Exam-2 Study Guide
Exam-2 Study Guide BIO 1500
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by seanc on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1500 at Wayne State University taught by Daniel M. Kashian in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 341 views. For similar materials see Basic Life Diversity in Biology at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
Fall Semester 2015 Teacher Dr Dan Kashian EXAM2 STUDY GUIDE BIO1500 1 Fungi is a completely different kingdom from plants A Experiments have shown their ability to convert petroleum into carbohydrates B Interesting interactions with insects leading to little oasis of life C Fungi are a series of gateway organisms which open the door for other biological communities 2 Fungi are diverse but have some common characteristics A Are heterotrophs with important roles as decomposers B Have lamentous hyphae often divided by septae i Interwoven hyphae form a mycelium that grows into substrate and digests it ii Hyphae may form reproductive structures like in mushrooms iii Septate Hyphae are divided by septae cross walls iv Aseptate Hyphae are continuous m Wilfl rl nuclei his his stir Elan iiisiugjtrulnm EH 5529mm Slim has h Euquot Halli in 39 391 an I 3 a 5 I ED 1 Eff E g Efl IquotF fa A Liarquot p I gut ll l Eh mamaspram hyptm C Cell walls have chitin in them suggests link to animal kingdom D May have more than one haploid cell in a nucleus prior to diploid fusion i Monokaryotic vs dikaryotic ii Heterokaryotic vs homokaryotic E Mitosis may happen within the nucleus 3 Fungi can reproduce both sexually and asexually A Sexual haploid hyphae fuse i Results in immediate diploid or an intermediate dikaryotic stage1n1n ii Typically has to be two positive mating types B Spores may result from sexual or asexual reproduction i Wind dispersed ii Form new mycelium when spores germinate C All fungi are heterotrophs i Secrete digestive enzymes then absorb nutrients external digestion ii Good at breaking down cellulose and lignin in wood iii Able to break down anything with carbon 4 Fungal phylogeny Five major fungal phyla based on the mode of sexual reproduction A Chytridiomycetes aquatic fungi with agellated zoospores iMost closely related to original fungi B Zygomycetes fungi that produce zygotes i Haploid nuclei fuse to form a diploid zygote ii No hyphae except when reproducing HESimam L l EQfll39d di lllliliquotll l Himjlwi C Glomeromycetes Symbionts with plants asexual reproduction i Are the mycorrhizae require a host plant ii Form intracellular associations with plant roots arbuscular mycorrhizae iii No evidence of sexual reproduction iv Symbiotic relationship with plant roots V Plant has now an extended root system and fungi gets food from the plant D Ascomycetes Sac fungi i Reproductive structure is a microscopic sac ii Also includes yeasts single cell iii Contains 75 fungi iv Named after reproductive structure ascus E Basidiomycetes Club fungi i Primary and secondary mycelium ii Mushrooms puffballs jelly fungi etc iii Named for their sexual reproductive structure iV Mushroom fruiting body Basidiocarps F Deuteromycetes Most molds confusing phylogeny i Parasexuality creates genetic recombination ii Penicillin Aspergillus soy sauce often considered Ascomycetes iii Imperfect fungi 5 Fungi ecology is perhaps more important than their biology A Are important decomposers for ecosystems nutrient cycling B Important in symbiosis i obligate vs facultative ii pathogens iii commensal iv mutualism a Lichens are critical symbiotic relationship between fungi and algaecyanobacteria 1 Lichens are only present in clean air environments because they are air quality indicators b Mycorrhizae are critical for plant nutrition because they extend the root system of the plant and aid in nutrient uptake especially phosphorus 1 Found in 90 of vascular plants especially important for those growing on nutrient poor soils 2 Plant can eXploit larger surface area in soil 3 Fungi get carbohydrates from the plant iii Arbuscular mycorrhizae have hyphae that penetrate the cell walls of the root 1 Important when plants moved onto land because soils were likely very sterile 2 Most common type today 3 Important in the tropics because soils are not rich in nutrients iv Ectomycorrhizae form a sheath around the root but do not penetrate it 1 Especially important on forest trees pines and oaks v Endophytes are fungi are NOT mycorrhizae that grow inside a plant 1 May help plant defense because the fungi reduces the production of toxins to ward off herbivory C Important as pathogens for humans and plants i Can cause diseases in plants and animals that are hard to cure ii Fungi growth on spoiled food and poison humans and animals Salem witch trials 6 Soils sustain plant life but are also affected by it A Soil layers include 0 organic matter A mixing E leaching B accumulation and C parent material 1 mustang or syn gamma ltupau E EU i fE I39m riz n lzl E 351 tamin in 3mm materi iii H baa u mm B Plants take up minerals dissolved in water found in pores i Roots must actively transport ions into root hairs ii Soil texture determines pore space for air and water availability C Human disturbances can cause soilrelated catastrophes Dust Bowl salinization D Plants need more than products from photosynthesis i Nine macronutrients seven micronutrients ii Soil nutrient availability is affected by pH E Nutrients come from atmosphere N and weathering P etc i Atmospheric sources are dryfall wetfall stem ow throughfall ii Other sources are weathering groundwater organic matter F Many plants have specialized ways to gain nutrition i Some plants develop symbioses to fix N from the atmosphere legumes ii Plants may have mycorrhizal relationships or be carnivorous or be parasitic G CN balance is critical for herbivores and human nutrition may be altered by increased atmospheric C02 7 Plant defenses are responses of plants to sudden changes in their environment A Abiotic factors like wind ice temperature weather can damage plants i Axillary buds of trees can grow shoots to replace those broken B Other organisms often more damaging than abiotic factors they can move i Of most concern are herbivores usually insects that eat plants for a living ii Plants cannot escape herbivores but they can defend themselves iii Plants outsmart herbivores which evolve to overcome plant defenses Arms race 8 Physical defense are always