American Politics Study Guide: Ch. 1 - Ch. 6
American Politics Study Guide: Ch. 1 - Ch. 6 GPOSC 225
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Chapter One Understanding American Politics Book Outline with Lecture Notes Opening Decriminalization of marijuana Recently many states have decriminalized the use of medical marijuana and four states Alaska Colorado Oregon and Washington have legalized the growth sale and possession This legalization demonstrates a major theme that politics is con ictual However the legality of marijuana usage is still in question even in the states that have changed their laws This is because of the Constitutional provision called federalism give the federal government but limits the federal government s Making Sense of American Government and Politics Three key ideas about the nature of politics politics is con ictual political process matters and politics are everywhere Why do we even have a government Government 9 is the system for implementing decisions made through the political process and serves to and 1 Provide order Without government there would be no laws and people would do whatever they wanted The Founders of the United States noted this crucial role in the document s preamble two of the central goals of government are to and to Common defense 9 military protection against foreign invasion and our nation s common security interests Tranquility 9 law enforcement within the nations James Madison saw government was necessary because of the nature of human beings Factions 9 groups of likeminded people who try to in uence the government American government is set up to avoid domination by any one of these groups American s government seeks to control the effects of fractions by dividing government power in three main ways 1 Separation of powers 9 the division of government power across the judicial executive and legislative branches 2 Checks and balances 9 a system in which each branch of government has some power over the others 3 Federalism 9 the division of power across the local state and nation levels of government To promote general welfare Tackling the hard problems that Americans cannot solve on their own such as taking care of the poor the sick or the aged and dealing with global issues like climate change terrorist threats and poverty in other countries Public goods 9 services of actions that once provided to one person become available to everyone Government is typically needed to provide public goods because the free market will underprovide them Collective action problems 9 situations in which the members of a group would bene t by working together to produce some outcome but each individual is better off refusing to cooperate and reaping bene ts from those who do the work Common in modern society Ex Education 9 the individual bene ts from education with knowledge and experience society also bene ts from the individual s education the individual s employer bene ts Bene ts all levels of society so the government must provide it Free rider problem 9 in incentive to bene t from others work without making a contribution which leads individuals in a collective action situation to refuse to work together Forms of Government Aristotle distinguished three types of government monarchy ruled by one aristocracy ruled by a few and polity ruled by many such as the general population Polity re ned more constitutional republican government based on how they allocate power among the executive legislative and judicial branches Ex Presidential system in America follow the separation of powers while the United Kingdom elects a chief executive from the legislature to bring together the two branches Further re ned by considering the relationships among different levels of the government Ex In a federal system like the US power is shared among the local state and national levels of government In a unitary system all power is held at the national level What is Politics Politics 9 the process that determines what government does It includes ways of behaving and making decisions that are common in everyday life 1 Politics is conflictual 9 options considered by policy makers generally involve disagreement at all levels 2nd Political process matters 9 governmental actions don t happen by accident they result from conscious choices made by elected of cials and bureaucrats 3rd Politics is everywhere 9 decisions about what government should do or who should be in charge are integral to society and they in uence the everyday lives of Americans Politics is con ictual Some see con ict as essential and others don t like con ict at all This disdain for con ict and therefore politics creates a desire for stealth democracy 9 nondemocratic practices such as running government like a business or taking action without political debate Political Process Matters The political process is often described like a sporting event 9 this view overlooks an important point that politics is the process that determines what government does Public policy is up for grabs Elections 9 excellent example of the importance of the political process they allow voters to give fellow citizens the power to enact laws write budgets and appoint senior bureaucrats and federal judges Members of federal bureaucracy and federal judges 9 develop and implement government policies Ordinary citizens 9 they can vote donate time or money to interest groups party organizations or individual candidates or demand action from these groups or individuals Politics is Everywhere Interest groups political parties and candidates work to raise public awareness of the political process and to shape what people know and want News media offer extensive coverage of politics in stories about elections and governing and how government policies affect Americans Many people s political behavior is similar to their behavior in the rest of their lives Sources of Con ict in American Politics Economic Interests The United States has become stratified by class in now has the highest levels of income inequality among developed nations Free market 9 an economic system based on competition among businesses without government interference Economic individualism 9 the autonomy of individuals to manage their own nancial decisions without government interference Redistributive tax policies 9 generally favored by Democratic politicians that use taxation to attempt to create social equality higher tax on the rich to provide to the poor Democrats more inclined to regulate industry to protect the environment and worker and product safety but they tend to favor fewer restrictions on the personal behavior of individuals Republicans favor lower taxes and less spending of social policies Also more supportive of the free market and less inclined to interfere with business interests They tend to favor regulation of individual behaviors Cultural Values Culture wars 9 political con ict between redstate Americans who have strong religious beliefs and bluestate Americans who have more secular views Color coding shows red states as carried by Republicans and blues states as carried by Democrats Racial Gender and Ethnic Differences 90 percent of American Americans have been strong supporters of Democratic candidates Whites tend to support Republicans One of the enduring debates in American politics concerns whether ethnic and racial differences should be tied to political interests One perspective argues the melting pot image of America claiming that different racial and ethnic groups that come to this country should mostly leave their native languages and customs behind Racial separatists 9 see white dominated society as oppressive and discriminatory Multiculturalists 9 tossed salad version arguing that each ingredient remains distinct but contributes to the quality of the salad Ideology Ideology 9 a cohesive set of ideas and beliefs used to organize and evaluate the political world Conservative 9 associated with Republicans one side of the ideological spectrum defined by support for lower taxes a free market and a morelimited government Liberal 9 associated with Democrats one side of the ideological spectrum defined by support for stronger government programs and more market regulation Libertarians9 those who prefer very limited government and therefore tend to be conservative on issues such as welfare policy environmental policy and public support for education but liberal on issues of personal liberty such as free speech abortion and the legalization of drugs Fiscal conservative favoring balanced budgets Social liberal favoring the pro choice position on abortion and marital rights