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Test 2 guide

by: Mia Notetaker

Test 2 guide CHEM 1070

Mia Notetaker
General Chemistry I
Igor Rubtsov

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About this Document

Here are my study guides for chapter 4, 5, 7 and the beginning of chapter 8, which will be on our incoming test!
General Chemistry I
Igor Rubtsov
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mia Notetaker on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 1070 at Tulane University taught by Igor Rubtsov in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry at Tulane University.

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Date Created: 10/18/15
Chap 4 Chemical reactions 1 Balancing chemical equations Ex Ex Stoichiometric coefficients required to balance a chemical reaction Balanced equations Equal number of each type of atom equal charge on both sides ie Na Cl39 I NaCl Rules When balancing a chemical equation Balance elements that occur in 1 compound first Balance those that exist in free element form last 2 NO 02 I 2 N02 2H2SS02D3S2H20 2 H3PO4 3 CaO I Ca3PO42 6 H20 4NH3702D4N026H20 2 C5H903 232 02 I 10 C02 9 H20 State of matter ssolid 1 1iquid ggas aqaqueous solution Reaction conditions A heat required catalysts atm oC Stoichiometry Measure elements Stoichiometry coefficients I related to moles What mass of silver is produced in the decomposition of 10g of silver oxide 2 AgzO S I A 4 Ag 8 02 g molAgzO n 10 107868 159994 X 2 72 X 10393mol mAg 2 n X 107868 15 g 2 Relating masses of products to masses of reactants Limiting reactions Ex What mass of phosphorous trichloride is formed in the reaction of 125g P4 with 323g C12 P4 6C12 I 4 PC13 a Step I 11 C12 m C12 M C12 323g 7091gm01 4555mol 11 P4 m P4 M P4 125g 1239 gm01 1009 mol I Step 2 Male ratio 11 C12 11 P4 45551009 4514 Stoichiometric mole ratio VClzVP46 I nClznP4ltV C12VP4 I Cl2 is the limiting reagent P4 is in excess use mol C12 to calculate mol products 6 Step 3 n PC13 46 11 C12 46 X 4555 3037 mol m PC13 n PC13 X M PC13 3037 m01X 1373 gm01 417g Chap 4 Chemical reactions 3 Percent Yield Measure how much product is actually produced compared to predicted theoretical yield actual yield Percent Yield x 100 theoretical yield EX If 477 g of urea is produced when 10 mole of C02 reacts according to the given equation What is the percent yield in this reaction 2 NH3 CO2CONH22 H20 0 Theoretical yield of urea 100 mol 601 gmol 601 g 0 Actual yield of urea 477 g I Percent yield 477 601 100 794 4 Solutions and Reactions in solution Solvent major constituent of the mixture Solute minor constituent of the mixture 5 Molarity Molar concentration n M V moll EX What is the molar concentration of urea in a 250 mL solution which contains 6611 g of urea Molecular weight of urea is 601 gmol n urea m urea M urea 6611 g 601 gmol 0110 mol urea n urea V 0110 mol 0250 L 0440 M 6 Dilution Mi Vi Mf Vf EX An analytic chemistry procedure requires 00100 M K2Cr04 What volume of 0250 M KzCrO4 must be diluted With water to prepare 0250 L of 00100 M K2Cr04 Vi Vf x Mf Mi Vi 0250 L x 00100 M 0250 M 00100 L 100 mL 7 More about chemical reactions Consecutive reactions Reactions carried out in a sequence Ex 1 CH4 C12 I CH3Cl HCl 2 CH3Cl C12 I CH2C12 HCl Intermediate A substance produced in 1 step and consumed in another step CH3C1 Overall reactions A series of reactions combined into one Simultaneous reactions wo or more substances react independently of one another in separate reactions occurring at the same time Chap 4 Chemical reactions EX 1 CuO s H2 g I Cu s H20 1 2 01208 H2 g I 201 S H20 1 0 Overall reaction EX 1 12 NH3 g 15 02 g I 12 NO g 18 H20g 2 12 N0 5 6 02 g I 12 N02 g 3 12 N02 g 4 H20g I 8 HN03 aq 4NOg I 12 NH3 g 15 02 g 6 02 g 4 H20g I 18 H20g 8 HNO3 aq 4 N0 g I 12 NH3 g 21 02 g I 14 H20g 8 HN03 aq 4 NO g 8 Yields of consecutive reactions EX The organic solvent dichloromethane CH2C12 can be prepared from methane and molecular chlorine in a reaction sequence involving two consecutive reactions 1 CH4 C12 I CH3C1 HCl 2 CH3C1 C12 I CH2C12 HCl Each reaction has a yield of 92 Starting With 112 g CH4 and excess C12 how many grams of CH2C12 are formed SL1 n CH4 m CH4 M CH4 112 g 1604 gmol 698 mol n I Amount of CH3C1 produced in 1 n CH3C1 actual 698 m01X 092 642 mol n CH2C12 theoretical I Amount of CH2C12 produced in 2 n CH2C12 actual 642 