MIDTERM Study Guide
MIDTERM Study Guide GC 170A
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gigi on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GC 170A at University of Arizona taught by E. Bigio in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 181 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO GLOBAL CHANGE in Global Studies at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
GLOBAL CHANGE MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE What are the steps of the scienti c process 1 Ask a question 2 Make Predictions hypothesis 3 Test Ideasgather data making observations testing hypothesis 4 Draw Conclusions What are the scienti c observations gathering data for studying glaciers Mapping measuring precipitation snowfal temperature sampling melt water How do we make other scienti c observations to understand environmental change Temperature weather C02 levels vegetation satellites ice cores What environmental variable is being measured with the Keeling Curve Measures atmospheric C02 levels What trend does the Keeling Curve show 1 Levels uctuate daily due to atmospheric circulation 2 C02 levels were higher and more variable at night from plant respiration 3 Afternoon levels were steady at 310 ppm Why was the sampling location chosen Mauna Loa is remote far from vegetation local atmosphere is likely to not in uence What are the units of measurement Ppm parts per million How does the Keeling Curve correspond with temperature C02 levels correspond with rising temperatures What is the correspondence of C02 and temperature As C02 levels are rising the temperature is rising What further questions does this prompt Why are C02 levels rising Humans are burning fossil fuels for energy Why does increased C02 cause the temperature to rise 0 Greenhouse effectgh gases trap heat What are the fossil fuels Coal electricity Oil transportation Natural gas home heating electricity cleaner Plant matter buried and compressed into rock Cheap source of energy Burning them produces C02 Understand hoW data is represented in a timeseries plot Used to see climate change over time y environmental variable X time Know hoW to draW a mean line Know hoW to describe the trend in the mean line amplitude and oscillations for a time series plot Mean average of values on x axis Trend slope of mean line if the mean is atno trend increasing or decreasing Amplitude height of uctuations abovebelow the mean described as high or low Periodicity how to describe oscillations uctuations Periodic perfect oscillations live a wave Quasiperiodic almost regular 0 Random no pattern Understand thefirst three steps ofthe 1 Sun Emits shortwave radiation Greenhouse e ect electromagnetic radiation 2 Earth absorbs it blackbody concept 3 Earth emits long wave radiation electromagnetic Why is the earth s climate just right for Earth has an atmosphere With just enough us greenhouse gases and density to keep us warm Know theforms ofenergy potential Electromagnetic energy transmitted as kinetic thermal and electromagnetic particle streams and waves With both electric radiation and magnetic properties heat transfer Thermal Energy heat rapid movement of molecules Understand how electromagnetic radiation Travel through space at the speed of light is transmitted through space Review how to describe a wave frequency Freq uency number of wave crests wavelength Wavelength distance between wave crests What are the wavelength bands which are Middle of the spectrum is relevant for Global relevant for global change Change 4 Increasing Energy UV radiation visible light Infrared Radiation gt I Increasmg wavelength Which wavelengths are emitted by the sun Sun emits short wave radiation UV Visible and earth light infra red Earth is all infrared What is the relationship between Shorter greater energy wavelength and energy transmitted Longerlower energy What is the concept offlux Flux intensity of radiation amount of energy that passes a perpendicular surface per unit of time Energy per area Lower uxless energy How does the ux depend on angle of the surface to the incoming radiation Flux is less when surface is not perpendicular How does this a eet the Climate over the earth surface More radiation is absorbed at equator Polar regions are cooler than tropics because suns rays strike the ground at a higher angle at the poles How do the radiation laws relate to the rst three steps of the greenhouse effect Radiation laws describe the total amount and intensity of radiation that is emitted by sun and earth and how it relates to temperature What is the