for gays liberal on foreign policy supporting humanitarian aid and opposing the war in Afghanistan and conservative on moral issues being pro life on abortion and opposing stemcell research Resolving Con ict Democracy and American Political Values Liberty9 political freedom such as the freedom of speech press assembly and religion These are due process rights protecting the individual from government control and are outlined in the Bill of Rights Democracy 9 government by the people representative democracy in which the people elect leaders to enact policies Embraces freedom while providing the means to resolve con ict Also requires compromise This leads to majority tyranny 9 the majority wins at elections and suppress the liberties of the minority This tension between majority rule and minority rights is alleviated by the system of separation of powers and checks and balances Equality 9 equal before the law political equality one person one vote and equality of opportunity the equal chance for everyone to realize their potential but not material equality equal income or wealth Chapter Two The Constitution and the Founding Book Outline with Lecture Notes Opening Tea Party Tea Party supports the movement to return to the Constitution s founding principles Opinions about the Constitution differ between that the document was intended to create government and as opposed to creating a government while The problem is with the fact that the language of the Constitution was intentionally general so that it would stand the test of time Hallmark characteristics of US constitutional government the separation of power across levels of government national state and local and within government legislative executive and judicial as well as the checks and balances of power across the institutions of government The Historical Context of the Constitution The Constitution was created through con ict and compromise Started with the Stamp Act of 1765 9 taxation without representationquot then Tea Act of 1773 and the Boston Tea Party The Continental Congress declared independence from Britain on July 4th 1776 Articles of Confederation The First Attempt At Government While many American s supported severing ties with the oppressive British there were still some Tories supporters of British monarchy and those who want the con ict to just end Articles of Confederation 9 Sent to the states for ratification in 1777 these were the first attempt at a new American government Served during the Revolutionary War Later decided that the Articles restricted national government too much and were replaced by the Constitution Written during the Second Continental Congress Limited government 9 a political system in which the powers of the government are restricted to prevent tyranny by protecting property and individual rights Assigned all national power to a Congress in which each state had a single vote and members of Congress were elected by state legislatures Each state had veto power over any changes to the Articles and required approval from 9 of the 13 states States had complete autonomy so national government had no real authority over the states Daniel Shays rebellion 9 1000 farmers in an attempt to take over the Massachusetts state government arsenal in Springfield Wanted the state courts to stop prosecuting debtors and taking their land Political Theories of the Famers There was still broad consensus 1 Rejection of monarchy9 form of government in which a single person holds power or monarch who comes to power through inheritance rather than election 2 Popular control of government through a republican democracy 3 Limitations on government power that would protect the individual rights and personal property protect against tyranny Republicanism 9 as understood by James Madison and the framers the belief that a form of government in which the interests of the people are represented through elected leaders is the best form of government Our form of government is knows as a republican democracy The Declaration of Independence We hold these truths to be selfevident that all men are created equal that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights that among these are Life Liberty and the pursuit of HappinessThat to secure these rights Governments are instituted among Men deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it and to institute new Government Crucial ideas in this passage 1 Equality 9 was not given much thought in the Constitution 2 Selfrule 9 the notion that a government gains its legitimacy from consent of the governed 9 through regular elections in which the people living under that government participate to elect their leaders 3 Natural rights 9 as called quot unalienable rights The Declaration of Independence defines them as quotLife Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness The Founders believed that upholding these rights should be the government s central purpose Federalist Papers 9 written by James Madison Alexander Hamilton and John Jay These essays explained and justified the framework of government created by the Constitution Also revealed the framers view of human nature selfinterest and its implications for democracy Federalist 10 9 specifically states that the central problem for government is the need to control factions However the causes of factions cannot be controlled because of human nature The only way to eliminate would be to either remove liberty quotworse than disease or to make everyone the same quotimpracticalquot Economic Interests Economic interests 1st 9 Insignificant class differences among Americans because most were middleclass artisans and craftsmen who owed small farms This did in fact influence the context of debates at the Constitutional Conven on 2nOI 9 Even though Americans had general economic equality there was significant regional differences The South 9 agricultural and favored free trade and slave trade because of its exportbased economy The North mid Atlantic 9 had a broad economic base of manufacturing fishing and trade It favored governmentmanaged trade and commercial development Federalists 9 those who favored a strong national government and a system of separated powers Antifederalists 9 those who favored strong state governments and feared that a strong national government would be a threat to individual rights The Politics of Compromise at the Constitutional Convention The main issues that required political compromise Majority rule versus minority rights Small states versus large states Legislative power versus executive power how to elect the executive National power versus state and local power Slave states versus nonslave states Majority Rule Versus Minority Rights Framers did not think of this issue in term of racial and ethnic minorities but in terms of regional and economic minorities Faction 9 Madison defined as a group motivated by selfish interests against the common good Control of majority tyranny would be accomplished by quotdouble protection of the separation of powers within the national government in the form of checks and balances and the further division of power across the levels of state and local governments quotSize principle would provide additional protection against majority tyranny This is the new nation would be a large and diverse republic in which majority interests would be less likely to organize and therefore less able to dominate Pluralism 9 idea that having a variety of parties and interests within a government will strengthen the system ensuring that no group possesses total control Consensus states would maintain some autonomy but the national government would become stronger than it had been under the Articles Issue what is an appropriate balance Small States Versus Large States Under the Articles every state had one vote large states didn t see this as fair Virginia Plan 9 plan proposed by the larger states that based representation in the national legislature on population New Jersey Plan 9 response to Virginia Plan smaller states proposed that each state should receive equal representation in the national legislature regardless of size Great Compromise 9 compromise between the large and small states proposed by Connecticut in which Congress would have two houses a Senate with two legislators per state and a House of Representatives in which each state s representation would be based on population Connecticut was always directly in the middle of large and small states Legislative Power Versus Executive Power How to divide power at the national level how much power should the president have relative to the legislative