HIST 225 notes
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Date Created: 10/18/15
WEEK 4 Before Constitution 1777 Articles of Confederation adopted 4 years after signing Weak federal government 0 No executive o No taxes no way for gov t to get money so they borrowed amp printed money leads to in ation 13 states each state has own power 0 Any change to the AOC required all states to agree North West Ordinance of 1787 0 Background gov t was afraid the people in North West territory would unite with the Indians so they split up the territory 0 Gov t will allow any piece of territory on the North West to apply to statehood but only if they abolish slavery in that territory a Changes in America Slavery goes down States change their constitution add executive Alex Hamilton NY lawyer becomes huge advocate for constitution to be made gt Bastard child from Caribbean gt Never t in with American elite 1786 Shay s who was a former general Rebellion o Becomes turning point for a constitution to be made 0 Farmers get their land foreclosed if they don t pay the new tax on it 1787 Philadelphia convention Led by George Washington Called by Hamilton amp others 0 Group of all white educated men 0 Meet on almost daily basis for the summer JAMES MADISON Father of constitution 0 Tiny awkward shy stubborn 0 Born 1751 in VA Went to college of NJ Becomes Princeton 0 Fear of public speaking Federalist papers routed for strong central gov t amp power ultimately retained by the people US Constitution Slavery not mentioned because of controversy 0 Approx 4000 words 3 HUGE Aspects of American Gov t Representation House of Representatives Senate came from the Great Compromise Update on Slavery o 20 years after constitution no slave trade 0 Slave population grows without importing more slaves because of reproduction Electoral College How it works 0 Each state has electors that directly vote for candidate 0 Electors normally vote for the candidate who won popular vote 0 Most states are winnertakeall whoever wins popular vote gets all the electoral votes from that state 0 Bene ts small states Electors can decide what s best for the people who were illiterate back in the day but does it make sense to have them now 0 Dif cult to change because it requires amendment which the small states wont vote for ll Federalists vs AntiFederalists Deal struck to allow Constitution to be written If the states ratify the Constitution then a set of amendments will be added afterwards 1787 Constitution rati ed 1789 George Washington is asked to be president 0 He doesn t want to be this leads to people wanting him to be president even more because he doesn t have unwanted pride 0 Ends up running and wins unanimously 0 No political parties yet GW presidency Creates cabinet Jefferson as Sec of State Hamilton as Sec of Treasurer Advocate of separation of powers 0 Sets precedent by leaving after 2 terms it is not a law yet Jefferson vs Hamilton Jefferson gt Rural gt Farming gt No bank gt Strict interpretation of the Const gt ProFrance for their democracy gt Each state has individual debt gt Wants DC to be capital Hamilton Urban Merchants US center of production Precapitalist notion Bank Loose interpretation of the Const Const is baseline living document ProEngland prime trade partner All of US should have debt put together VVVVVVVVV Building of DC 0 Capital Hill Representatives 0 No one lives there 0 Georgetown is originally wasteland Fun Fact White House was originally called the Executive Mansion until the war of 1812 when it was destroyed and had to be repainted so it was painted white 1792 0 GW refuses to run again 0 Jefferson runs against John Adams Hamilton has same views as Adams 0 Hamilton doesn t run because people hate him gt Remember he wasn t born in the US so he never really t in John Adams becomes president 0 Alien amp Sedition Act gt Anyone who talks bad about Adams is punished 0 VP is Jefferson Jefferson talks bad about Adams 0 Political parties begin to form WEEK 5 at 1800 Rematch for presidential election jefferson vs Adams Jefferson gt Forgets what the revolution was about gt Electors used to have two votes 1 for President amp 1 for VP gt Now there is only one so technically no distinction between who runs for P or VP Ex Aaron Burr VP nominee ties with Jefferson for votes Hamilton in uences vote towards Jefferson when Burr amp Jefferson tie 1804 Burr and Hamilton have been publicly ghting so Burr challenges him to a duel 0 Hamilton refuses to shoot Burr duels usually credited but people don t have to die 0 Burr shoots amp kills Hamilton amp ees to Europe 0 Burr comes back when 70 amp fathers 2 children gross D Present day politics Presidential candidates strategically pick VP so they can take in more votes but they don t necessarily think that the VP would be a good president Jefferson Wins Presidency Cuts size of army amp wants gov t to be small amp nonintrusive Advocate of meritocracy Great lasting effects of Jefferson 1803 Marbury v Madison extended power of Supreme Court UnJeffersonian Act Jefferson sends Monroe to Paris in order to buy FL amp New Orleans so that US can be safer aka THE LOUSIANA PURCHASE However FL afterwards is still Spanish territory Jefferson39s 2ncl term Puts embargo on foreigners because they are messing with American