relationship between wavelength and energy emitted by a blackbody What are the axes of the Planck function graph Shorter wave greater energy emitted Axis are wavelength vs radiation ux Why is the Planck function for the earth smaller to than the sun and at a smaller wavelength Because the sun emits shorter waves with more energy What Will happen to the Planck function if the earth 5 temperature increases The plank function will move to the left and grow taller Why is the total energy for the earth very sensitive to changes in temperature Total energy increases rapidly with increasing temperature because a higher temperature means a shorter wave Why are the radiation laws important Weather and storms result from redistribution of energygulf stream moves energy around earth Four layers of the atmosphere Troposphere Stratosphere Mesosphere Thermosphere Temperature in each layer Troposphere temp decreases with height Stratosphere temp increases Mesosphere decreases Thermosphere increasing Main Features of oposphere amp Stratosphere Troposphere Contains most of water vapor Most gh gases dense Weather occurs from mix of warm and cold air masses Stratosphere Very dry almost no water vapor Very uniform no mixing Contains ozone layer Where are the GH gases Troposphere concentrated Where is the ozone layer Stratosphere Which GH gases have the highest C02 amp H20 concentrations in the atmosphere How can you reduce your ecological footprint in each category Carbon Drive less Food Farmers markets Housing Sustainable furnishings Goods and Services buy local recycle What factors contribute to lower footprints in western Europe amp developing nations Less Carbon from bicycles not much imported dense population 3 Processes of Heat 7739ansfer Conduction direct contact heat ows from hot to cold Pot and coils Convection circulation within a uidgas heated from below warm water rises Ex troposphere leads to cloud formation pot boiling water inside and the steam Radiation heat transfer by electromagnetic radiation not heat energy it becomes heat when absorbed by the object Ex waves off the boiling pot How does convection bring warm air from the surface up wards in the atmosphere Heat causes expansion of a substancemakes a substance less densewarm air is less dense and rises cold air sinks Monsoon storms What would the temperature on earth be like if there was no greenhouse effect The earth would be freezing Since the long waves emitted from the earth would not be absorbed and remitted back to earth to keep us warm All long wave radiation would be transmitted out to space What is happening to earth 5 temperature with an enhanced greenhouse effect C02 levels in the atmosphere are increasing and this corresponds with temperature Why do greenhouse gases absorb and emit ong wave radiation They are triatomic Which greenhouse gases have the highest concentrations in the troposphere C02 and H20 What happens when shortwave radiation interacts with a greenhouse or nongreenhouse gas They have no interaction How do greenhouse gases interact with outgoing ong wave radiation A greenhouse gas will absorb and reemit the radiation Why does the increased C02 cause the temperature to rise Greenhouse effect with more C02 more long wave radiation will be reemitted back towards the earth surface making it warmer What happens when greenhouse gases absorb energy It causes vibration bending and rotation of atomic bonds This causes electromagnetic radiation to convert to heat energy What is an absorption spectrum for a greenhouse gas It is the proportion of energy absorbed by greenhouse gases at a particular wavelength What do the blue areas represent know hoW to label the Xy axes The wavelengths of energy that are absorbed and emitted by the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere Energy absorbed X axis Wavelength Y axis absorbed Where does visible light pass through the atmosphere Visible light passes through all parts of the atmosphere What is the atmospheric Window It allows a narrow band of long wave radiation to pass in the infrared portion What in uences the variability in air temperature around the earth surface 1 Incoming solar radiation based on earth s curvature Earth s re ectivity an cloud cover albedo Warming provided by greenhouse gases JUN What is Albedo The amount of shortwave radiation re ected by a surface that depends on property of the surface Water is dark colored and absorbs most incoming shortwave radiation Which surfaces have high albedo Snow very re ective Which surfaces have loW albedo Water or Forests absorbs a