ATOC 1050 midterm #2 Review Guide
ATOC 1050 midterm #2 Review Guide 1050.0
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelly Poole on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 1050.0 at University of Colorado taught by Nigro,Melissa Ann in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 260 views. For similar materials see Weather & the Atmosphere in General Science at University of Colorado.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
ATOC Midterm 2 Review I took suggestions into consideration from my last study guide and made changes to the format and content of this study guide This study guide has all of the info and definitions in one place You can find all this info in your other resources but I have added pictures explanations Videos and outside links that will help you understand the material 39 Wind direction To put it simply wind direction refers to where the wind is coming from For example if you have a southeasterly wind it means that the wind is coming from the southeast and heading in the opposite direction Pretty simple Wind direction is in terms of degrees Remember wind is just air in motion relative to the earth s surface Wind barbs you should be able to read wind barbs on a surface map and be able to tell the wind speed as well as the direction of the wind Below you will find a guide to reading wind barbs Wind Speeds Symbol Knots Milesihr Symbol Knots Milesz39hr o Calm Calm L 3842 4449 12 12 W 4347 5054 37 33 L 4352 55 60 312 914 Lb 5357 6166 L 1317 1520 L 5862 6771 L 1822 2125 L 6367 7277 L 2327 2631 L 6672 78 83 L 2832 3237 W 7377 6489 L 3337 3843 L 103107 113123 On the next page you will find images describing how to tell the direction of wind by looking at wind barbs ATOC Midterm 2 Review Wind Barb Description in the northern hemisphere fullb arb 10 knots halfbarb 5 knots g Fromthewest 5 at 15 knots 1 mph Fl soainots From the south 4 at 50 knots 58 mph Fro m the southeast at S knots 86 mph Now that you can identify the speed of the wind from a wind barb here is a Surface map that you can interpret 1012 1016 1020 1024 gs i39 g W per hour 1 01 2 1008 i 1004 1 000 11 996 lt 93 5 a 9813 gt 980 976 1008 Q x L97 39 M Cal 1391 Cal 1391 3 8 37 9 14 812 1520 13 17 21 25 18 22 26 31 23 27 323 23 32 3843 33 3 4449 33 42 43 47 5560 43 52 61 66 5357 67 71 58 62 72 7 63 67 7333 68 72 84 89 73 7 FFFFI FI FFFFFWH 10 3 119 123 103107 ATOC Midterm 2 Review 0 Air pressure 0 The mass of air above a given level 0 Atmospheric air pressure always decreases with increasing height 0 Because most of the atmosphere is crowded close to the earth s surface air pressure decreases with height rapidly at first and then more slowly at higher altitudes because there are less air molecules 0 A change in surface air pressure can be brought about by changing the mass amount of air above the surface Cold vs warm columns of air and how these are related to areas of high or low pressure at both upper levels and the surface 0 Pg 159 in the book It takes a shorter column of cold moredense air to exert the same surface pressure as a taller column of warm less dense air 0 Heating and cooling columns of air can establish horizontal variations in atmospheric pressure aloft and at the surface 0 Effect of water vapor on surface pressure 0 The greater the water vapor content the higher the surface pressure Ie water ways more than oxygen 0 Pressure gradient 0 Pressure gradient 2 D1fference1npressure distance o Closely spaced isobars on a weather chart indicate steep pressure gradients strong forces and high winds Sea level pressure 0 The pressure value obtained by the theoretical reduction or increase of barometric pressure to sea level 0 Pressure gradient force 0 The PGF is the force that causes the wind to blow o Directed from higher toward lower pressure at right angles to the isobars Forces how do net forces in uence the movement of an air parcel Hydrostatic balance 0 An atmosphere in hydrostatic equilibrium in which the temperature is constant with altitude and in which the pressure decreases exponentially upward ATOC Midterm 2 Review Coriolis Effect 0 An apparent force that is due to the rotation of the earth As wind speed increases the Coriolis force increases hence the stronger the wind the greater the de ection 0 Once the wind starts to blow the Coriolis force causes objects in motion to bend to the right of its intended path in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left of its intended path in the Southern Hemisphere 39 Watch these videos They will help you understand the Coriolis effect 0 httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvchs Od QOYU httpswwwyoutubecomwatchv 36MiCUS m 0 Friction o The atmospheric layer that is in uenced by friction called the friction layer usually extends upward to an altitude near 1000 m or 3000 ft above the surface but this altitude may vary somewhat since both strong winds and rough terrain can extend the region of frictional in uence 0 Near the surface friction reduces the wind speed which in turn reduces the Coriolis force Isobars and geopotential height contours 0 Lines connecting points of equal pressure on a pressure map 0 e10 is n image depicting the geopotential height field I N u 39u 39 39 quot 24 rm am an ca nu 3113321 a no Em id at nu m oars quot 1 144 a 4 taaluzfquot r 1 go 1quot 39 V 39 b39leb39 V at 39v 39 f f39 lksl s 39quot r V F JF39 rJ 39 v u 39 F quot 0 v I f I 39 I I 1 quot39 I f u I Q l 539 39 f I f o quot x 39I 39 V M j3r7 r39quot Sfi quot a quot quotf 1 339 fZ 39 1 39 f 3 h 5quot J I I v 4 396 39 I f i r v 9quot quoth Q 39 1 39 4 I 39 I 391 D a 39 r r w v o A line drawn on a weather map connecting points of equal height in meters is called a height contour That means at every point along a given contour the values of geopotential height are the same ATOC Midterm 2 Review 0 Ridges and troughs o Contour lines on surface maps are not straight however they do bend and turn indicating ridges elongated heights where the air is warmer and indicating depressions or troughs elongated lows where the air is colder Here is an example of an upperair map with ridges and troughs H 39 5400 1 r u 39 3 o 39 1 39 1 8 t I l I 39 f x 390 39 I 0 L Q t l 0 1 w I r 546C I o 39 39 39 quot l 5580 I 39 Q 39 I 333339 I a 6 39539 8 39 39 R quot13 5590 o r ho f rum1 a n 39 t JbJL39 rx quot 5 01quot H Geostrophic balance 0 PGF and Coriolis force are equal amp opposite 0 You will see straight isobars so geostrophic balance happens in the upper levels because there is no friction Iet streams 0 Strong winds concentrated within a narrow band in the upper atmosphere It normally refers to horizontal highaltitude winds The jet stream often quotsteersquot surface features such as front and low pressure systems Gradient winds The gradient wind is defined as a horizontal wind having the same direction as the geostrophic wind but with a magnitude consistent with a balance of three forces the pressure gradient force the Coriolis force and the centrifugal force arising from the curvature of a parcel trajectory Centripetal force http itg1meteorwiscedu wxwise satmet lesson7 centripetal html ATOC Midterm 2 Review 0 Winds around high and low pressure systems both at upper levels and at the surface Cyclonic vs anticyclonic ow centers of high pressure anticyclones centers of low pressure midlatitude cyclonic storms Surface winds 0 Check out this awesome website for a clear explanation httpwaO10atmosuiuceduGl guidesmtrfwfricrxml Convergence vs divergence 0 An atmospheric condition that exists when the winds cause a horizontal net in ow of air into a specified region Divergence is the opposite where winds cause a horizontal net out ow of air from a specified region convergeV divergenmV descending air ascending air ivergence jnvergence 77777777777 0 Instruments that measure winds 0 A wind vane is an instrument that determines the direction from which the wind is blowing 0 An anemometer measures wind speed The cups catch the wind turning a dial attached to the instrument The dial shows the wind speed ATOC Midterm 2 Review Scales of atmospheric circulation o Microscale O Mesoscale O Macroscale it s a 0 Wind shear Variation in wind speed and or direction over a short distance Shear usually refers to vertical wind shear Thermal circulations a circulation generated by pressure gradients produced by di erential heating 0 Thermal circulations tend to be shallow do not extend up through the depth of the troposphereexamples of thermal circulations sea breeze land breeze monsoons mountain and valley breezes 0 Mesoscale circulations Sea breezes rising air over land clouds will form sinking air over ocean usually happens late afternoons Land breezes from the land happens in the early morning Mountain breeze air comes down the mountain at night Valley breeze air goes up the mountain during the day Chinooks a warm dry downslope wind that descends the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains Commonly found in a narrow region from northeastern New Mexico northward into Canada Katabatic winds Downslope winds that are much stronger than mountain breezes Katabatic winds can rush down elevated slopes at hurricane speeds ATOC Midterm 2 Review 0 Desert winds Otherwise