Arch 3411 Midterm Notes
Arch 3411 Midterm Notes ARCH 3411
U of M
Popular in Architecture History to 1750
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Architecture
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Norden on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ARCH 3411 at University of Minnesota taught by Robert Ferguson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 319 views. For similar materials see Architecture History to 1750 in Architecture at University of Minnesota.
Reviews for Arch 3411 Midterm Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/18/15
ARCH 341 1 Midterm Exam 10 1 8 15 Week 4 Timgad Algeria founded ca 100 CE founded by Emperor Trajan Founded by Emperor Trajan and intended for veterans of Roman legions Good example of cardo and decumanus grid plan with the two intersecting in the center Main roads were lined with columns to define streets and provide shelter over sidewalks Theatrical city gate marks ceremonial entry to city Roman colonial town is part of urban armature Temple mayor is the one order that unites terrestrial world with celestial that s what the city accomplishes Perfect grid represents plan of the ideal Roman city Large theater to the south with forum to the south of the theater because of this placement cardo did not continue southward Page 114 Maison Carr e Nimes France temple ca 110 CE One of the best preserved temples of antiquity At first appears to be a Greek temple but Maison Carree stands on a podium which is a Tuscan tradition with one set of stairs approaching it Instead of being perictoral Tuscan had one porchcolonnade so Gods could see out Freestanding wood beamed Corinthian order at front porch and engaged into wall Was a model for Thomas Jefferson s Virginia State Capitol Page 105 Pont du Gard Nimes southern France late I BCE Considered the greatest achievement of Roman engineering As city grows the water supply quickly is depleted often had to find water sources elsewhere usually in distant mountains Pont du Gard is an aqueduct or water channel with a slope of 13000 not a steep slope but enough to cause water to run downhill to Nimes Made of unmortared masonry it consists of 3 tiers of arches that span 882 of the valley of the river and rises 162 above it Top tier contains water channel lowest level is a roadway Architect was responsible for getting slope right and the structure right in other words architect was both the designer and the engineer diction between engineer and architect that we have now would not make sense to Vitruvius Simple whole number relationships is characteristic of Roman architecture Most Roman architecture is made of concrete but in Pont du Gard it is a solid stone structure Projecting stones and inset holes were used for centering and were kept in place in case of repairs Keystone was developed to keep arch standing Page 109 Temple of Fortuna Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia Palestrina Praeneste ca 80 BCE Translation of a sacred place into a hillside is a very Roman approach Romans adopted strategies of bent and folded stoas gateways terraces and stairs from Hellenistic Greeks to create freestanding structures Circular Corinthian temple containing statue of Fortuna Primigenia at top See last paragraph on page 109110 for description Forum Romanum Rome renovated 1 BCE and Imperial Fora III BCE Was in the center of town at base of Capitoline Hill most important public space Equiva1ent outdoor room to Athenian Agora Cities in ancient Mediterranean world often have commonalities in this case it s the outdoor public space Govemment religion commerce and law are mingled Among 7 hills in Rome the capitoli capital acts as an acropolis Even in Julius Caesar s time it was realized public realm needed to be expanded Forum of Caesar Forum of Augustus Forum of Vespasian and Forum of Trajan were built adjacent to original forum Are all outdoor public rooms with temple front displaying colonnaded architecture that defines space as Roman Page 114115 Forum Pompeii founded 6th century BCE Originally founded by Greeks Pompeii is one of the best preserved examples of a Roman provincial town due to eruption of Vesuvius Irregular grid plan that covers 160 acres Roman Forum or civic center was located in southwest near Marine Gate Entrance focus of public life Two story colonnade of rectangular shape fourth side facing north was left open and contains Capitolium where statesponsored religious observations were held Triumphal arch over north side marks important sites and displays civic virtues also prevented vehicles from entering Flanked by other buildings most of which were connected by colonnades Page 113 Domus Aurea Golden House of Nero Rome begun 64 CE Barrel vault with scenic paintings that acted as a theatrical backdrop Early 16th century artists of what is now known as Italian renaissance had themselves lowered in ropes carrying candles through holes in ceiling and discovered paintings called paintings grotto Parts of wall has plaster which was what was painted on Octagonal Hall was thought to be the great dining room where emperor would eat in the center and surrounding rooms represent universe revolving around it no longer thought to be true Dome is fudged brought down over octagonal space Colosseum Rome Flavian amphitheater 7280 CE Series of arcuated walls spanned between arches which support seating on inside and walls on outside could seat 50000 people Grandest Roman arena Originally covered in