lot of shortwave radiation What is the dual role of clouds in the energy budget 1 They re ect incoming solar radiation 2 They absorb outgoing infrared radiation and contribute to the greenhouse effect HoW much incoming shortwave radiation is re ected directy back to space 1019 Wm23423 Wm2 comes in total What happens to incoming solar radiation Four options 1 Re ected by clouds 2 Re ected by the surface 3 Absorbed by the surface 4 Absorbed by greenhouse gases Radiated up from clouds amp gases Passes through the atmosphere Radiated up and then radiated back to earth greenhouse effect What happens to long wave radiation Three options JUI Why is it important to learn about Humans are putting a lot of C02 into the air the energy budget which is increasing the greenhouse effect What is an example of Changing Increasing C02 in the atmosphere from cars one component of the energy budget HoW does this affect the other This would increase the absorption of solar components radiation because more ice caps would be melting Why is the energy budget slightly The 9 Wm2 magnitude of the enhanced out ofbaance greenhouse effect causes the slight imbalance This is the amount of energy of long wave radiation that is emitted back towards the surface What is a phase Change It is the transition between the state of a substance to another 0 Extra energy is absorbed or released from the environment 0 Transition from solid to liquid or gas energy absorbed Transition from gas to liquid or solid energy released What is latent heat and sensible Latent Heat Energy that is absorbed or released heat from the environment during a phase change Sensible Heat Temperature of substance that we can feel What happens to the environment Energy is absorbed from environment making When a substance is warming the surrounding environment cooler melting or evaporation What happens to the environment When a substance is cooling condensationfreezing Energy is released to the environment during a phase change and the surrounding environment gets warmer Can you give examples of a phase change Evaporation liquid water to vapor Condensation water vapor transitions to water What happens if we add water to a desert environment There is now more latent energy more evaporation cooler environment Understand the examples of Group activity SW 1 v People wear sunglasses to ski because the white snow re ects incoming solar radiation into your eyes SW J You get sunburnt 2 lying in the sun in the middle of the day because your skin absorbs the solar radiation Ltd 3 5 While camping it is cloudy but warm overnight because clouds emit radiation downwards LOU 4 E 5 Night vision goggles can detect warmth electromagnetic radiation emitted from a person at night because humans have a temperature and we emit long wave radiation 5 A plane landing in Tucson is bumpy because rising hot air convection off the surface causes turbulence Sensible Heat 6 In Arizona swamp coolers work in the hot dry month ofJune because evaporation removes heat energy from the environment Latent Energy Understand What the Global Energy Distribution graphic represents Weather patterns in the troposphere relate to energy distribution global heat transfer from the equator towards the poles Why is there a surplus of energy at the equator More incoming solar radiation is absorbed at the equator due to ux HoW is the surplus of heat energy at the equator transferred to the poles Atmospheric Circulation amp Ocean Circulation What are the steps of Hadley Cell Circulation 1 Warm air rises near equator convection and uplift 2 Water vapor condenses in the upper atmosphere releases heat 3 Warm air moves toward the poles cooling as it moves northward 4 Cool air sinks at 30 degrees NS latitude subsidence HoW do convection and condensation contribute to Hadley Cell Circulation Convection causes warm air to rise near equator and water vapor condenses Where is there divergence and convergence of surface Winds Convergencelow pressure areas Divergence high pressure Intertropical Convergence Zone and Deserts divergence Why are deserts concentrated along 30N and 305 Divergence Cool air sinks and prevents condensation and cloud so the environment becomes very dry What and Where is the Polar Front Zone Where cold and warm air meets converging zone in the mid latitudes Responsible for much of weather in N America What is the jet Stream anol how is it changing in response to global warming Current of strong upper level winds moving west to east What warmer temps do to the Jet stream 1 Poles are warming 2 Less of a temperature