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Text Chapters 6, 7, 8 Outline

by: Alyssa Zirkman

Text Chapters 6, 7, 8 Outline SOC 371

Marketplace > University of Miami > Sociology > SOC 371 > Text Chapters 6 7 8 Outline
Alyssa Zirkman
GPA 3.8
Intro to Criminology
Olena Antonaccio

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About this Document

Includes: Anomie and Strain Theories; Social Control; Sources of Learning to Commit Crime; Differential Association Theory; Social Learning Theory
Intro to Criminology
Olena Antonaccio
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Zirkman on Monday October 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 371 at University of Miami taught by Olena Antonaccio in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 128 views. For similar materials see Intro to Criminology in Sociology at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 10/19/15
Ch 6 p133 139 Anomie Strain and Crime Robert Merton linked crime and the social system not just inherent in our biology 0 Goals and Means 39 Merton s theory is based on a distinctions between culturally defined goals and the norms that regulate the means to achieve those goals institutionalized means to reach the cultural goalsquot 0 Anomie and Strain Anomie normlessness happens when there is a disjunction between means and goals ie people fail to use culturally approved means to achieve cultural goals I Strain the frustration and sense of injustice that result from experiencing socially structured incapacities 0 Modes of Adaptation Merton s paradigm of five modes of adaptation to the social structure that shows how people in different social positions adjust to cultural goals and means 1 Conformity most common mode acceptance of cultural goals and means 2 Innovation most relevant to analysis of criminal behavior goals are accepted but different means are used ie embezzlement 3 Ritualism holds little significance for study of crime abide by goals and means but scale down goals 4 Retreatism rejection of goals and means this behavior is often interpreted as a challenge to the goals most hold 5 Rebellion behavior aimed at creating a new social structure to more effectively allow people to reach goals 0 Anomie Theory and Crime Limited by the notion that everyone desires to achieve the same goals In US it fits for property crime but not other types necessarily 0 General Strain Theory Roberty Agnew builds on Morton s anomie theory three types of strain the failure to achieve goals negative treatment by others and the loss of things of value I Strain is most likely to lead to crime when it is high in magnitude and perceived as unjust Produces negative emotion which leads to crime Crime is more likely to be committed by those who cannot handle strain in a legal fashion especially juveniles who experience strain with family 0 Opportunity Values and Delinquency I Differential Opportunity Theory combines Merton s anomie theory and Sutherland s differential association theory there is differential opportunity to reach cultural goals by legitimate means but there is also differential opportunity to use illegitimate means to reach those goals hinges on SES I ReactionFormation Theory a repudiation of goals that a person emotionally supports but cannot attain such as a reversal of middleclass goals by lower or workingclass delinquents Ch 7 p 15263 Social Control and Commitment to the Law 0 Intro 0 Social forces cause people to engage in delinquency and crime the norms of society sometimes support violation of the law 0 Conformity is the result of social control I Formal social control efforts by the police the courts and correctional institutions to produce conformity to the law I Informal social control the reactions of individuals and groups that are aimed at bringing about compliance with norms and laws ie parental supervision peer pressure bystander intervention citizen patrol groups I Some argue formal and informal social control vary indirectly Neutralizing The Law 0 People neutralize formal and informal SC by justifying their offenses to themselves and others by stretching values and using rationalizations called techniques of neutralizationquot that are part of the broader culture Drift 0 David Matza says some adolescents are in a state of drift a condition of limbo between a conventional lifestyle and a criminal lifestyle with no strong attachment to either I Matza does not explain why however I Does suggest adolescents need to do something to claim mastery over the world Delinquent Dominant and Subterranean Values 0 Search for adventure through potentially deviant ways a subterranean value in the dominant value system sought occasionally in appropriate circumstances I Delinquents are those who act on subterranean values during inappropriate times circumstances I Motivation behind delinquent behavior is normal and comes straight from conventional morality I Delinquents respect the law abiding community which suggests their slight adherence to dominant cultural norms recognize dominant moral values Techniques of Neutralization O Violations against dominant norms that render weak or inoperative the formal and informal SC that would otherwise check lawviolating behavior A norm can be quotstretchedquot if circumstances dictate it so ie stealing is maybe okay in some cases if you are trying to feed your family Telling others and self there was no criminal intent or behavior was justified Apologetic rather than oppositional deviance used before a crime is committed to justify doing it 5 techniques I Denial of responsibility I Denial of injury I Denial of the victim the victim deserved it I Condemnation of the condemners others actions justify the crime I Appeal to higher loyalties group demands the action ie gangs Other techniques of neutralization O O O O 0 Defense of necessity Defense of the ledger they have done enough good to justify the bad things Denial of the justice or necessity of the law Claim that everybody is doing itquot Claim of entitlement Evidence on techniques of neutralization 0 Play an important role in the causation of various forms of law violating behavior I Embezzlement and techniques of neutralization embezzlers neutralize before and during the crime to justify I justifications for crimes by blacks many said laws were created by whites to control blacks etc I justifying