travertine Structure in uenced by Theater of Marcellus Masonry construction except top level of seats which were on wooden supports Columns go from Doric on first level to Ionic on 2nd level to Corinthian on last level topped with Corinthian pilasters Roman imperium is demonstrating its strength Gladiators and animals were located beneath arena that contained passageways and chambers until it was time to emerge Exterior often was creamcolored marble Entertainment included fights to death of gladiators and Roman Christian persecution Distracted society from government issues Page 125 Markets of Trajan Rome ca 100110 CE Multistory semicircle with adjoining tiered buildings built into hillside of Quirinale 150 shops offices and groin vaulted shopping mall accessible from forum and streets on two different levels Made of brick faced concrete Basis of construction for shops and walkways relied mainly on barrel vaults Twostory market hall contains 6 groin vaults supported by piers and ying buttresses Page 115 Baths of Diocletian Rome 298306 CE Converted into the church S Maria degli Angeli by Michelangelo Bathing was one of the most important and commonly shared public rituals in ancient Rome society Place for bathing but also provided space for recreation relaxation and socializing similar to atmosphere found in spas and health clubs today Most ambitious of the public buildings Rooms of various sizes for various sizes of gatherings Baths of Diocletian were the largest in ancient Rome spanning 50 acres and an ability to hold 3000 people Symmetrical with main spaces on central axis Marble veneers and mosaics on inside and statues placed all over Contained hot baths domed warm baths cruciform cool baths openare swimming pool changing rooms spaces for exercise steam rooms gardens libraries and could be used as a theater Page 122 Emperor Hadrian s Villa Tivoli 118134 CE by Hadrian In the east of Rome Required large span of space in valley buildings constructed to accommodate topography and connected by shift of axes and cross axes Country house seems to be a summary of empire containing names for and reminiscent of different parts of empire Enclosed garden around rectangular fish ponds forms EastWest Terrace Island Enclosure or villa to the east where one could meditate or have intimate meetings enclosed colonnaded area surrounded by moat North of Island Enclosure consisted of the residential area around rectangular court Water is the central element in the Scenic Canal banquet hall at southern end Complex spatial situation utilitarian purposes are unclear exactly the size of the Pantheon which was under construction at the same time apparent relationship between two significant symbolizes world over which Hadrian ruled Dining with emperor is a public event nothing about an emperor s life is private Hadrian was interested in architecture not unlikely he was involved in design of villa o Piazza d Oro located on northeast side had the principal feature of being an octagonal pavilion with a dome on top of it Gate house creates axial entry into space Usually people would move around perimeter of dining room but in this case processional court would move straight into the room Gored vaults similar to barrel vaults Page 129 Pantheon Rome begun 117 CE for Emperor Hadrian Greatest circular plan Roman temple In uenced many buildings Dedicated to 7 planetary gods and goddesses Round dome connected to templelike entrance very rare in Roman temples Portico with 20 Corinthian columns that used to support roof trusses Diameter 142 6 and 142 high cella with dome on top and oculus 27 in diameter Roman building closest to its original state Construction of cella is based on arches and vaults Arches inside thick walls allowed hollowed out spaces Weight of dome decreased with height Interior is more important than exterior Showed power by building in center of Rome as an already existing monument Rotunda may have represented the world the world and universe are round therefore a sphere would be the best representation to display Hadrian s power and in uence First ancient temple to be repurposed as a Christian church Page 118 Week 5 Piazza Armerina Sicily Villa IV Century CE Much smaller than Hadrian s villa Same kind of axial relationships between rooms built like a city Water garden that one walks around and looks into but does not enter Villa provides freedom from obligations that one has in the city can relax sing converse etc Palace of Diocletian Croatia ca 300 CE Does not have an apse but a triumphal arch Forum repeats Roman city idea Triangular arch con guration at entrance can be place for Emperor s appearance St John Lateran Rome begun 313 First generation of Christian buildings were based on Roman basilicas St John Lateran is one of the earliest basilicas and is the cathedral of Rome cathedrals contain seat or cathedra of a bishop Built adjacent to Lateran Palace given to Christians by Constantine to serve as residence for bishop In original building it had paired aisle on either side of nave Nave had an apse containing the cathedra and seat for priests at the end High clerestory windows lit the main space smaller windows in outer aisles Concrete walls covered with brick and marble columns salvaged from earlier Roman buildings Page 134 Old St Peter s Rome begun 333 Martyria was another type of building constructed for Christian faith meant to hold memorials to commemorate a site or saint built around their tomb or shrine Began as a martyrium for