branch Limited presidential power through the system of checks and balances Granted the power to veto giving the president a significant role in the legislative process Electing a president 1 Our presidential system is unique 2 We came close to having a parliamentary system 9 government in which legislative and executive powers are closely joined Legislature parliament selects the chief executive prime minister who forms the cabinet from members of parliament Committee of framers made recommendations 1 President would be selected by an electoral college representation in which would be based on the number of representatives and senators each state has in Congress 2 Members of each state s legislature would determine the method for choosing their state s electors The solution didn t quite work out as intended 1st 9 The electoral college as supposed to provide an independent check on the voters this didn t happen do to the quick emergence of political parties Electors became agents of parties rather than independent actors 2ml 9 Emergence of parties created a serious technical error provision gave each elector two votes and elected the candidate with the most votes for president and the secondplace as vice president Since electors acting as agents of the parties they ended up casting one vote each for the presidential and vice president candidate of their own party National Power Versus State and Local Power The overall compromise was federalism 1 Federalism is an example of how careful compromises can alter the Constitution s meaning by changing a single word Reserved powers Defined in the Tenth Amendment as the powers that are not given to the national government by the Constitution or not prohibited to the states are reserved by the states or the people Antifederalists wanted to add the word expressly because the wording would have more explicitly restricted national power 2 National supremacy clause 9 Part of Article V Section 2 of the Constitution stating that the Constitution and the laws and treaties of the United States are the quotsupreme Law of the Land meaning national laws take precedence over state laws if the two conflict Slave States Versus Nonslave States ThreeFifths Compromise 9 States decision during the Convention to count each slaves as threefifths a person in a states population for purpose of determining the number of House members and the distribution of taxes The delegate s goal was to create a Constitution that all states could agree on even though some delegate s opposed slavery However their treatment of slavery is seen as its central failure Ratification The Antifederalists Concerns Most worried about the role of the president the transfer of power from states to the national government and the lack of specific guarantees of civil liberties Resolution quotto prepare a Bill of Rights George Mason However people felt this was not necessary because that was offered at the state level already Antifederalists wanted assurances that the national government would not trample their rights The Federalist Strategies Published a series of articles now named the Federalist Papers which are considered the best comprehensive discussion of the political theory underlying the Constitution and the framers interpretations Agreed that the first order of business would be to add a Bill of Rights 9 the first 10 amendments to the Constitution they protect individual rights and liberties The Constitution A Framework for Government Exclusive Powers Framers viewed Congress as quotfirst branch of government Give the power to raise revenue for the federal government through taxes and borrowing regulate interstate and foreign commerce coin money establish post offices and roads grant patents and copyrights create a system of federal courts declare war raise and support armies make rules for the military and create and maintain a navy Most important is the power of the purse control over taxation and spending Necessary and proper clause 9 Part of Article Section 8 of the Constitution that grants Congress the power to pass all laws related to one of its expressed powers also known as the elastic clause The president is the commander in chief of the armed forces has the power to receive ambassadors and foreign ministers and to issue pardons Most important and in the directive to ensure that all laws are faithfully executed Supreme Court was granted lifetime of tenure for justices in good behavior and relative independence from the other two branched Also had the negative power to strike down laws and actions of other branches Shared Powers quotAdvice and consent for powers that were intended to be shared War powers decisions about when and how to use military force were intended to be shared but also have become executivedominated powers If the president is intent on going to war then Congress must go along or get out of the way Negative or Checking Powers These powers are important because they make sure no single branch dominates the national government Congress as two important checks 1 Impeachment 9 a negative or checking power over the other branches that allows Congress to remove the president vice president or other quotofficers of the United States including federal judges for abuses of power Can only be removed for abuses of power specifically quotTreason Bribery or other high Crimes or Misdemeanors not just political reasons 2 Power of the purse 9 the constitutional power of Congress to raise and spend money Congress can use this as a negative or checking power over the other branches by freezing or cutting their funding Also can freeze judges salaries to show displeasure with court decisions and has the power to limit the issues that federal courts can consider Presidential checks 1 To veto Congress to check against quotdepredationsquot However it has developed into a major policymaking tool for the president Judicial Review No formal checks on the other two branches the court itself created judicial review 9 the Supreme Court s power to strike down a law or an executive branch action that if finds unconstitutional Supporters of the practice point to the supremacy clause that states that the quotConstitution and the Law of the United States which shall be made in the Pursuance thereof shall be the supreme Law of the Land Is the Constitution a Living Document How has the Constitution survived over 200 years Change the Constitution 1st way that the Constitution keeps up is by allowing for changes to its language Article V describes the two steps necessary to change the Constitution Proposal and Ratification Congress may propose an amendment that has the approval of two thirds of the members in both houses or an amendment may be proposed by a national convention that has been called by two thirds of the states legislatures In either case the amendment must be ratified by threefourths of the states legislatures or state conventions Every amendment has been ratified by state legislatures rather than state conventions Amendments have ranged from fairly narrow technical corrections of errors in the original document Eleventh and Twelfth to important topics such as abolishing slavery Thirteenth mandating equal protection of the laws for all citizens Fourteenth providing for the popular election of senators Seventeenth giving blacks and then women the right to vote Fifteenth and Nineteenth and allowing the national income tax Sixteenth Flexibility and Interpretation The Constitution also remains relevant because it allows for some flexibility in its interpretation Some parts are ignored because they are no longer relevant for example Article Section 4 says quotCongress shall assemble at least once in every Year however modern Congress is in session throughout the year The Constitution s inherent ambiguity has kept it relevant because key passages were written in very general language The necessary and proper clause gives Congress the power to enact laws that are related to its enumerated powers 9 powers explicitly granted to Congress the president of the Supreme Court in the first three articles of the Constitution Examples include Congress s power to quotraise and support armies and the president s power as the commander in chief Implied powers 9 powers supported by the Constitution that are not expressly stated in it Often defined by the Supreme Court but Congress and the president and the public can also play key roles Public opinion and social norms also influence the interpretation of the Constitution Examples in the evolving meanings of capital punishment and freedom of speech Prohibition against quotcruel and unusual