gradient between poles and equator 3 Jet stream becomes wavier 4 Moves slower so weather patterns become more persistent California drought What drives the large circular pattern of surface currents in each ocean East to west surface winds over the equator HoW are surface currents responsible for the heat transfer towards the poles Gyres Warm water is moved away from equator and cold water is moved away from the poles Where does the Gulf Stream ow Gulf Stream brings warm water north from equator What is upwelling anol how does this bring cold water to the coastlines It is the upward movement of cold water from deep in the ocean In areas of divergence water is being pulled away from the coast by surface currents leading to upwelling of cold water from below What is the relationship of sea surface temperature anol precipitation Warm surface temperature heavy rainfall Cold Surface temperature no rainfall What is the normal pattern of atmospheric circulation in the equatorial Paci c sio e has three steps 1 Winds move east to west across the paci c 2 Warm Water accumulates in western paci c AustraliaIndonesia 3 Convection amp Uplift over W Paci c results in rainfall During the normal pattern Where Warm regions are near Australia and cold are the warm and cold regions of regions are near Peru the Paci c ocean What is the El Nino pattern of 1 Breakdown of surface winds warm water atmospheric circulation slide moves east has four steps 2 Uplift ampprecipitation occur close to coast of S America 3 Heavy rain in S America PeruEcuador where its usually very dry 4 Increased winter rainfall in SW United States Winds reverse direction reduced upwelling Where is warm water during an El Warm water spreads to the coasts of S America Nino year Where is the cold surface water Southwest and South America during a La Nina year What are the climate impacts in El Nino the South west during El Nino and La Nina years oz Increased rainfall even ooding in SW US and S America 0 Less warm water in W Paci c droughts in Australia La Nina O O o Increased Drought in SW and S America 39 Increases rainfall in Australia Indonesia 60 O O Where is the ozone layer What is 03 concentration in the stratosphere it composed of Ozone absorbs incoming UV radiation and also absorbs amp emits a narrow band of infrared radiation long wave in troposphere near surface What is the process of ozone production in the stratosphere 1 Starts with 02 a photon of UV radiation strikes a regular 02 molecule 2 Splits 02 molecule into 2 single oxygen atoms 3 The free oxygen atoms combine with 02 molecules 4 Forms 03 What are CFC s Made of Chlorine Fluorine Carbon Man made chemicals developed in 1930 s Known as Freon How does a chlorine atom destroy ozone molecules in the stratosphere 1 Chlorine atom collides w ozone molecule 2 Steals an oxygen atom amp creates CLO which leaves an 02 3 Chlorine Monoxide CLO collides with a free oxygen 4 2 oxygen atoms join amp CL is released but is now free to destroy more ozone What is the worst part of the process 0 The CL atom destroys ozone molecules repeatedly Where is the ozone hole Area of ozone depletion covers S Pole When did this become a problem It has been growing over the past 35 years Started with CFCs became a problem in 1970 805 Why is the ozone hole over the south poe Polar stratospheric clouds tiny ice particles accelerate chemical reaction of ozone destruction 0 Ice particles provide surfaces for reactions to occur 0 Long winter S Pole creates very low temperatures which causes polar clouds Discovered by Susan Soloman Who were the scientists who rst hypothesized the ozone destruction by CFCs When Rowland amp Molina 1974 two scientists were the rst to suggest CFC s could reach the stratosphere where they could react Who were the rst scientists to recognize decreasing ozone levels in the atmosphere Where amp when British Scientists at the S Pole Antarctica since 1956 used weather balloons and their time series plot shows a rapid decreasing trend after 1975 in the ozone concentration When was the ozone hole rst Took until 1985 to recognize ozone hole recognized unexpected outcome NASA Satellite What was the key piece of evidence linking Chlorine monoxide from CFC s to ozone destruction In 1987 1 ClO levels increased over S Pole 2 Ozone levels decreased NASA ight through ozone hole Proved R amp M true showed de nitive proof of the link between CFC s amp Ozone Depletion Why did the chemical industry oppose a ban on CFC 5 They feared econdamaging restrictions When was the Montreal Protocol signed 1987 Why was this document so