the apostle Peter Early Christian cemetery Did not practice cremation inhumation so needed land to bury people This is where catacombs come in nave and aisles covered a cemetery underneath and place to have funeral meals Traditional location of tomb is under altar Warehouse construction makes up the structure which is easy to put together not architecturally ambitious Fundamental elements of the basilica church includes longitudinal axis form entrance to apse and triumphal arch at entrance and at nave to the altar symbolizing entry into a sacred place Central aisle is the nave which procession would move down with large atrium preceding it High windows illuminate nave In uenced the design of churches later on Page 136 Orthodox Baptistery Ravenna 400450 Domed octagonal structure surrounding octagonal marble font Extension of comers makes form resemble a square Two campaigns building of 400 and building of 450 Weight of building comes down on columns dome is an incredibly thin and lightweight construction consisting of terra cotta tubes instead of solid bricks like other structures Tubes are hollow so most of wall is empty space It is a rotunda but it has a physical symbolic center which is an entrance into a pool of birth and rebirth Image on ceiling represents the heavens Oculus depicts baptism of Jesus in river Jordan old man on right side is a personification of the River Jordan Vertical axis is created in oculus representing connection between heaven and earth The 12 apostles encircle this central image Empty thrones depicted around top of walls symbolize presence of God Exterior is plain brick with 8 arched windows and corbeled arches with pilaster strips Page 136 S Vitale Ravenna 546548 Shows them of having a central plan Octagonal dome as well as octagonal galleries and aisles Displays similar ambiguity that Hagia Sophia does Contains columns that are in a way Corinthian capitals Between piers of octagon there are semicircular niches that allow light to come in through windows on outer wall Mosaic of Justinian and Theodora emperor and empress had themselves depicted at head of procession this shows Theodora was just as important as Justinian both are depicted with halos Page 143 Hagia Sophia Constantinople modern Istanbul 532537 by Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus The Church of Holy Wisdom One of the greatest buildings in the world it epitomizes Byzantine architecture Great church attached to imperial palace 4 towers are necessary to a mosque to call faithful to prayer added later on and not part of original building Greek Church is not just a church but fabric of city even though that fabric has changed over time Both a basilica and rotunda Contains a square with dome that is same size as square on top Longitudinal character to it where there is a procession that leads you to apse Ambiguity of church sets up contradictions verticality of high piers and domes above them along with horizontal separations that cut building into different layers each having different amount of light being let through Material used is marble that is finished so as to be re ective Gold brass mosaics are made of marble not cut of stone as they are in Roman architecture gives a re ective appearance of glass Pendentive provides solution to putting circular dome on top of square something the Romans had to tried to do First large scale successive application of pendentives First dome collapsed part of dome fell again and after repairs the other half fell Dome is supported by 4 arches During church ritual major space was reserved for ecclesiastics and retinue entourage of the Emperor this meeting under the dome symbolized the joining of church and state Page 140143 S Marco Venice 1042108 In uenced by J ustinian s Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople Each arm of the Greekcross plan is covered by hemispherical internal domes All the domes are on pendentives with barrel vaults connecting the piers that hold domes up Most of the architecture re ects Byzantium but there are other architectural styles present exterior of the domes are raised on timber framework which resembles Eastern domes Some domes have windows at their base which illuminates upper areas of church Became a model for Romanesque churches in southern France Page 144 Week 6 Palatine Chapel and Palace Aachen AiXleChapelle 792805 by Odo of Metz Carolingian building based on Early Christian and Byzantine architecture First domed building north from Alps since fall of Roman Empire Wanted to revive Roman architecture but did not have the skills to construct them perfectly and did not have access to the same materials Central dome octagon surrounded by 16sided aisle which was the Palatine Chapel with a gallery over it Chapel was connected to Roman basilica by long passageway Chapel in uenced by S Vitale Ravenna with overall plan in uenced by Lateran Palace in Rome Barrel and groin vaults and octagonal cloister vault in the dome are more Roman than Byzantine Laid out on a square grid which was a Roman tradition Main entrance has a westwerk western facade with entrance vestibule rooms above and towers Addition of westwerk to churches is a Carolingian contribution where towers were a prominent element of the church Eight piers support dome Semicircular arches on first oor are made of polychrome masonry 16 polished marble columns brought over Alps from Palace of Exarchs are used in the gallery Shows Charlemagne s desire to revive classical architecture