punishment in the eighth amendment didn t originally mean anything against the death penalty but today it is seen as unconstitutional for a mentally retarded persona and minors Chapter three Federalism GPOSC book outline Opening Affordable care act sometimes called Obamacare that 26 states sued the national government over This is the federalism trifecta hitting on all three major themes concerning the balance of power among levels of government 1 Congress s power to enact broad national legislation under the Constitution s commerce clause 2 Congress s power to compel states to act though coercive federalismquot 3 State s sovereign powers under the Tenth and Eleventh Amendments The Courts ruled that the expansion of Medicaid was unconstitutionally coercive in requiring states to expand Medicaid or lose all their federal funding for the existing Medicaid program What is Federalism and Why Does it Matter Federalism the division of power across the local state and national governments Dividing sovereign power 9 the supreme power of an independent state to regulate its internal affairs without foreign interference Federalism is about intergovernmental relations how different levels of government interact and how power is divided Levels of Government and Their Degrees of Autonomy Distinguishing feature of federalism is that each level of government has so autonomy from the other levels National government 9 responsible for national defense and foreign policy State and local government 9 responsible for conducting elections and promoting public safety or police powers 9 the power to enforce laws and provide for public safety Local governments 9 cities towns school districts and countries are not autonomous unit of government state governments control them Concurrent powers 9 responsibilities for particular policy areas such as transportation that are shared by federal state and local governments A Comparative Perspective Unitary government9 a system in which the national centralized government holds ultimate authority It is the most common form of government in the world United Kingdom Israel Italy France Japan and Sweden States or subunit governments are not autonomous Confederal government 9 a form of government in which states hold power over a limited national government First type of government in the United States under the Articles Commonwealth of Independent States CIS Intergovernmental organization 9 organizations that seek to coordinate policy across member nations Economic activity security and environmental protection The United Nations UN the International Monetary Fund IMF and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO Balancing National and State Power in the Constitution We the People of the United Statesquot as opposed to We the undersigned delegates of the Statesquot A Strong National Government National security and a healthy efficient economy Congress power to raise and support armies declare war and suppress Insurrections and repel Invasionsquot while the president as commander in chief would oversee the conduct of war Congress power to regulate interstate commerce promoted economic efficiency States were prohibited from entering any Treaty Alliance or Confederationquot or keeping troops or Ships of Warquot during peacetime They also could not coin money or impose duties on imports or exports Necessary and proper clause 9 gave Congress the power To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution and foregoing Powersquot National supremacy clause 9 the Constitution and all the laws and treaties shall be the supreme Law of the Landquot and that Judges in every State shall be bund thereby any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the contrary notwithstandingquot Clearest statement of the nationcentered focus State Powers and Limits on National Power States are granted the power 1 To choose electors for the electoral college A central role in the process of amending the Constitution Threefourths of the states must ratify any constitutional amendment The states can also bypass Congress proposing amendments is twothirds call for a convention Tenth Amendment The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution nor prohibited by the states are reserved to the states respectively or to the peoplequot Supreme Court remains an umpire between the national and state governments Clauses that Favor both Perspectives Full faith and credit clause 9 Article IV of the Constitution requiring that each state s laws be honored by the other states Privileges and immunities Article IV of the Constitution requiring that states must treat nonstate residents within their borders as they would treat their own residents These clauses were intended to promote commerce and travel between states Cuts both ways on balance of power allows states to determine and uphold these laws autonomously but also emphasizes that national citizenship is more important than state citizenship Obamacare The national government passed the law the Supreme Court upheld most of it and struck down part of it and the states are implementing the law with varying levels of cooperation and resistance The Evolving Concept of Federalism The nature of federalism has changed over time The Early Years Federalists George Washington John Adams and Alexander Hamilton favored strong national power DemocraticRepublicans Thomas Jefferson and James Madison favored strong state power McCuIIoch v Maryland 9 the state of Maryland tried to tax the National Bank s Baltimore branch out of existence The Court ruled in favor of the national government The word bank is not in the Constitution therefore it is included in Congress s power of enumerated powers Maryland did not have the right to tax the bank because the Constitution s national supremacy clause Gibbons v Ogden Congress had the power to regulate interstate commerce and struck down a New York law that had granted a monopoly to a private steamboat company State s Rights 9 the idea that states are entitled to a certain amount of selfgovernment free of federal government intervention Nullification If states were allowed to ignore national laws the basis of the United States would fall apart Dual Federalism Dual Federalism favored by Chief Justice Roger Taney in which national and state governments are seen as distinct entities providing separate services This model limits the power of the national government Dred Scott v Sandford 9 Court decided that slaves were not citizens but property and therefore the Missouri Compromise violated the Fifth Amendment because it deprived slave owners of property without the due process of law Court ruled that amendments and Bill of Rights only applied to citizens of the United States not to their states citizenship Cooperative Federalism Cooperative Federalism9 national and state governments work together to provide services efficiently Profound shift toward less concrete boundaries of responsibilities in nationalstate relations Picket fence federalism 9 more refined and realistic form of cooperative federalism in which policy makers within a particular policy area work together across the levels of government Federalism Today Cooperative Federalism Live on Fiscal Federalism 0 Fiscal Federalism9 form in which federal funds are allocated to the lower levels of government though transfer and payments Federal aid in two forms 1 Categorical grants 9 federal aid to state and local governments that is provided for a specific purpose such as masstransit program within the transportation budget 2 Block grants 9 federal aid to state governments to be spent within a certain policy area but the state can decide how to spend the money New Federalism In which some important powers shifted back to the states All of us need to be reminded that the Federal Government did not create the states The states created the federal governmentquot Ronald Reagan Unfunded mandates 9 federal laws that require the states to do certain things but do not provide state governments with funding to implement these policies The Rise of Coercive Federalism Three important characteristics of American politics have reinforced the role of national government 1 3 Reliance on national government in times of crisis and war Rights revolutionquot of the 19505 and 19605 and the Great Society programs of the 19605 The Courts upheld the national goal of promoting racial equality and fighting discrimination Also applied to police powers including protection against self incrimination and preventing illegally obtained evidence Rise of coercive federalism Coercive federalism 9 form of federalism in