present inon the plant A First line of defense is the dermal tissue i Have lipids waxes hairs prickles and even bark in woody plants ii Wounds allow entry into the plant iii Fungi can enter and infect through stomata 9 Plants produce chemicals secondary metabolites to kill sicken or repel herbivores A Chemical may be qualitative work in small doses cheap or quantitative present in high concentrations reduce digestibility i Chemicals can be always present or induced ii Chemicals found in many angiosperms but gymnosperms as well resin B Many plants including food sources continuously contain cyanide compounds or other toxic chemicals C Plants can create andor quickly move some chemicals when attacked these are the induced chemical defenses Cheaper strategy i Alkaloids nicotine caffeine morphine and terpenoids volatile oils are two types of defense compounds ii Some of the alkaloids have important medicinal values for humans iii Monarch butter ies have figured it all out iv Humans have been poisoned throughout history with plants D Plants protect themselves from toxins i They can sequester the toxin within membranes ii They can make a compound not toxic until ingested by herbivores E Mimicry and movement thigmonasty are other defense responses F Mutualisms are effective ways for a plant to indirectly defend itself 10 Plants have systemic responses to wounds or attacks A Wound response in plants occurs via systemin bonding jasmonic acid production and expression of proteinase inhibitors B Hypersensitive response is a way for plants to recognize pathogens C Systemic acquired response is a longerterm recognition mechanism 11 Plants don t exist in the world totally as individuals they are in groups and interact with each other and the environment A Population groups of individuals at a specific place and time i Environment limits distribution at large geographic range and small site scales B Populations can grow or shrink over time i Can be studied by looking at life history of plant species ii Mortality rates survivorship offspring produced are all important to populations iii Survivorship curves show survival to a given age 1 Plants can be Type I II or III curves iv Populations can grow without limits exponentially or are limited by their environment carrying capacity V Plants can be rselected shortlived lots of offspring early in life or Kselected longlived low reproductive effort or a combination of both 12 Communities are groups of individuals from multiple species A Species interact in communities B Species respond to the environment independently even within communities i Communities change gradually across landscapes ii Abrupt changes are due to underlying abrupt changes in site iii Site is a good indicator of community composition but is not perfect C Succession is a direction cumulative change in community composition over time i Primary succession vegetation colonizing bare substrate ii Secondary succession prior disturbed community remnants remain l Succession happens because early plants alter habitat for the better iii Disturbances are always happening in plant communities 1 Some communities depend on disturbances for diversity l3 Ecosystems are the sum total of organisms and environment at a speci c place A Ecosystems act to direct energy ow and cycle matter B Sun provides energy to a variety of trophic levels i Lowest level is autotrophs primary producers plants ii Higher levels are heterotrophs herbivores and carnivores decomposers C Primary producers capture a minimum of solar energy for the ecosystem i Most solar energy is lost as heat that captured is lost to waste and cellular respiration at each trophic level ii Plants drive absolutely everything in ecosystems 1 Primary productivity differs by vegetation type D Ecosystems also cycle matter carbon is most important i Carbon cycle is a balance between C gained in photosynthesis vs C lost to decomposition ii Disturbances can greatly affect C cycling iii Fossil fuels are external additions to the earth s C cycle 14 Climate change is a touchy politicized topic but the data are scientific and solid A The Greenhouse Effect has kept the earth warm for millennia i Atmospheric CO2 scatters heat re ected from the earth s surface in all directions trapping it like the glass panels of a greenhouse B Increasing CO2 in the atmosphere is correlated With increasing average temperatures across the globe i CO2 and temperature have been measured With instruments since the 1950s ii A variety of other methods are used to backcalculate these numbers in time 1 Tree rings oxygen isotopes ice cores C The current warming trend has been in place since the late 1800s i Nine of the 10 hottest years on record occurred since 2000 ii Hottest year on record is 2014 though warming did not occur everywhere iii Methane is also important as a greenhouse gas is much more effective at trapping heat but shorterlived D Very little uncertainty exists in the existence of a warming trend globally i More uncertainty exists Whether this trend is humancaused but data are still strong E Effects are varied across the globe i Expectations of droughtier areas ooded areas near current sea level increase in human diseases ii In Michigan effects are also varied 1 More extreme rain events more rain in Winter but less in summer 2 Growing season longer but more extreme heat events projected 3 More extreme storm events iii Fear that geographic distributions of species Will change faster than species can adapt or migrate 15 Plants play a series of significant roles in climate change situation A Oceans and forests are important and effective carbon sponges that uptake and store carbon dioxide from the atmosphere i Disturbances to forests may release CO2 to the atmosphere 1 Forests may remain a source of CO to the atmosphere until 2 vegetation regrows and matures B Plants are proposed as a means of ending our dependence on fossil fuels i Fossil fuels are an addition to the carbon cycle usually straight into the atmosphere ii First generation biofuels fuels developed from sugars and starches often food sources iii Second generation biofuels fuels developed from nonfood sources from cellulose and lignin iv Major companies are integrating climate change scenarios into their financial and technological planning C Whether we choose to believe it or not climate change is happening
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