trade ships 1812 james Madison Wins presidency GO jMU 0 Has to deal with embargo mess 0 War of 1812 gt lndians see opportunity to take back land gt GB still has posts etc in US gt GB amp lndians vs US gt DC is burned by GB gt US invades Canada Andrew Jackson becomes war hero When the war is over 0 People didn t know at rst because of the time it took for word to get out so they continued ghting o Eventually Treaty of Ghent is signed Is MARKET REVOLUTION Development of national market Towns become connected amp trade grows This capital notion scared Jefferson Lack of hygiene One bed for everyone Soap was expensive so showers came once a year 0 Tiny houses But 0 American diet thrives People lived longer 0 Population growth 67 kids lnnova on 0 Transportation 0 Building of roads 0 Pennsylvania has own turnpike toll Steam boats 1807 o Railroads gt Encourage frontier settlement gt Promote production gt Allows places to get closer timewise 0 Erie canal 1825 gt Connected buffalo amp Great Lakes region to Hudson river 0 Black Ball shipping company gt Traded via ships gt Invented the schedule Ships used to only sail when the ship was full and Black Ball started to leave at a certain time so people would rush to get their stuff on the boat It allowed for a great deal of power amp exibility Cotton gin gt Eliminates people having to pick out seeds gt Slavery explosion in the south 0 John Deere tractor 1830 Samuel Morse invents telegraph 1844 gt quotWhat hath God rotquot was rst telegraph message Coal instead of water is used to run mills gt Mills can be put anywhere ii New Conception of Business V Laws V Policies V Bankruptcy changes in protectionliability V Corporation provides some sort of protection for individuals because if sued they would only lose their investment in that company V Encouraged development of bigger businesses Labon 17 18th century work mostly occurs inside the home Unti More factories are built The men work at factories but women are left at home Separate spheres Women gain the role of housewife and their economic status goes down while men s work is elevated Womenseen as caretakers cult of domesticity Trading goods turns into buying goods with Houses of production Factories replace the local producers cheaper goods Manual labor overcomes skilled labor quotInvisible handquot Adam Smith in every true market nd the right spot between supply amp demand to determine price Karl Marx gt Worried more for the working class because prices became divorced from labor gt Price should have to do with the worth of the producer 0 The supply amp demand system is more capitalist Production class becomes devalued Industrial growth Cities develop rapidly Middle man of producers from Mid West selling to consumers on East Coast Chicago gt Born from market revolution because of RR allowing connection to East Coast gt Grain was a huge products in Chicago grain market develops Grain market gt Grain elevator is developed Instead of dumping on ground for buyer to inspect the elevators grade it amp separate it into bins Commodities Market tangible grain turns to commodity gt Producers received receipts for giving grains amp then they can bid off all or parts of the receipt gt Natural materials are taken advantage of Grains to buyers turns to Grains to market Speculators factor of destruction of markets People start to buy grain receipts amp hold onto them so they can sell them for a higher price later on 1818 Brooke s Brothers clothing gt no longer have to make own clothing Cities 0 The 5 point neighborhood in NYC infamous scene of riotcrime 0 Neighborhoods grow houses begin to be built as rectangles along a street so people can tell where different streets are 0 Central Park gt Imported vegetation gt Streams fake nature to make people living in the city feel better gt Circuses form freak showstal people midgets Religious Awakening People behaving badly amp others believing this is because they are losing sight in God 0 Mormonsrejected religions gt Prophet Joseph Smith eventually killed gt Polygamy multiple marriages gt Brigham Young successor ofJoseph Smith marries 15 people and has 57 kids out West 0 City Shakers develop utopian committees gt Want own little community gt Simplistic life gt Sexuality opposite reaction of Mormons Main thinkers Henry Thoreau amp Ralph Waldo Emerson gt Transcendentalism reproaching nature elevating feeling amp emotions gt What it s like to be one with nature Political reform how to x mentally disturbed people 1826 American Temperance Movement 0 Movement to ban alcohol 0 Led by women a lot of times because men depended on alcohol 0 Immigrants argued for alcohol because of religion etc Sin taxes develop heavy tax on alcohol Presidency ofJames Monroe Federalist party disappears Oneparty system occurs for a short time Republican Era of good feelings Economic boom fueled on slavery in south WEEK 6 Democratic Impulse don t want to change fundamentals of gov t but rather the power of the people Stump speeches begin Politicians giving speeches on a tree stump Emphasize that men have equality of OPPORTUNITY to become as unequal as he can 0 Critics of gov t say the rich have an unfair advantage 1 824 Andrew jackson vs John Quincy Adams vs Henry Clay vs William Crawford A run for president under the same party