which the federal government pressures the states to change their policies by using regulations mandates and conditions often threats to withdraw federal funding Example requiring a state drinking age of 21 before granting federal highway funds Federal preemptions impositions of national priorities on the states through national legislation that is based on the Constitution s supremacy clause States supports the national policies that have been imposed racial equality clean air and water a fair legal process safer highways and equal access to the voting booth States have one important advantage over the national government when it comes to new policies their numbers Competitive federalism 9 form in which states compete to attract businesses and jobs through the policies they adopt Acts as a check on tyranny because people will vote with their feetquot meaning they will move to a different state One view of this argues that it discipline government and forces that states to compete for the citizens business talents and assetsquot which makes government act like a free market Fighting for States Rights The Role of The Modern Supreme Court The move is decidedly in the direction of state power Tenth amendment 9 ensures all powers not delegated to the national government are reserved to the states of to the people Fourteenth amendment 9 intended to give the national government control over the potentially discriminatory laws of the southern states after the Civil War No state shall make or enforce any law depriving any person of life liberty or property without due process of lawquot Or denying any person equal protection of the lawsquot Remedial legislation 9 national laws that address discriminatory state laws Assessing Federalism Today Liberals generally favor strong national power to fight discrimination and push for progressive national policies in issues such as protecting the environment providing national health care and supporting the poor Conservatives generally favor limited intrusion of government and allowing states to decide their own mix of social welfare and regulatory policies Advantages of strong state role 1 States can be laboratories of democracy states as a source for policy diversity and innovation 2 State and local government is closer to the people this encourages participation in the political process 3 States provide more access to the political system provides more potential paths to address problems 4 States provide an important check on national power check on national tyranny Disadvantages of strong state role 1 Unequal distribution of resources across the states 2 Unequal protection for civil rights 3 Competitive federalism produces race to the bottomquot GPOSC STUDY GUIDE MIDTERM EXAM CHAPTER 1 Basic functions of government 1 Provide order 2 To promote general welfare Key terms Government factions separation of powers checks and balances federalism public goods collective action problems and free rider problem Quiz 1 What did Aristotle call a government ruled by the manyquot e Monarchy Aristocracy Polity Unitary system Democracy 2 Which term describes giving each branch of government some power over the other two Separation of powers Checks and balances Federalism Plutocracy Unitary system 3 Which term describes the inability to get individuals to cooperate to achieve a common goal a b Positive externality The Samaritan s dilemma Collective action problem Principleagent problem Public goods Define politics and three key ideas that help explain politics Politics is the process that determines what the government does 1 2 3 Politics is con ictual Political process matters Politics is everywhere Key terms Politics Quiz 4 What is the main reason why politicians have a hard time resolving the issue of abortion a Politicians don t listen to the people b Parties are divided on what the abortion policy should look like c Politicians don t know what their constituents view are d The country is divided on what abortion policy should look like e Abortion is a relatively new issue 5 Which concept describes the idea that actions by the government touch most aspects of you life a Politics is understandable b Politics is con ictual c Political process matters d Politics is everywhere e People have different interests 6 Rules such as those regulating debate in the Senate or limiting who can vote in election serve as evidence that a Politics is understandable b Politics is con ictual c Political process matters d Politics is everywhere e People have different interests Identify major sources of con ict in American politics 1 Economic interests 2 Cultural Values 3 Racial Gender and Ethnic Differences 4 Ideology Key terms Free market economic individualism redistributive tax policies culture wars ideology conservative liberal and libertarians Quiz 7 Democrats tend to favor tax policies and are inclined to regulate industry a b Redistributive more Conservative more Redistributive less Conservative less Regressive less 8 Which issue is commonly associated with cultural wars The national debt Environmental regulation Affirmative action The tax code Samesex marriage 9 An individual who opposes government social welfare policy and supports the legalization of drugs is most likely a a b Libertarian Socialist Democrat Republican Centrist Explain how the American values of democracy liberty and equality work to resolve political con ict Representative democracies resolve con ict through elections rather than violence Political equality ensures that everyone is treated the same before the law and that all votes are equal and the equality of opportunity means every person has an equal chance to realize his or her potential Key terms Liberty Democracy and Equality Quiz 10 Which type of equality is not typically agreed upon in American politics 9 d e Equality of opportunity Equality before the law Political equality One person one vote Material equality such as equal income 11 What did James Madison argue was worse than the diseasequot a b Giving too much power to state legislatures Allowing people to have too much freedom leading to chaos Giving up liberty to get rid of con ict Allowing politicians to exercise their judgment rather than listen to people Taking cod liver oil to treat various ailments Answers 1 2 C B 10 E 11C GPOSC STUDY GUIDE MIDTERM EXAM CHAPTER 2 Describe the historical circumstances that led to the Constitutional Convention of 1787 The period of British rule over the colonies the Revolutionary War and the states experience under the Articles of Confederation Wanted to create a strong nation while maintaining the autonomy of the states Based the Constitution on three key principles rejection of monarchy popular control of the government and a limited government that protected against tyranny Key terms Articles of Confederation Limited government Monarchy Republicanism consent of the governedquot Natural rights Federalists Antifederalists Quiz 1 How were members of Congress selected under the Articles of Confederation a By the state governor b By the state legislature c By the states supreme court d By popular election e By random lot 2 What power did the president have under the Articles of Confederation a Power to raise an army e Power to veto congressional legislation Power to negotiate foreign agreements Power to nominate federal judges There was no president under the Articles 3 At the American Founding what is the best way to describe the economic inequality among classes and economic diversity among regions a b C d High inequality high diversity High inequality low diversity Low inequality high diversity Low inequality low diversity Analyze the major issues debated by the framers of the Constitution 1 Balancing majority rule and minority rights 2 Allocating power between large and small states 3 Allocating power between the legislature and executive 4 Allocating power between the national and state governments 5 Determining how to handle slavery Key terms Pluralism Virginia Plan New Iersey Plan Great Compromise Parliamentary system Reserved powers National supremacy clause Threefifths compromise Quiz 4 Madison argues that the best way to prevent the tyranny of factions was to a Outlaw political parties Establish a strong national government Have various groups compete against each other in government Establish strong local governments Try to ensure that all people were equal The Great Compromise provided solutions to which issue Balancing majority rule with minority rights Big versus small states Legislature versus executive National versus state government Determining how to handle slavery How are