Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide 111
Popular in General Chemistry 1
Popular in Chemistry
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Morgan Deal on Monday October 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 111 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Thomas Vogt in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE Chapter 5 Thermochemistry Study of the relationship between heat and chemical reactions 0 Kinetic energy energy an object has from being in motion 0 Thermal energy energy coming from the movement of particles 0 Heat energy that causes a change in thermal energy 0 Potential energy energy an object could have based on its position 0 Chemical energy potential energy held in the bonds between atoms 0 Law of Conservation of Energy energy cannot be created or destroyed during chemical reactions Exothermic reaction system loses heat to surroundings 0 Heat is a product 0 Negative AH Endothermic reaction system absorbs heat from surroundings 0 Heat is a reactant 0 Positive AH Thermochemical equation gives AH for a chemical equation 0 Speci c heat heat needed to raise 1g of something by 1K 0 qmCSAT Hess s Law when 2 chemical reactions are added the enthalpy change is the sum of the added equations Enthalpy of formation enthalpy change when 1 mol of a substance in standard state pure form at 1atm is formed from the most stable form of its elements 0 Enthalpy change of reaction A HOWZZ nA Hfo productsl Z mA Hf reactants Chapter 6 Gaseous State 0 Pressure force per unit area 0 Units of Pressure Sl unit is Pa but not frequently used 0 1 atm 760 torr o 1 atm 1013 kPa Boyle s Law Increasing pressure on a gas decreases the volume 0 P1V12P2V2 Charles s Law increasing the temperature of a gas increases the vmume e 395 V2 0 1 T2 Avogadro s Hypothesis equal volumes of gas at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of particles though the mases of the gases are different V1 V2 PV 0 77 D Tk 1 2 0 Ideal Gas Law applicable to ANY gas 0 PVnRT o STP 0 degrees Celsius and 1 atm Dalton s Law of Partial Pressure pressure exerted by each gas in a mixture is its partial pressure 0 PTPAPB 0 Total of pressure of combined gases is the sum of the partial pressures of individual gases Mole fraction moles of one component divided by total moles present in a mixture 0 Total of the mole fractions must equal 1 0 Partial pressure of gas A PAZXAPT Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases o Gases consist of small particles in constant random motion 0 Gas particles are very small compared to the distance between them 0 Collisions of gas particles are elastic 0 Average kinetic energy of gas is proportional to temperature in Kelvin Average speed of a gas square root of average squared speed 0 Highest point on graph Effusion gas moving through a small hole into an evacuated space 0 Gases with a small molar mass effuse faster 0 Diffusion mixing of particles due to motion 0 Deviations from ideal behavior gases deviate from the ideal gas law at high pressures and low temperatures 0 Assumption that gas particles are small compared to the distance between them fails Chapter 7 Electronic Structure Waves periodic disturbances repeating at regular intervals 0 Wavelength A distance between one peak and the next 0 Frequency v waves that pass a xed point per second 0 Speed of light all waves travel at 300e8 ms 0 C Av 300e8 o Quantization of Energy smallest unit of energy is a quantum o E hv H Planck s Constant 6626e34 Spectrum graph of light intensity Matter as waves A2221 0 p mv Quantum numbers 0 Principal quantum number n distance of the electron from the nucleus Larger value of n greater average distance from nucleus Principal shell orbitals with the same value of n o Angular momentum quantum number shape of the orbital n gt s orbitals l0 are spherical p orbitals l1 have 2 lobes of electron density on opposite sides d l2 orbitals have 4 lobes of high electron density 0 Magnetic quantum number ml orientation of the orbital Values of to l 0 Examples n4 l1 m0 l 4p n5 l3 ml 3 I 5f 25 l n2 0 3d n3 l2 4p l n4 p1 0 Electron spin quantum number ms represents spin of electron 12 or 12 0 Effective nuclear charge weighted average of nuclear charge affecting an electron in the atom 0 Electron shielding in uence of inner electrons on effective nuclear charge 0 Effective nuclear charge on an outer electron is less than the full nuclear charge 0 Increasing energy order energy increases in the order of the l quantum number 0 lslt25lt3slt3plt4slt3dlt4plt55lt4dlt5plt6slt4fu Pauli Exclusion Principle no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of quantum numbers Aufbau Principle as electrons are added to an atom they are assigned the quantum numbers of the lowest energy orbital available 0 Electron configuration lists occupied subshells of an atom o Orbital diagram represents each orbital with a box occupied with 2 electrons up or down arrows o Anomalous electron con gurations exceptions to the Aufbau Principle typically seen near the middle or end of transition metals Ex Kr 552 4d9 l Kr 551 4d10 Chapter 8 Periodic Table Structure and Trends Eubshell Blacks in Perioic Table amp 0 Elements with 1 electron in a new n shell start a new period on the periodic table Valence orbitals orbital that holds valence electrons o Valence electrons highest principle quantum an any electrons in an un lled subshell 0 Electron con gurations of ions 0 Anions new electrons added ll next subshell as with atoms 0 Cations electrons are removed from the highest n subshells rst lsoelectronic series atoms and ions that have the same number of electrons 0 Atomic and ionic radii o Atoms are always larger than the corresponding cations o Anions are always larger than their corresponding atoms 0 The more electrons an atomion has the bigger the radius Ionization energy energy needed to remove an electron 0 As many ionization energies as electrons in an atom o lsoelectronic atomsions with the greatest nuclear charge will have the largest ionization energy 0 2nd 3 etc ionization energies always increase 0 Electron af nity energy change from adding an electron Summary of periodic table trends 5 El 9 El H II F I39m 3915 LE LE 139quot 3915 AI I 23 39r Eli 2 ti 5 31 3339 Enl 339 3 Ti 39I39 I39J39I39i Fe Ei Hi Eli Ea iii E E EI39 hip an L11 4 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