Basilica was a rerun of Constantine basilica Dome rotunda which was the chapel Moratorium of Christ in uenced rotunda Seeing is believing Emperor participates in ceremony by observing Locally cast bronze balustrades in gallery Charlemagne s throne was in the gallery on axis with altar Second oor was used by Charlemagne and his court to observe services without interrupting them he could also address audience from loggia 0 Tower represents the church all through Northern Europe there are towers that dominate landscape acting as landmarks to show where the town is by showing where the church is Page 178200 Abbey Gatehouse Lorsche ca 800 Charlemagne King of France was crowned Emperor of Romans Church and empire were never identical but were always associated with each other after Constantine was Emperor he established connection between the state and spiritual divinity of church Charlemagne wanted to associate himself with Roman tradition Similar to Roman city gates with its architectural characteristics of the temple and tower on either side for defense like the city gate depicted on the back of a Roman coin Restatement of the church as new embodiment of Romantas Rustic architecture Displays Roman system of cutting of squares into triangles Islamic characteristics Very explicitly restates architecture of Rome in the capitals of the columns Ionic and Corinthian Arches supported by Corinthian columns Contains Roman triumphal arches but the steep roof in case of heavy snow and white and red tiling in uenced by Islamic polychromy or Roman opus reticulatum are not Roman at all Page 180 Speyer Cathedral 103565 and reconstructed 10821182 One of the most ambitious Romanesque buildings of its time most important Romanesque building since Church of Holy Spirit Elevation of nave begins to become important figuratively Interior is like a Roman aquaduct Wide tall and long nave semicircular apse anked by square towers Contains pilasters with long and thin columns attached to exterior that are a direct reference to Roman columns Constructional figuration will eventually become Gothic architecture Distinguished by large scale and multiple towers The groin vaults were the highest vaults built during the Romanesque period the vaults were comparable to those of Roman baths approaches accomplishments of Roman construction Vaults are set over paired bays and separated by transverse arches Interior decoration is restrained and in some cases harsh with warm yellow to pink hues of the stone Triumphal arches indicated sacredness Cubiform capitals of crypt and Lombard bands of exterior wall were in uenced from Lombardy Burial place for 300 emperors Page 190 Plan of St Gall Plan for a Monastery c 820 Monasteries are like cities of their own need to be selfsufficient After Charlemagne dies there is a hypothetical plan for a Benedictine monastery developed How a monastery should be designed with rooms arranged around it Ideal plan for selfsufficient religious community Largest building was the church consisting of a doubleended basilica and towers anking western hemicycle Interior was made of masonry and timber trussed roof where monks worshipped Multiple alters to honor individual saints located throughout building in order to accommodate medieval religious practices which placed importance on the veneration of relics Cloister contained chapter house work room dormitory dining hall cellar and warming room with service buildings grouped outside cloister bake and brew house farm infirmary Model in uenced Benedictine abbeys throughout medieval period Oldest surviving architectural drawing from the medieval period Has helped discover many things about monastic life and building practices in the Carolingian age Page 182 Cluny 111 Church at Cluny France 10881130 by Gunzo and Hezlon Immensely wealthy and in uential Virtual independence from local religious authority allowed church to grow into in uential organization Cluny III was built to accommodate increasing number of monks Towers emphasize verticality Chapter house is where governing meets Largest church in western Christendom of its time Site plan follows that of the plan of St Gall Mature Romanesque features Based on basilica plan with double set of transepts and radiating chapels around apse and eastern walls of transepts Nave was anked by two aisles on either side and was large enough to accommodate large processions The innermost aisles continued around choir as an ambulatory linking the 5 radiating chapels Broken or pointed arches are used in vaults which are braced by paired aisles architects realized that vaults on pointed arches exert less outward thrust than the Roman arch Vaulted spaces allowed for great acoustics for singing Artistic embellishments such as sculpture appeared on building By breaking circular segment of arch the thrust is reduced and there is much more latitude with the span of the arch moment at which architecture begins to become gothic Sanctuary was greatly illuminated by many small clerestory windows under vaulting larger openings were impossible due to heavy load sustained by walls On the exterior the interior was expressed as separate volumes Cluny shows the progress in building art since St Martin at Canigou Page 198 Abbey Church Fontenay in Burgundy France 113947 Best preserved early Cistercian monastery Portrays Barnard of Clairvaux s architectural ideals Unlike Cluniac Abbey this Cistercian church is not embellished in art Beaten earth oor with raised choir oor made