violence many reasons Delinquency and Techniques of Neutralization 0 Travis Hirschi measured support for the denial of responsibility denial of injury and condemnation of the condemners techniques with students Assessing Neutralization Theory 0 Techniques might be used by those who have committed deviant acts in the past thus might explain persistence of offending not onset Ch 8 Learning to Commit Crime Intro Criminals must learn techniques to neutralize the law acquire skills and motives to break the law Sources of Learning to Commit Crime The General Culture 0 White collar crime comes from ambiguity of ownership idea that it s borrowing not stealing o Forcible rape can be linked to culture some emphasize machismo the exaggerated belief that men should be aggressive dominant common in Brazil 0 Kidnapping of male children in China The Community 0 Social organization of community differential opportunity theory see ch 6 o If adolescents interact more with adults who commit crime they are more likely to commit crime The Peer Group 0 Especially important for adolescents 0 Gang involvement Correctional Institutions 0 Often described as schools of crimequot inexperienced offenders interact with seasoned criminals and learn from them 0 No reliable data on this The Military 0 Increase in violent crime after wars end I War legitimizes violence 0 War related trauma can lead to job loss and force people to turn to crime Sports 0 Contributes to aggressiveness of athletes and spectators o Organized sports can encourage attitudes conducive to sexual assault The Media 0 TV films video games music 0 Lots of violence in media effects I Aggressor effect increased meanness towards others I Victim effect increased fearfulness mistrust towards others leads to selfprotective behaviors I Bystander effect increased desensitization and apathy towards victims of violence I Appetite effect increased selfinitiated behavior to expose oneself to violent material 0 Correlated with aggressive behavior not necessarily criminal Pornography o Belief that those who view it are more likely to commit sex crimes I Not necessarily true 0 Legalization of porn reduced sex crimes in Denmark 0 Violent pornography might have different effects Differential Association Theory DAT Offenders learn to commit crime through their interactions with other people Introduced by Edward Sutherland 1939 Summarized as 0 Criminal behavior is learned 0 Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other persons in a process of communication 0 The principal part of the learning of criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groups 0 When criminal behavior is learned the learning includes techniques of committing the crime which are sometimes very complicated amp the specific direction of motives drives rationalizations and attitudes o The specific direction of motives and drives is learned from definitions of the legal codes as favorable or unfavorable I people define situations in different ways based on what they have learned in the past I ie an unattended bike could be an opportunity to steal or an opportunity to warn the owner of the risk of theft 0 A person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of the law principle of differential association I note this talks about association with definitions not with individuals 0 Differential associations may vary in frequency duration priority and intensity 0 The process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal and anticriminal patterns involves all of the mechanisms that are involved in any other learning 0 While criminal behavior is an expression of general needs and values it is not explained by those general needs and values since non criminal behavior is an expression of the same needs and values Evidence on DAT Focuses on patterns of interaction among adolescents o Delinquency is often a group phenomenon Studies of professional theft sex offenses and whitecollar crime are all evidence Juvenile Delinquency and DAT Gangs obviously encourage the breaking of laws Most juvenile delinquency occurs in groups Professional Theft and DAT 0 Professional thieves skilled offenders who are committed to a life of crime and think of themselves as criminals 0 Teach those in their subculture definitions favorable to violation of the law while isolating them from definitions unfavorable to law violation Tutelage instruction thieves teaching new thieves Sexual Aggression and DAT Strong association between male sexual aggression and presence of sexually aggressive friends White Collar Crime and DAT White collar crime results from the learning of cultural goals ie material success and the pursuit of cultural goals through illegal means Definitions unfavorable to law violation are not readily acquired in the world of business because there are no enforceable ethics codes in business Social pressure contributes greatly Assessing DAT DAT does not explain all criminal behavior Criticized for overly simplifying the way people choose models for their behavior Differential identification theory the choice of models does not necessarily involve facetoface interaction with other people as DAT would suggest DAT examines the learning process of people but does not explain why they engage in the associations that they do Explains initial involvement better than continued involvement Hard to test and verify Social Learning Theory Integrates DAT and behavioral learning theory Ronald Akers and Robert Burgess 1966 Specifies actual process of learning from other people and other sources 0 People learn attitudes and techniques conducive to crime in both social and nonsocial situations from positive and negative reinforcements rewards and punishment differential reinforcement o Imitation of others 0 Stimulus discriminationgeneralization verbal and cognitive stimuli act as cues for engaging in specific kinds of behavior Aker revised this and created social structure and social learning theory links the learning process to several socialstructural variables 0 Structural correlates society community region 0 Sociodemographicsocioeconomic correlates age gender SES race 0 Theoretically defined structural variables social disorganization and con ict 0 Differential social location in reference groups like school work media The Labeling Perspective 0


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