Jackson wins most votes but sees that Henry Clay might win so he tells people to vote for Adams quotCorrupt bargainquot President John Q AdamsHenry Clay Secretary of State Evidence that politics have gone awry Adams presidency o Fluent in 7 languages 0 Insider politician 0 Wanted a University of America ButJackson blocked plans 1828 The tariff of 1828 aka tariff of abomination gt Tax on imported goods gt Supposed to spur domestic production gt South imports a lot of foreign goods they don t like this tax One of the many components that leads to sectional divide bw NampS Presidential rematch Andrew Jackson vs John Q Adams Jackson wins Negative campaigning amp dirty politics begin what we know today quotVote forJQA who can write or A who can 0 Campaign against A Letters published showing AJ cant spell quotCof n Hand Billquot depicted pictures of cof ns to represent of people A has killed Jackson was married to a woman who was married to someone else only bc legal action never took place Shortly after he wins she dies amp he blames it on the stress of the election HUGE POLITICAL INAGURATION thousands of people come amp White House has open party Background ofJackson 0 Born poor 0 At age 13 he joins Revolutionary War amp gets caught by GB soldiers for being underage 0 At one point owns gt100 slaves o PoliticiangtSenator of Tennesseegtpresident o Involved in several duels gt Let s a guy shoot him in a duel bc the other guy is faster He gets shot amp gets to shoot the other guy amp kills him He then goes to a bar amp drinks it off gt People say he eventually died bc of lead poisoning due to bullets still inside of him Jackson Presidency Poster child for democracy Jacksonian Democracy Concerned that the few ruled the many Universal white manhood suffrage gt Don t have to own property to vote gt Restrictions move from wealth to racesex Spoils system people who constantly work for president Poiticians then give out favors Bankcurrency gt A hates soft money paper money or receipts bc its subject to speculators who make money by not doing anything gt IRONY IS THAT HIS FACE IS ON THE 20 DOLLAR BILL Increases role of president gt Vetoes more bills than any other president combined before him mainly bc he doesn t like the bill Indian removal bc he thought US needed protection Trail of Tears gt 1832 Worcester V Georgia gt GA passes law that whites can t go on reservations amp help Indians protest gt Supreme Court rules in favor gt A doesn t agree with decision so he send in troops to remove Indians and push them farther west aka The Trail of Tears People begin to think A is more like a king Whig Party forms 0 VPJohn Calhoun resigns amp Martin Van Buren replaces him American slang forms 0 quotAll correctquot turns into OK 0 quotToo big for their bridgesquot insult to those who are cocky Martin Van Buren vs Andrew Jackson for president Van Buren wins Eite soon become less popular for presidential candidates Van Buren vs William Henry Harrison for president Harrison wins bc Log cabin campaign he was born wealthy but grew up in a cabin c He is a relatable amp normal person 4 Explosion of Sa very US is largest slave nation in world by mid 1800 s But 12 of US has abolished slavery Antislavery activists form quotAll men created equalquot 0 DOI 1787 ordinance o 1808 International Slave Trade no more slaves to be imported to US o Blacks 2 Whites but slavery is still wrong Advocating Colonization Acts gt Solution was to send freed slaves back to Africa gt US creates Liberia colony in Africa for former slaves Only colony still standing today Capital is Monrovia named after president Monroe of that time Famous abolitionists William Lloyd Garrison gt Newspaper The Liberator gt BlacksWhites amp slave owners evil gt Seen as a lunatic who was too radical gt Doesn t like gov t once burned copy of Constitution Fredrick Douglas gt Bright literate gt Former slave who escaped gt Writes famous autobio 1840 Amistad 0 Ship that brought African slaves to US illegally Ship ends yup going to Cuba amp slaves take over ship amp try to head back to Africa but got lost amp ended up in Connchcut o JQA congressman after losing 2rml term becomes abolitionist amp sets these slaves free Proslavery arguments quotPositive goodquot Not just defensible but that it s good for every one including slaves Priest argue that the Bible doesn t have slavery but other priests argue there is amp thatJesus is OK with it quotCurse of Hamquot gtAfricans are descendants of Ham who is a bad guy Libertyslavery Slavery stops whites from becoming indentured servants Paternalism fathering gt Slaves are immature amp inferior gt Father amp child instead of Owner amp slave gt Slaves are childlike no matter what age Northern industrialism gt Slaves are taken care of better than northern factory workers Slave revolts Most are unsuccessful except for Haiti Gained freedom from France 0 Bc slaves don t typical revolt whites use this as an argument for contentness o Abolitionists say it s bc they are uniformed amp unarmed compared to whites 1800 Gabriel s Rebellion in Richmond gt Slaves are blacksmiths here amp leased out gt This freedom to be leased out is taken advantage of by Gabriel who s a slave but he fails to escape 1822 Denmark Vesey gt Won freedom from the lottery gt Created a conspiracy