mol X 092 591 mol I m CH2C12 591 m01X 8493 gmol 502 g Chap 5 Reactions in aqueous solutions Hydration Many solid ionic compounds dissociate into ions when placed in water through hydration solvation Ex NaCl 5 gt Na aq Cl39 aq Ionic dissociation conduct electricity Strong electrolyte ionic ex salt NaCl Weak electrolyte partially ionic ex acetic acid Ch3COOH I I CH3COO39 aq H aq Nonelectrolyte not ionized molecular ex methanol CH3OH negligible dissociation Ionic compounds electrolytes Salts Ex KCl aq I K aq Cl39 aq Acids produce H H H20 I H30 Ex HCl aq I H aq C139aq Bases produce OH39 React With water Ex NH3 aq H20 1 I NH4 aq OH39 aq Strong electrolytes Strong acids HCl HBr HI H2SO4 HNO3 HClO4 Strong bases Hydroxides of 1st Group metals LiOH NaOH KOH RrOH CSOH A1ka1ine earth metal hydroxides CaOH2 SrOH2 BaOH2 Soluble salts NaCl KNO3 NH42SO4 I Strong acids and strong bases dissociate almost completely Weak electrolytes Organic compounds Ionic exchange in solution KBr I K Br 39 AgNOs s D Ag aq NO339 aq AgBr KNO3 are exchangeable because AgBr is not soluble Precipitation reactions Chap 5 Reactions in aqueous solutions When mixture of two soluble salts results in ions that form an insoluble pair a precipitate is formed Ex K2804 aq BaClz aq I 2KC1 aq BaSO4 s Solubility rules Anion Soluble with cation NOg39 All CH3COO C104 39 Cl39 Br39 I 39 All except Ag Pb2 Hg2 ng2 804239 All except Ba2 Sr2 Ca2 PbHg 8239 Only With alkali NH4 alkaline earth OH 39 Only With alkali NH4 Ca2 Sr2 Ba2 C032quot Only With alkali NH4 PO43 Rules alkali metals and NH4 are soluble with all anions group A Salts of the Gr 1 metals and NH4 are soluble Nitrates NOg39 perchlorates ClO439 acetates CH3COO39 are soluble Salts of Ag sz39 Hg2 are insoluble Chlorides bromides iodides are soluble Carbonates CO3 239 phosphates P04 339 sulfides Sz39 oxides hydroxides OH39 are insoluble sulfides of Gr 2 cations and hydroxides of Ca2 Sr2 Ba2 are slightly soluble Sulfates SO4 239 are soluble except Ca2 Ba2 Sr2 Molecular vs Ionic equations Net ionic equations Molecular equation AgNO3 NaCl I AgCl NaNO3 Complete ionic equation Ag aq N0339 aq Naaq Cl39 aq I AgCl s Na aq N0339 aq Net ionic equation Ag aq N03 39 aq I AgCl s includes only actual participants in a reaction I spectator ions AcidBase reactions Strong acids and strong bases are molecular compounds that almost completely ionized in an aqueous solution Degree of dissociation near 100 a Acids HCl HBr HI HClO4 HNO3 H2804 b Bases LiOH NaOH KOH RbOH CaOH2 SrOH2 BaOH2 Weak acids and weak bases are molecular compounds that are incompletely ionized in an 9 a Chap 5 Reactions in aqueous solutions aqueous solution Degree of dissociation lt10 ACidS H2CO3 H2803 HF CtC Bases NH4OH etc Gas forming acidbase reactions HSOg39 H I 802 g H20 1 803239 2H I 802 g H20 1 HCOg39 H I C02 g H20 1 8239 2H I H28 g NH4 OH 39 NH3 g H20 1 Neutralization Reactions Reaction between an acid and a base I water and a salt Ex Strong electrolytes HCl aq NaOH aq I NaCl aq H20 1 I Net ionic H aq OH aq I H20 1 b Weak base strong acids ZnOH2 s HCl aq I ZnC12aq H20 1 I Net ionic ZnOH2 s 2H aq I Zn2aq 2H20 1 C Weak base weak acid MgOH2 s 2CH3COOH aq n Mg2 aq 2CH3COO 39aq 2H20 1 10 Redox reactions a b In an oxidation the oxidation number of an element increases In a reduction the oxidation number of an element decreases Reducing agents get oxidized reductant Oxidizing agents get reduced oxidant Balancing Write oxidation and reduction half reactions In each halfequation balance all atoms other than H and O balance 0 atoms by adding H20 aq balance H atoms by adding H acidic balance charge d Adjust coefficients so the same of e Ex 39 803239 aq MnO439 aq I 804239 aq Mn 2 aq Chap 5 Reactions in aqueous solutions 0x 803239 H20 I 804239 2H 2e x5 Red Mn0439 8H Se I Mn2 4H20 X2 9 5803 2Mn0439 I 5804 2Mn2 53032 aq 2Mn0439 aq 6H aq D 53042 aq 2Mn2 aq 3H20 1 0 Ex 2 Mn0439 aq CN39 aq I Mn02 s 0CN aq 0x CN39 H20 I 0CN39 2H 2e x3 Red Mn0439 4H 36 I Mn02 2H20 X2 I 3CN 39 3H20 2Mn0439 8H I 30CN39 6H 2Mn02 4H20 I 2Mn0439 aq 3CN39 aq 2H aq H20 1 I 2Mn02 s 30CN39 aq 2Mn0439 aq 3CN39 aq H20 1 I 2Mn02 s 30CN39 aq 20H aq 0 Disproportionate reactions A same substance acts as both oxidant and reductant Ex H202 I 02 H20 0X H202 I 02 2H 26 Red H202 2H 2e I 2H20 l 2H202 I 02 2H20 Co undion N03 N204 N02 N0 N20 N2 NH20H N2H4 NH3


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