executives chosen in most other established democracies Popular elections Electoral college Through selection by the judiciary Through selection by the legislature United Nations Outcome of the ThreeFifths Compromise was that slaves counted for three fifths a person for the purposes of a b and Voting taxation Congressional representation taxation Voting congressional representation Taxation congressional representation Congressional representation agricultural subsidies Contrast the arguments of Federalist with those of the Antifederalists Antifederalists primarily criticized the Constitution ultimately including the Bill of Rights to protect the rights of the states and individuals from the national government Key terms Bill of Rights Quiz 8 What group was concerned about the Constitution s provisions for strength of the president and lack of specific guarantees of civil liberties a b C d e Tories Unionists Federalists Antifederalists Free Soilers 9 A series of arguments originally published in New York newspapers supported the Constitution and outlined the political theory behind it What are these assembled works called Pickwick Papers Federalist Papers An tifederalist Papers Common Sense The Second Treatise of Government Outline the major provisions of the Constitution Separation of powers the system of checks and balances gives each branch of the federal government some explicit powers some shared powers and some ability to limit the power of the other two branches of government Key terms Necessary and proper clause Impeachment Power of the purse and judicial review Quiz 10 The necessary and proper clausequot gives exibility to which part of government a President b Supreme Court c Bureaucracy d Congress e Interest groups 11 Which branch has the fewest explicit powers d President Supreme Court Bureaucracy Congress 12 Which of the following negative powers does the president enjoy a b C Power to veto legislation Power to freeze judicial salaries Power to review the constitutionality of a law d e Power to impeach federal justices Power to dissolve Congress and call new elections Explore how the meaning of the Constitution has evolved It has maintained its relevance due to its ambiguity on several key passages and the designation of multiple interpretations of the Constitution Key terms Enumerated powers and Implied powers Quiz 13 Which route for proposing a constitutional amendment has been used for all successful amendment to date e Approval by twothirds of the members of Congress Approval by a national convention Approval by twothirds of the state legislature Approval by the supreme court Approval by the President 14 After an amendment is successfully proposed what step must occur in order for it to become part of the Constitution a b C d e Signature of the president Approval by popular vote Ratification by threefourths of the states Nullification by all 50 states National referendum vote 15 Which part of government often defines the boundaries of implied powers Answers 1 2 B E 10 D 113 12A 13A 14 C 15B President Supreme court Bureaucracy Congress People GPOSC STUDY GUIDE MIDTERM EXAM CHAPTER 3 Define federalism and explain its significance Federalism is the division of powers across local state and national governments It is significant because of its feature that each level of government has some autonomy from other levels Key terms Federalism Sovereign power Police powers Concurrent powers Unitary government Confederal government and Intergovernmental organizations Quiz 1 What system of government did the Articles of Confederation establish d e Unitary Federal Confederal Monarchy Dictatorship 2 Which is an example of a concurrent power a b Printing money Building roads Conducting elections Declaring war Establishing post offices Explain what the Constitution says about federalism The framers of the Constitution wanted a federal government that was stronger than under the Articles but also wanted to preserve the autonomy of the states Founders ultimately favored the federal government so that in the event of con ict the federal government s powers superseded those of the states Key terms Full faith and credit clause and Privileges and immunities clause Quiz 3 States rights are protected in which constitutional provision a b Ninth Tenth Article I Article 111 First 4 Contemporary con ict over samesex marriage falls under which constitutional provision a b Privileges and immunities clause Exclusionary clause National supremacy clause Full faith and credit clause Establishment clause Trace the major shifts in state and federal government power over time Dual federalism was when the state and federal governments operated with little interaction over the past 80 years has been a time of increasing federal interaction with state governments to address policy areas Key terms States rights Dual federalism Cooperative federalism and Picket fence federalism Quiz 5 Which analogy best describes the federalism arrangement today d e Layer cake federalism Marble cake federalism Picket fence federalism Gumbo federalism Dual federalism 6 Which case bolstered the federal government s power over the states a b C d e United States v Lopez McCulloch v Maryland Dred Scott v Sandford Mapp v Ohio Shelby County v Holder 7 When did the federal government begin cooperating with the states on policy agenda a b 1890s 1930s C 19505 d 19705 e 19905 Describe major trends and debates in federalism today Today federalism is a mix of all previous components some elements of national supremacy combine with states rights The federal and state governments still exercise cooperative federalism however the federal government has utilized coercive federalism to impose federal priorities on the states In recent cases the Supreme Court has ruled in favor of states limiting federal power Key terms Fiscal federalism Categorical grants Block grants Unfunded mandates Coercive federalism Federal preemptions Competitive federalism and Remedial legislation Quiz 8 Which form of revenue sharing is given to the states by the federal government with explicit conditions on how it is to be allocated a b Block grants Categorical grants General revenue Federal mandate Tax refund 9 Ronald Reagan s efforts to increase states rights led to an increase in a Block grants b Categorical grants c General revenue d Federal mandates e State taxes 10 The imposition of national priorities on the states through congressional legislation and the imposition of the national supremacy clause is called a Cooperative federalism b Dual federalism c Competitive federalism d Federal preemption e Remedial legislation 11 A state would usually challenge the constitutionality of a federal law under which of the following amendments a Eighth b Tenth c Thirteenth d Fourteenth e First 12 The Court has recently overturned a number of congressional laws rooted in the a National supremacy clause b Reserve clause c Establishment clause 1 Commerce clause e Free exercise clause Answers 1 C 2 B 3 B 4 D 5 C 6 B 7 B 8 B 9 A 10 D 11 B 12D GPOSC STUDY GUIDE MIDTERM EXAM CHAPTER 4 Define civil liberties and explain how the Bill of Rights came to apply to the states The Bill of Rights the first 10 amendments to the Constitution lists individual protections from the federal government For majority of the nineteenth century the individual freedoms were guaranteed only from the federal government and did not extend to protections from state governments With the ratification of the Fourteenth amendment and the process of selective incorporation federal freedoms have been gradually extended to the state level Key terms Civil liberties Civil War Amendments Due process clause and Selective incorporation Quiz 1 The Bill of Rights originally protected individuals from which level of government a All levels of American government b State governments c Local governments d Federal government e The bureaucracy 2 Which amendment has been used as the basis for selective incorporation d e Eighth Fourteenth Tenth Nineteenth Fifth Describe the First Amendment rights related to freedom of religion Religious freedoms are defined by two clauses in the First Amendment the establishment clause and the free exercise clause Together they do not allow the government to do anything to benefit any particular religion nor is government allowed to do anything to hinder religious practice Key terms Establishment clause Free exercise clause and Lemon test 3 The establishment clause is invoked under which of the following circumstances a Allowing conscientious objectorsquot to avoid the military draft b Outlawing polygamy c Allowing prayer in