known as the Santa Ana winds a warm dry wind that blows downhill from the east or northeast into southern California As the air descends from the elevated desert plateau it funnels through mountain canyons in the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains finally spreading over the Los Angeles Basin and San Fernando Valley and out over the Pacific Ocean 0 Monsoons A monsoon wind system is one that changes direction seasonally blowing from one direction in summer and from the opposite direction in winter Definition 2 A persistent seasonal wind often responsible for seasonal precipitation regime It is most commonly used to describe meteorological changes in southern and eastern Asia 0 The single cell model Let s assume 0 earth is uniformly covered with water 0 sun is directly over equator o no rotation 0 You will end up with the Hadley Cell warm air rises at the equator cold air sinks at the poles An image on the next page shows you Cold Hadley cell Equator gt 9 7 Hadley cell 2007 Thomson Higher Education ATOC Midterm 2 Review 0 The three cell model Arctic KP g 00 High In Md w dquot 1 PolarFront 39 Wgtgt eTtc tf i 30 Prevailing Westerluef lNorthe ay Trades cmveancnal upquot amp pmomtawo ITCZ39 IO39N Subtropical High 00 c lt w lt 000 q I erlue a c amp Polar Front Ama39Ct39C t f 3 39 Names of major wind systems and pressure regions 0 Check out the following wiki article on major wind systems and pressure regions https enwikipediaorgwiki Global wind patterns ITCZ o The Inter Tropical Convergence Zone or ITCZ is a belt of low pressure which circles the Earth generally near the equator where the trade winds of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres come together 0 Westerlies O Winds in the middle latitudes approximately 30 degrees to 60 degrees that generally blow from west to east ATOC Midterm 2 Review Iet streams 0 Strong winds concentrated within a narrow band in the upper atmosphere It normally refers to horizontal highaltitude winds The jet stream often quotsteersquot surface features such as front and low pressure systems 0 Air masses 0 A large body of air that has similar horizontal temperature and moisture characteristics 0 Air masses are classified according to the temperature and moisture characteristics of their source regions Based on temperature tropical warm polar cold arctic extremely cold 0 Lake effect snow 0 According to Wikipedia Lakeeffect snow is produced during cooler atmospheric conditions when a cold air mass moves across long expanses of warmer lake water warming the lower layer of air which picks up water vapor from the lake rises up through the colder air above freezes and is deposited on the leeward downwind shores Weather station models wind direction temperature wind speed H st Hpressure current 133 weather 55 pressure tendency dew point cloud cover ATOC Midterm 2 Review Fronts The boundary or transition zone between two different air masses The basic frontal types are cold fronts warm fronts and occluded fronts 39 Cold Fronts 0 cold air replacing warm air 0 The warm air is then forced up in the vertical 0 there is a large temp change over a short distance 10 to 20 degrees 0 wind shifts from southwesterly to the northwesterly 0 cold fronts usually move really quickly 25 knots 0 weather associated with cold fronts includes rain and thunderstorms from cumulonimbus clouds the rising warm air forms clouds Cold air Warm air Warm front 0 warm moist air replaces dry cold air 0 travels much slower than cold fronts around 10 knots 0 Warm fronts generally move from southwest to northeast and the air behind a warm front is warmer and moister than the air ahead of it 0 weather associated with warm fronts often include light precipitation including rain sleet and snow Below is an image of a warm front ATOC Midterm 2 Review 0 Occluded Front 0 Cold front catches up w a warm front 0 A coldoccluded front is when the air behind the front is colder than the air ahead of the front 0 A warmoccluded front is when the cold air behind the front is warmer than the cold air ahead of the front 80 p r X 66 a 1 W 5 40 F 0 00quot Warm air 739 cc air J x I g 39 a 9 Cold air 9 I 39 I q Cool air 30quot A 30quot 1 39 s A B 139 I i Occluded front 120 k 90 Warm air I x Stationary Front 0 This is the first step in a midlatitude cyclone o Nonmoving boundary 0 Air ow is parallel to the front 0 No movements of the fronts They re pushing against each other Cold air Warm air gt Q d C gt Statiopry front gt Check out this cool link for more Meteorology definitions httpwwwerhnoaagoverboxglossarVhtm
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