remarkable What did it say Most successful international environmental agreement 0 Signed by all major industrial nations 0 Strict limits on CFC production 0 Chemical Industry developed alternatives HCFC s 0 Today basically O CFC emissions What would have happened if it were not signed CFCs would continue to rise without this What has happened to CFC s in the stratosphere since it was signed Ozone hole is stabilized and may fully recover in 4050 years Ozone story positive economic outcomes amortization of topics Electromagnetic redl39ietion Arno spectrum Properties of reernrhouse gas roo eculleo Absarpti quot Greenhouse effect SPECt mm earth s temperature Enhanced greenhouse 7 9 earth s iher eesrn J Athedo opt temperature e surface 11 properties Kleeling CUWE 1 hr ri e I Seperete topice Eiiiii is L Atmospheric etruetu re 5 Energy budget Atmoe herefoceeh pirpulletion 7 39p 39 L9 earth s tlmprato re Donne Hlo1e Atmospheric structure Lecture 5 IDD 9U EU quot F39 EU 39 5U Tharm g hm a How does temperature change with height troposphere and stratosphere Moeoephere Attitude hm 4 0 Stratosphere V an ozone aver Remember that the ozone 4 layer 115 in the stratosphere TrooephorK 180 mg 220 2m 9m 2m am quotthe Greenhouse effect occurs Temperature EH in the troposphere C02 and H20 are most rerbrundeht reenlhouzse gases and the are found in the troposphere Til39ii Erma 391 Ni middle mmmmta Hatrmt E13231 Ema mmihl n Mari warmEzIsilm Mama his in th m anmmphum I mm ng 5mm ada39lyi n j dz j W m EggEmmi Similar 1 Hmiiatmii mun19 i1 7 uigging Lmv wamr Lliiuzilliiiil n 2 335 F13 4 h g i W1 77 L f r E mi E a a 7177 a39hmrhgd m J Wm j i h r r 3 7 V 4 A magi frm gp 539 ffWh 939 Hair J j nutg ing ral ia39lzi a DE ahmwbed my 7 39 31H iilir szami g ramming 119 milemm lr lifi miu a mliar radiat n I Effl tr IiiF tlurud 3 RE ZIEEEte Lia539 HIE Eulrf39acc iwr sands surfing 5 31 EulaEmailed the Eliaa1mphm kw 1 bm md tang Tim laurd am EH u w ing LEIin Mr rai39ai39 1r Illii WEE 1 J lrn vr1 L 7 F g J 7 Er39mi39 J 1 L AW Emmi Wr 9 1 11 nismmEr lay grassmama gage EL m k V w m u f 3 Ham tted Ina5 it earth by reemhmm 13315135 39 r r Hit id iEI WEI Emil i Ellie bl EEEE39E I39II39IELIEE 535135 39L Jlr w Ell l n r Jr 1 il pain513E HiresHI Ehr imi l FIE atm p mr atmm h rig gagind aw 391 E IEQFfL tm r v H m 7 n i w V Whur alf hn impu WIPIJLTA 45 all I D In HE me Egg me l j waLg cume WE J1 Em 7 5 r E 4 5 llmt 355 Hiram h mg HTHEME w l quot an LEE if j r r Hr km i39 h UwE E ladia tion Laws 1 Wienis law relates the maxim um energy flux to the temperature tectu re 4 mt 5 Plank function describes the shape of the curve ux Mintg39mmt 7 I 1202 l quot mi g Stieliaanolltzman defines how the total energy is vary so nsitiye to changes to temperature 9 Changes rapidly The absorption spectrum ILeEtiur39e 7 1 i4 Visible light quot Atmospheric window ll absorption UV Visible J Infrared Radiation 1 Incoming UV alosonhedl lay ozone layer in the stratosphere 2 Visible light allowed to pass through to the earth surfaoe 3 Longwaye radiation aiosonhedl anti reemitted back towards the earth surface 4 The atmospheric Window allows narrow hand at longwaye radiation to pass through tlhe atmosphere Radiation flux Review of Radiation Laws 7 Planck tnncticn llalachhcdy radiatinn carve iDistr39ilbutian ef energy a Wavelength Law 2 Planet Fuinctiein relates intensity at radiatien tie the wavelengths emitted by a blackhedly emits at ALL wavelengths the amount of energy e mittedl is inve rselv related tn the wavelength Radiation flmr Planck function Peak and temperature Radiatien flue Wavelength Law 3 Wien s Law There is nine wavelength where a blackbcdlv emits a maximum ameunt cf radliaticn and it is relatetl te temperature The maximum radiati nn fl us peak ciccu rs at a wavelength that is inverselyr related tn the temperature Lecture It39ll Tate energyi and temperature 1 Area under curve 1t Planck iunc lien Wavelength 4 The Stefani cltamanin ILaw Tetal energy em ittecll is proportional tn the temperature at the tlrltivF Tetall energy is se hsitive to temperature because it is prepcrtieinall tn the fenrth ipcwer Electromagnetic spectrum and electromagnetic radiation ganrrna ray ultraviolet infrared lecture 03 radio a Xrav llll39Ill39illllllllll Shorter wavelength Higher frequency L Higher energy i v Solar short waves UV E Wisible to Il visible l micrewa ve iwlll li 39lll iltii r lllllllllllllll llllll ll ll ll ll llll l ii if quott J Longer wavelength 3quot Lower frequencv tower energy Terrestrial long waves mm lntraredl waves
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