public schools d Allowing the Amish to keep children home from school after the eighth grade e Banning the handling of snakes in church services 4 Which test does the Supreme Court use to establish whether there has been excessive government entanglement with religionquot a b C d e Lemon Kreutz Miller Meyer Brandenburg Describe the major First Amendment rights related to freedom of speech The Court s attempt to balance individual freedoms and the public good is evident in the scope of protections guaranteed by the First Amendment Individual rights to political speech hate speech symbolic speech the freedom to assemble and the freedom of the press The Court regularly places a lower priority on fighting words slander liberal and commercial speech Key terms Strict scrutiny Intermediate scrutiny Clear and present danger test Symbolic speech Hate speech Prior restraint Fighting words Slander Libel Commercial speech and Miller test Quiz 5 Which test does the Court use to determine if speech is considered dangerous and should not be legally protected a b Lemon Clear and present danger test c Miller d Direct incitement test e Balancing test 6 Flag burning is an example of that is currently under the First Amendment a Symbolic speech protected b Symbolic speech not protected c Hate speech protected d Hate speech not protected e Offensive slander not protected 7 Prior restraint involves limits on what form of expression a Freedom of assembly b Freedom of association c Freed of speech d Freedom of the press e Freedom of religion Explore why the Second Amendment s meaning on gun rights is often debated Supreme Court has done little to define exactly what freedoms are established in the Second Amendment preferring to allow the national state and local governments the autonomy to make their own laws Quiz 8 Until 2008 Supreme Court had been in defining Second Amendment laws and its decisions generally gun rights a Passive limited b Passive supported c Active limited d Active supported Describe the protections provided for people accused of a crime The Fourth Fifth Sixth and Eighth Amendments provide protections to individuals accused of crime due process rights These protect us from unreasonable searches and seizures permit us to avoid testifying against ourselves in court give us the right to a lawyer and jury trial and protect us from suffering cruel and unusual punishment if convicted of a crime Key terms Due process rights Exclusionary rule Miranda rights and Double jeopardy Quiz 9 Protections from unreasonable searches and seizures are guaranteed by which constitutional amendment a Third b Fourth c Fifth d Seventh e Eighth 10 The Miranda rights are protections that fall under which constitutional amendment a Third b Fourth c Fifth d Seventh e Eighth 11 In 1972 the Supreme Court banned death penalty for what reason It deprived individuals of their rights to life liberty and propertyquot 9 b It was cruel and unusual It was being inconsistently applied 9 d It was racially biased e It was inconsistent with international law Explain why the rights associated with privacy are often controversial Privacy rightsquot is not in the Constitution rather it was established in a 1965 Supreme Court case It may be implied in several amendments to the Bill of Rights This is controversial because of the lack of explicit language in the Constitution and lack of consensus on exactly what privacy means Key terms Privacy rights Quiz 12 Which of the following freedoms guaranteed in Bill of Rights is thought to imply a right to privacy 9 Right to bear arms b Protection against unreasonable searches c Rights to secure legal counsel d Right to request a jury trial e Freedom of speech 13 In what case did the Supreme Court establish the right to privacy a Roe v Wade b Lawrence v Texas c Griswold v Connecticut d Gonzales v Oregon e Lemon v Kurtzman Answers 1 2 10 11 12 13 D B GPOSC STUDY GUIDE MIDTERM EXAM CHAPTER 5 Describe the historical struggles groups have faced in winning civil rights Civil rights are protection from discrimination by both the government and individuals and are rooted in laws and the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment Protections now for women African Americans Native Americans Asian and Latinos Key terms Civil rights Jim Crow laws Separate but equalquot and Protectionism Quiz 1 The distinction between civil rights and civil liberties is the civil rights d e while civil liberties Protect against discrimination are guaranteed in the Bill of Rights Guaranteed in the Bill of Rights protect against discrimination Guaranteed in the Bill of Rights limit what government can do to you Limit what government can do to you protect against discrimination Limit what government can do to you guaranteed in the Bill of Rights 2 The Missouri Compromise a b Ruled that people held as slaves are not protected by the Constitution Ruled that threefifths of the slaves could count in a state s population Limited the expansion of slavery while maintaining the balance of slave states d Gave slaves the right to vote e Ended slavery in the South 3 Plessy v Ferguson established a Legitimacy of poll taxes b separate but equalquot doctrine c Iim Crow laws were illegal d Process of desegregation in the South e Legality of slavery The principle of was used in many court case to deny women equal rights a Matriarchy b separate but equalquot c Sectionalism d Misandry e Protectionism Analyze inequality among racial ethnic and social groups today Beyond unequal treatment of racial minorities women and gays and lesbians inequalities on political social and economic conditions also persist More white than minorities are able to politically participate at a higher rate enjoy better standard of living and avoid prejudice in criminal justice system Most of the differences in voter turnout among whites relative to racial minorities can be accounted for by d e 6 The gaps between whites and blacks on health measures are Contemporary Jim Crow laws Voter purge lists Voter ID laws Poll taxes Education and income and in many cases a b C d e Large decreasing Large increasing Small decreasing Small increasing Small staying the same Explain the approaches used to bring about change in civil rights policies Federalism has played a role in the expansion of civil right while state governments often lagged behind the federal government in African Americans civil rights they have been on the forefront on protecting the rights of gays and lesbians Key terms De jure De facto and Rational basis test Quiz 7 Early in the nation s history civil rights activism was focused on a Women b Gay and lesbians c African Americans d Latinos e Native Americans 8 Early in the civil rights movement which branch provided most of the successes a State governments b Congress c Presidency d Bureaucracy e Supreme Court 9 The difference between de facto segregation and de jure segregation is that de facto while de jure segregation a The result of circumstances mandated by law b Mandated by law result of circumstances c Applies to racial minorities applies to women d Applies to women applies to racial minorities e Applies to all groups applies to racial minorities 10 The strongest protection as the suspect classificationquot applies which test a Reasonable basis b Strict scrutiny c Intermediate scrutiny d Privileged interest e Disparate impact 11 The Voting Rights Act of 1965 d e Established majorityminorityquot districts Established compulsory voter registration for African Americans Eliminated direct obstacles to minority voting in the South Barred discrimination in the rental or sale of a home Reduced participation by African Americans in the South 12 Relative to the protection of individuals with disabilities Congress s track record in protecting gay rights is a b d e Stronger About the same Weaker Nonexistent More focused on job discrimination Examine affirmative action and other ongoing civil rights issues Some groups prefer a colorblind approach and some groups prefer color specific approach Debates over issues such as affirmative action immigration reform and establishing English as the official language 13 What did the case University of California Reagents v Bakke establish a b That race could play no role in college admissions That gender could play no role in college admissions The strict racial quotas in the admissions process were legal That race could be used as a plus factorquot in admissions The gender could be used as a plus factorquot in admissions Answers LA 10 B 11C 12C 13E GPOSC STUDY GUIDE MIDTERM EXAM CHAPTER 6 Define public opinion and explain why it matters in American politics