing disorders reveal that faces can be dissociated from the processing of other visual objects, such as words