of stone Gothic architecture No clerestory windows light comes from east and west end as well as from windows in the aisles Modular proportions and reserved architectural elements create sense of repose Plan re ects ideas of the Plan of St Gall Nave is covered by broken banded barrel vault and the aisles have transverse broken barrel vault over each bay Cloister walk has semicircular arcading re ect sunlight and creates human scale Page 207 SainteMadeleine Vezelay France ca 1118 Nave was constructed while abbey was part of the Cluniac order Polychrome transverse semicircular arches divide nave into groin vaulted bays Sculptural work is seen on column capitals and narthex portals Nave capitals depicts Old Testament events and saints and allegories illustrating teachings of the church Colonettes engaged columns not only half round but round almost starting to stand out from pieremphasized horizontal divisions of wall contrast against verticality Gothic architecture except for nave Carved tympanum over door from narthex into nave showing descent of Holy Spirit at Pentecost where Christ sends out apostles to the 4 corners of the earth to preach teach and heal the sick Tympanum signifies that Christ and his teachings are present everywhere and at all times Although it does not represent Cluniac architecture it continues tradition of having an embellished environment for worship Page 201 San Miniato 31 Monte Florence XI Has a plan that re ects simple Early Christian basilicas Single pair of aisles anks transeptless nave which ends in a semicircular apse On the exterior of the ground level there are five arches supported by Corinthian half columns with Corinthian pilasters and gable defining nave roof Consisted of a wooden roof which was common for Italian churches during Romanesque period Complex geometric patterning made possible by veneer of polychromatic marble Arcade is not structural to wall which is quite at Roman architecture is illustrated in colors and materials Byzantine mosaic atness of wall comes out in in 3 dimensions in three significant places Corinthian capitals idicule niche that frames little window that lights nave corners of roof Page 192 Pisa Cathedral Cathedral Baptistery and Bell Tower 10631150 More elaborate than San Miniato but still closely follows Early Christian architecture Freestanding Pisa cathedral contained marble arches and columns that surrounded building alternate bands of dark and light colored marble set horizontally Double aisles and galleries anking nave and single aisles and galleries anking transepts At crossing oval dome is raised on squinches and shallow pendentives re ecting the centralized church plans of Byzantium Roof is wooden Marble arcades are stacked row on row across western facade and continues around the church Interior is polychrome and there are Byzantine mosaics in the apse Two adjacent structures are the baptistery and campanile Leaning Tower of Pisa Campanile or Leaning Tower of Pisa was never vertical due to foundational issues Towers are usually independent separate from body of basilica Westwerk is absent Dome is Byzantine reference One of several that has cosmopolitan form that make a dome reckless Number of columns in tower represents Holy Spirit As a rotunda it relates to memorializing the primary shrine over tomb which makes it a replica Page 192 Barrel vault semicircular vault over rectangular space Buttress Masonry reinforcement applied to wall to provide additional strength Campanile Italian name given to a freestanding bell tower Clerestory Windows placed high in a wall usually above lower roof elements Cloister In a monastery the covered walk surrounding quadrangular court that connects dometic buildings with church Cloister vault 0r domical vault Dome with groined surfaces rising from a square or octagonal base Corbel Masonry that projects slightly outward from wall and serves as support Corbeled vault Construction not involving a true arching action created by shifting opposing courses inward until they meet Cross vault 0r Groin vault Vault formed by two intersecting barrel vaults Flying buttresses In gothic architecture the combination of external buttresses pier and slender arch which attaches to wall right below springing of the vaulting to resist lateral thrust Hemicycle A semicircular roof or recess Narthex Entrance porch or chamber preceding the nave Nave Western arm of a basilican church Pendentive A spherical triangle that tranforms square bay into a circle for the springing of a dome Pier The square or rectangular structural element that supports an arch Pilaster Rectangular column engaged in wall sometimes articulated as an order Rib Raised molding applied to arris intersection of two curved surfaces of a vault Rib vault A vault where the ribs ride below and usually support the vault web Semidome A surface representing IA of a sphere and often covers apse Squinch A corbeled arch used to transform a square bay into an octagon for the spring of a dome Transept North and south arms of a basilican church Transverse arch Arch spanning across long hall or nave True arch A curving often semicircular arch composed of voussoirs wedged shaped masonry unit set to form an arch Tympanum A panel usually semicircular over the lintel and below the arch of a doorway Also the central triangle of a pediment Westwerk The nartheX chapels and towers set at entrance of church of the Carolingian and later periods
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'