Exam Three Study Guide
Exam Three Study Guide BIOL 1040
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by kqmorgan on Wednesday March 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1040 at Bowling Green State University taught by Tamera Wales in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biology in Biology at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 03/23/16
Chapters 7-10 Review Chapter 7 Bases (A,C,T, or G) Phosphate Sugar Nucleotide (Phosphate + Sugar + Base) Structure of DNA: A. Nucleotides are made of one phosphate (green circle), one sugar (orange pentagon), and one base (A,C,T, or G). B. “The two strands of linked nucleotides pair up and twist around each other to form a spiral- shaped double helix”. C. “The sugars and phosphates form the outside “backbone” of the helix and the bases form the internal “rungs”, like steps on a twisting ladder. The bases are held together by hydrogen bonds. Chromosome- A single, large DNA molecule wrapped around proteins. Chromosomes are located in the nucleic of most eukaryotic cells. 23 pairs in the body; 46 total. 23 pair indicates gender. DNA Replication- The natural process by which cells make an identical copy of a DNA molecule. DNA exists in the nuclei of most cells, and replication occurs in the ‘S Phase’ of Interphase. Complementary- DNA bases fitting together; Two strands of DNA are said to be complementary in that A always pairs with C. (Specific letters fit together, and only with each other) DNA Polymerase- An enzyme that ‘reads’ the sequence of a DNA strand and helps to add complementary nucleotides to form a new strand during DNA replication. (The enzyme that ‘zips up’ the strand.) Semi-Conservative- DNA replication is said to be semiconservative because each newly made DNA molecule has one original and one new strand of DNA. DNA Profile- A visual representation of a person’s unique DNA sequence. How it is done: 1. Forensic scientists employ PCR to amplify specific segments of DNA (STRs) and analyze just these segments. 2. They then use gel electrophoresis to separate the STRs by length. 3. The STR lengths are unique to each person, and create a specific pattern of bands unique to that person. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)- A laboratory technique used to replicate, and thus amplify, a specific DNA segment. (DNA replication- But done in a lab via heating and cooling). Short Tandem Repeats (STRs)- Sections of a chromosome in which DNA sequences are repeated. (For example, how many times are ‘ACTG’ or ‘GTAT’ repeated?) Gel Electrophoresis- A laboratory technique that separates fragments of DNA by size. Finds how many STRs happen in an individual- Shorter strands of repeats move faster; Longer strands move slower in the gel. Chapter 8 Gene- A sequence of DNA that contains the information to make at least one protein. The two parts of a gene: Regulatory Sequence Coding Sequence Regulatory Sequence: Controls the timing, location, and amount of gene expression. Coding Sequence: Determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein (Shape and function). Regulatory sequence makes all of the decisions, the coding sequence simply processes it, organizes it, and creates a protein. Alleles- Alternative versions of the same gene that have different nucleotide sequences. Gene Expression- The process of using DNA instructions to make proteins. Transcription- The first stage of gene expression, during which cells produce molecules of messenger RNA (mRNA) from the instructions encoded within genes in DNA. Translation- The second stage of gene expression, during which mRNA sequences are used to assemble the corresponding amino acids to make a protein. Transcription Process: (In eukaryotic cells- Occurs in the nucleus; In prokaryotic cells- Occurs in the cytoplasm) 1. RNA Polymerase binds to the regulatory sequence. The DNA strands unwind, exposing the coding sequence of the gene. 2. RNA Polymerase moves along the DNA strand, “reading” the sequence as it goes, and creating a complementary mRNA strand according to the rules of base pairing (A+U, C+G) 3. As the mRNA strand is formed, it detaches from the DNA sequence. The DNA reforms its double-stranded helix. 4. Once the mRNA molecule is complete, it leaves the nucleus. The gene remains part of the chromosome in the nucleus, where it can be used again in transcription. Translation Process: (Occurs in the cytoplasm) 1. The newly transcribed mRNA associates with a ribosome. 2. As the ribosome moves along the mRNA, it “reads” the mRNA sequence in groups of three nucleotides called codons (AUG, CGA, etc.). i. Each codon specifies a specific amino acid, which is brought to the ribosome by the tRNA, which uses its anticodon sequence to find a matching mRNA codon. 