to set city on re but unsuccessful gt Negro Seaman Act to prevent future conspiracies American slavery was a quotclosed systemquot Blacks born into slaves Saves don t have last names so they can t make connchons Reativey few free blacks 1831 Nat Turner s Rebellion gt Believes he has a dialogue with God gt Rounds up blacks amp nds weapons amp kills his owner amp owner s family gt He kills women amp children so people see him as a maniac gt On the run for 68 days executed when caught Confessions are famous today His talks begin to spread around o It becomes illegal to teach a slave how to read Slaves are then unaware of the slavery controversy in US Slavery Culture Stripped of identity 0 African American gt Slave owners develop prejudice about a quotcommon African culture 0 Americans use religion to control slaves gt quotGod wants you to obey your masterquot 0 Mulattoes mixed children who have a slave as a mother amp a slave owner as the father 0 Owners would encourage marriage amp children between slaves bc offspring were automatic property H WEEK 7 0 Civil War 18611865 Killed more Americans than all other wars combined before Vietnam that US was involved In 112 men fought 650000850000 approximated dead but no good way to count dead bodies back then 50000 survivors came home with missing limbs 1860 South Carolina 1St state to succeed before Lincoln takes of ce Both former president Buchanan amp Lincoln don t recognize succession March 1861 Abe Lincoln becomes president 0 At rst he wanted to stop slavery but eventually sought to end it for good juy 21 1861 Battle of Manassas o Halfway through Union shouts quotthe war is overquot 0 But it isn t because Confederates end up winning the battle After the Renaissance war was known as quotGentleman s warquot until The Civil War when even civilians were fair game amp people started to attack in the middle of the night Scott s Great Snake Surround your enemy amp squeeze until everything resources is cut off amp they die N amp S establish a draft South white males drafted or they pay 500 or nd a sub North same as south Draft riot in Manhattan gt Took on racial aspect drafted men didn t want blacks taking their jobs gt Attacked abolitionists amp women married to black men gt Burned colored orphan asylum gt Blacks ended up relocating for fear of more threats Innovations Propaganda try to keep public moral lifted Art of photography captured gruesome events Handtohand combat no longer a thing Mini ball developed new bullet Wind no longer was an issue with shooting like the previous musket balls that sometimes could be stopped by muscle Iron clads partially submerged boats Union named battles after riverscreeks nearby Confederacy named battles after citiesstreets nearby Emancipation Proclamation Blacks wanted to ght but weren t allowed to until now Generals would free slaves in area they controlled 0 Lincoln kept the draft in his desk until the right time bc he wanted to cut the South where they were weak 0 Man power in the South decreased Aftermath o Regiments formed 180000200000 blacks enlisted Top 10 Major Battles s are approximate military causality meant not able to ght even if still alive 1 Gettysburg PA 51000 2 Chickamauga GA 34624 3 Spotsylvania VA 30000 4 Wilderness VA 25416 5 Chancellorsville VA 24000 6 Shiloh TN 23746 7 Stones River TN 23515 8Antietam MD 23100 9 2ncl Battle of Manassas VA aka Bull Run 22180 10 Fort Donelson TN 17398 Vicksburg amp Gettysburg were turning points Pickett s charge Gettysburg was humiliating loss for Lee bc he lost gt 13 of his men Medicine 0 Walt Whitman male nurse gt quotHeap of amputated feet hands legsquot 0 Hospital facilities sometimes located in private homesmansions 0 Field hospitalstents Terrible conditions pushed medical innovations gt Patient records gt Cures for illnesses gt 23 men died of disease 0 Whiskey was the only cure for pain Women in the war 0 Clara Barton gt Female nurse who traveled w union army gt Was never paid gt Founder of American Red Cross 0 quotWild Rosequot Rose O Neal Greenhow gt Confederate spy 0 Harriet Tubman gt Led 300 people in underground RR gt 1St woman to lead military expedition gt Union spy 0 Belle Boyd gt Confederate spy gt Shot amp killed union soldier at age 17 because he insulted her mom 0 Frances Clalin Clayton gt Joined union army disguised as man gt Joined with her husband gt Husband died right in front of her but she kept ghUng gt Went through 17 battles 0 Emma Edmonds gt Joined Union disguised as man gt Union spy gt Ran wounded soldiers back amp forth from battle eld gt Contracted malaria but didn t seek medical attention for fear of discovery gt Left army illegally and came back as female nurse january 31 1865 13th Amendment 0 Congress approved 13th amendment which is rst mention of slavery March 1865 blacks recruited for military will be free if they enlist April 9 1865 Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox Court House 0 Word of defeat was slow to travel people kept ghting No peace treaty just gentlemen s agreement April 14 1865 Lincoln shot 1013 pm 0 ByJohn Wilkes booth in the back of the head 0 Died at 722 am in a coma the next morning 0 Lincoln credited with being the quotmoving vehiclequot towards emancipation
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