Population thinks about politics and government for three reasons political actions are driven by people opinions strong linkage between people s opinions and political actors behavior and public opinion helps us understand how specific policy outcomes are achieved Key terms Public opinion Latent opinion and Considerations Quiz 1 What does it mean that most political judgments are latent opinions d e Most Americans have performed opinions Most Americans have wellthoughtout reasons for preferring a policy Most Americans do not have any meaningful political attitudes Most Americans form their opinions only as needed Most opinions are not accurate 2 Which of the following is not true regarding considerations a b Wellinformed and poorly informed people use them in forming opinions Opinions on morally complex issues do not involve considerations Political events can become consideration They may be contradictory Party identification is often used in considerations Explain how people form political attitudes and opinions Political opinions are in uenced by our belief systems our social groups personal events and national events Key terms Political socialization 3 Theories of political socialization say that people s opinions are in uenced first by a What they learned from their parents b The way political parties change over time c Their genetic and biological factors d Personality traits e Politicians 4 The idea that individuals will rely on others who look likequot them for opinions relates to a b Political socialization Group identity Political events Generational effects Timeseries effects 5 Which phrase best completes the following statement regarding the sources of public opinion Politicians and other political actors work to public opinionquot a Respond to b Ignore c Disregard d Stabilize e Shape Describe basic survey methods and potential issues affecting accuracy Information about public opinion comes from mass surveys involving hundred or thousands of respondents Accuracy is in uenced by size of the sample whether the people in the sample are randomly selected Key terms Mass survey Population Sample and Sampling error Quiz 6 Why are random samples helpful in understanding public opinion a They provide deep insights into why people hold the views that they do b The eliminated people with strong ideological biases c They enable researchers to use a small number of respondents to draw conclusions about the entire country d It is impossible to understand public opinion any other way e They restrict respondents to a few answer choices Present findings on what Americans think about major political issues The American electorate is ideologically moderate with relatively little ideological polarization Trust in government has gone down since 1960s people still generally are happy with their own representatives in DC Key terms Ideological polarization and Policy mood 7 In the 1970s the majority of people identified themselves as ideologically e 8 Americans generally in the 2000s most people identified as Moderate conservative Moderate moderate Moderate liberal Conservative moderate Conservative conservative of the government Americans generally of their own representative Approve approve Approve disapprove Disapprove approve Disapprove disapprove 9 What is policy mood Public support for Congress Presidential approval rating Public demand for government action on domestic policies Public demand for government action of international policies Public demand for government action on alienation 10 Which policy area is always near the top of Americans concerns a b Economic conditions Health care C d Gay rights Immigration e The environment Describe the major types of news sources and the role they play in American politics Media traditionally referred only to print sources technological advances allowed political information to be spread through radio TV and now the Internet Key terms Mass media News cycle Federal Communications Commission FCC Broadcast media Fairness doctrine Equal time provision Media conglomerates Media effects Filtering Slant Priming and Framing Quiz 11 What is one result of the decreased barriers to publication on the Internet a Few opportunities exist for citizens to interact with reporters or government officials People with no official connection to candidates can have significant in uence on elections The accuracy of political information has improved Few average citizens report on events as they happen Likeminded political supporters have difficulty organizing and staying informed on issues 12 What is the fairness doctrine a TV and radio stations must offer a variety of political views in programs b TV and radio stations must give equal time to candidates running advertisements c News anchors cannot slander political candidates d Radio station owners cannot also own TV and print media outlets e Iournalists must investigate challengers as well as incumbents 13 The deregulation of the media has resulted in a Increasing enforcement of the equal time provision b Increasing enforcement of the fairness doctrine c Increasing use of the Internet d Increasing scrutiny of media concentration e Increasing frequency of crossownership 14 What is priming a Iournalist s decision about which story report on and which story to skip b Iournalist giving favorable coverage to one candidate without providing balanced coverage on the opponent c Phenomenon of a journalist s story affecting the importance people place on the issue covered in the story d Particular way that a journalist decides to present and describe a story e Decision to prioritize one story over another 15 Space limitations mean that some is inevitable a Filtering b Slant c Priming Answers 1 2 d e D B 10A 11B 12A 13E 14 C 15A Framing Soft news GPOSC Chapter 6 Public Opinion Part 3 Media Opening How does it exist what are its motives and how is it constructed How are media companies organized and how do they change Documentary Concentration of media in the US 9 today it is only controlled by I 2000 major companies used to be fty 1983 More and more people rely on Internet media and no longer broadcast AOL Time warner Walt Disney and ABC Comcast owns NBC VIACOM owns MTV and CBS News corporation owns FOX news The primary purpose of these companies is not to inform the people of the United States but to make money Start to see very little real hard news Instead we see Hollywood and sports news FCC on control of the airways Do the American people trust mainstream media Most say no however people still watch mindlessly There has been a shift of people towards different sources of media that aren t necessarily owned by the large companies Rumors are broadcast in the media Media and Politics A point to be made that only six large corporations control the media For example Disney is not just about Mickey Disney owns EPSN and even a lot of other news corporations It appears that there are more sources available but they are all owned by ONE corporation This makes it seem like there is a diverse supply of news but there really isn t 1990s Media Deregulation Broadcast network ownership Prior to 1992 Cable Act 9 purpose was for new companies to develop and compete for our attention deregulation of television Today 9 NBCU Disney ABC NewsCorp FOX and CBS all owning a large amount of media outlets Theses big media companies bought up all of the pro table companies that came to be due to the Cable Act BIG POINT How can we say that we are enlightened when these corporations only seek to make money and not inform the people are real news we are still in uenced by these corporations in a somewhat negative way And if this is the case than how can we con dently say that we still consent to be governed MIDTERM PREVIEW Objective Questions 50 questions 5 points each Estimated time 50 minutes Identifications 2 responses 25 points each Estimated time 25 minutes Democratic Process Theory Standards Effective Participation Voting equality Enlightened understanding Control of the agenda Inclusion of adults Consequences Political equality Guarantee of essential rights Moral autonomy Economic prosperity and Human development Example Separation of Powers De nition Separation of powers means the division of government between the legislative executive and judicial branch What s most important is that each branch gets its constitutional authority separately not from each other Signi cance This is signi cant for controlling the agenda No single party can impose their priorities and multiple parties have a chance to contribute to the agenda
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