3. When the correct tRNA is in place, the specified amino acid is added to the growing chain. The ribosome moves on to the next codon. 4. The finished amino acid chain detaches from the ribosome and folds into its three- dimensional shape. mRNAs may be translated several times and tRNAs may pick up another amino acid for reuse in translation. Anticodon- The part of a tRNA molecule that binds to a complementary mRNA codon. Genetic Code- The set of rules relating particular mRNA codons to particular amino acids. Recombinant Gene- A genetically engineered gene. Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)- An organism that has been genetically altered by humans. Transgenic- Refers to an organism that carries one or more genes from a different species. Chapter 9 Cell Division- The process by which a cell reproduces itself; Cell division is important for normal growth, development, and repair of an organism. Stages of the Cell Cycle: 1. Interphase- The preparatory phases of the cell cycle. The cell makes a copy of the DNA and produces more organelles and cytoplasm. There are three distinct sub-phases: G , S, G1. 2 a. G P1ase- The cell enlarges, produces additional cytoplasm, and begins to produce new organelles. b. S Phase- DNA replication takes place. Each chromosome is replicated to produce to identical sister chromatids. c. G P2ase- The final preparatory stage, during which the cell prepares for division. 2. Mitosis- The sister chromatids of each chromosome separate from each other, setting up the two identical nuclei of the daughter cells. (The ends separate, the middle is still connected) 3. Cytokinesis- The daughter cells physically separate from each other. (The middles separate) Cancer-A disease of unregulated cell division: Cells divide inappropriately and accumulate, in some instances forming a tumor. Cell Cycle Checkpoints- Assess the cells to see if there is damage- Stops cell growth if it is broken. Apoptosis- Programmed cell death; often referred to as cellular suicide. Metastasis- The spread of cancer cells from one location in the body to another. Treatments for Cancer: A. Surgery- To remove the tumor. Effective for solid tumors, but not blood cancers. B. Chemotherapy- Treatment using chemicals. Used for cancer that has spread (Metastasis). C. Radiation- Uses beams of high-energy electrons. If the cancer has not yet spread. Chapter 10 Mutation- A change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. Mutations can be caused by either sperm or egg cells (inherited) or other body cells (not inherited). o When a mutation changes the coding region of any gene, the corresponding protein may be dysfunctional. When this happens, cancer may result. Somatic Mutation- A mutation that occurs in a body (nongamete) cell; Not passed on to offspring. (Not inherited- Ex. Skin cancer from the sun, Lung cancer from smoking, etc.) Germ-Line Mutation- A mutation occurring in gametes; Passed on to offspring. Multi-Hit Model- Each ‘hit’ is a mutation, and multiple hits are needed to cause the disease. (Hereditary cancer occurs only when additional, nonhereditary mutations in a cell accumulate. Similarly, the accumulation of harmful somatic mutations in a cell can lead to cancer, even in someone with no genetic predisposition). Mutagen- Any chemical or physical agent that can damage DNA by changing its nucleotide sequence. (Broad Version) Carcinogen- Any chemical agent that causes cancer by damaging DNA. Ex. Pesticides, Pollutants, UV lighting. (Specific Version- Carcinogens are a type of mutagen). Tumor Suppression Genes- Tell cells to STOP at checkpoints. Signal cells to pause the cell cycle to fix mistakes or lead to apoptotic cell death. Mutations in these genes cause them to be underexpressed or nonfunctional, allowing damaged cells to divide inappropriately. Proto-Oncogenes- Tell cells to GO at checkpoints. Signal cells to progress through the cell cycle at the appropriate time. Mutations in these genes cause them to be overactive, causing too much cell division. Accumulated mutations in tumor suppression genes and proto-oncogenes cause cancer. *Most definitions are taken directly from the textbook. Though I compiled the study guide, the information used to make it is the work of Michele Shuster, Janet Vigna, Matthew Tontonoz, and Gunjan Sinha. Textbook: Scientific American Biology for a Changing World with Core Physiology 2nd Edition by Michele Shuster, Janet Vigna, Matthew Tontonoz, and Gunjan Sinha.
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