Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107
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This 57 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bryan Sanchez on Monday October 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to COM 107 at Syracuse University taught by Prof. L'Pree Corsbie Massay in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Communications and Society in Communication Studies at Syracuse University.
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Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 Chapter 8NewspapersThe Rise and Decline of Modern Journalism 1 The Evolution of American Newspaperspgs 271276 a Colonial Newspapers and the Partisan Press vi vii viii ix First Newspaper in North America was Publick Occurrences Both Forreign and Domestick in 1690 Colonia papers published stories of interest to ordinary readers rather than colonial and business leaders The Pennsylvania Gazette became one of the first paper to take money from advertising rather than just subsidies from political parties The NewYork Weekly Journal appeared in 1733 run by the Popular Pany Printer Peter Zenger shielded its writers from arrest by British Colonial Government Zenger won his case against the government found not guilty of Seditious Libel By 1765 30 newspapers operated in the American colonies Partisan Press pushed viewpoints of a particular political party Commercial Press served business leaders who were primarily interested in economic issues b The Penny Press Era Newspapers Become Mass Media iv With newspapers priced at 6 cents an issue and yearly subscriptions at 10 most people could not afford to read them Penny papers became prevalent amongst the middle classes during the Industrial Revolution Day and the New York Sun 1 Benjamin Day founded the New York Sun in 1833 2 Reported daily happenings scandals police reports in a sensationalist tabloid format 3 Infamous Moon Hoax purported that there was life on the Moon 4 Within 6 months the paper had a circulation 6 times of its nearest New York Competitor 5 Human Interest Stories became popular as a result of the Sun a Themes of triumph by ordinary people are still prevalent in stories today Bennett and the New York Morning Herald 1 Founded by James Gordon Bennett in 1835 2 Bennett was considered the first US press baron running his paper without political influence 3 It carried political essays crime reports a business section all serving middle and working class readers Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 v 1 9 Eventually reported on the Civil War Charles Dickens used the Herald as a basis for the Rowdy Journal in the novel Martin Chuzzlewit By 1860 the paper had 80000 readers the largest daily paper in the world at the time Changing Economics and the Founding of the Associated Press Penny papers helped shift economic market from political parties to consumers Although penny papers stood against miraculous products they printed virtually any ad In 1830 650 weekly and 65 daily papers operated in the US By 1840 1140 weekly and 140 daily papers attracted more than 300000 readers In 1848 six New York papers formed a cooperative arrangement and founded the Associated Press as a news wire service News wire services helped expand the scope of news coverage by allowing stories to come from farther than before News wire services brought down the cost of reporting bringing the same news to different outlets c The Age of Yellow Journalism Sensationalism and Investigation i Pulitzer and the New York World 1 Hearst 1 2 Pulitzer began as part owner of the St Louis Post in the early 1870 s before buying the St Louis Dispatch in 1878 Pulitzer encouraged the paper to act as a national conscience to promote the public good In 1883 Pulitzer bought the New York World for 346000 Encouraged plain writing and the inclusion of maps and diagrams to help working and immigrant class readers better understand the story Advice and Women s columns added into the publication to appeal to other readers The publication ran counter to the yellow journalism of the time printing pieces urging readers to campaign for a better life and the New York Journal Hearst bought the Journal in 1895 Using Pulitzer s writers editors and cartoonists Hearst created a paper based on sensationalist reporting Wild vaguely factual claims became front page news for the publication By 1896 the publication reached 450000 daily copies and by 1897 the Sunday edition rivaled the 600000 circulation of the World By the 1930 s Hearst owned more than 40 papers 13 magazines 8 radio stations and 2 film companies Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 2 Competing Models of Modern Print Journalismpgs 278284 a Objectivity in Modern Journalism i Och and the New York Times 1 Adolph Ochs bought the Times in 1896 2 Championed impartial news stories 3 Ochs promotional pieces were used to combat yellow journalism found in other publications 4 While originally appealing to intellectuals and affluent members of society Ochs eventually lowered the price of the paper to 1 penny 5 Between 1898 and 1899 the Times saw its readership go from 25000 to 75000 6 By 1921 the paper had a daily circulation of 330000 and 500000 on Sunday ii Just the facts please 1 By early 20th century reporters adopted a straightfonNard facts only approach to journalism 2 They created the inverted pyramid style of reporting to present the news they found 3 While highly successful the inverted pyramid came under heavy scrutiny for making the news too bland and similar to one another b Interpretive Journalism i The Promise of Interpretive Journalism 1 Walter Lippman noted that the press had three objectives a To make a current record b To make a running analysis of it c On the basis of both to suggest plans 2 Journalism had to provide interpretation to the news by the 1930s 3 News was accompanied by context and analysis ii Broadcast News Embraces Interpretive Journalism 1 When broadcast news first appeared it directly took news stories from the papers 2 Newspapers sued radio stations for copyright infringement but ultimately lost 3 It came to be viewed as radio s job to interpret the news 4 As talking heads on radios became more and more popular newspapers began to give more objective treatments to their stories 5 In 1933 the American Society of Newspaper Editors supported the idea of objective journalism 6 It wasn t until the 1950 s that analysis of events was commonplace in a medium 7 Television became the medium for interpretation c Literary Forms of Journalism Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 i Journalism as an Art Form 1 Literary journalism adapted techniques honed by fiction writers to convey a new level of detail in their reporting 2 1960s Tom Wolfe argued for the mixing of content and form to create both the kind of objective reality ofjournalism and the subjective reality of the novel 3 Literary Journalism came to define publications such as Mother Jones embraced by critics of modern journalistic practices ii The Attack on Journalistic Objectivity 1 As more and more people viewed objectivity as constricting people began to question the ethos of objective journalism 2 Advocacy Journalism created itself where reporters promote a particular cause or viewpoint 3 Precision Journalism stressed scientific polls and surveys to keep accuracy in news 4 By the 1990s precision journalism became the prefered journalistic form once again d Contemporary Journalism in the TV and Internet Age i USA Today Colours the Print Landscape 1 Having been the only successfully launched newspaper in the last several decades USA Today represents a break from traditional journalism 2 Having an emphasis on visual presentation over substantive news allows it branch out 3 The paper itself acknowledges the preeminence of TV in giving out news ii Online Journalism Redefines News 1 Online news has replaced the physical aspect of getting the news 2 The newsday is now more sped up as breaking news do not need to wait for a printing to go out to the masses 3 There is now a proliferation of crowd controlled outlets that can cover news the mainstream media is slower to get to 4 Papers are now effectively transitioned to a shared onlineprint world 3 The Business and Ownership of Newspaperspgs 284295 a Consensus versus Conflict Newspapers Play Different Roles i Smaller nondaily papers tend to promote social and economic harmony in their communities ii Nondaily papers focus on consensusoriented journalism iii National and metro dailies focus on conflict oriented journalism iv Journalists are seen as adversaries of politicians because they re there to observe and expose any wrongdoing v Conflict oriented journalism turns things into two dimensional accounts b Newspapers Target Specific Readers Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 i Throughout the 1990s several hundred newspapers have published in at least 40 different languages across the US ii Most of these papers cover their news in a consensus oriented form iii African American Newspapers 1 Since 1827 5500 newspapers have been edited or started by African Americans 2 These papers on average live on for 9 years 3 These papers published stories concerning African American struggles well before the Civil Rights Movement 4 After the 1960s black papers fell significantly in terms of readership 5 Support for the Civil Rights led to many advertisers pulling their ads from pampers 6 Black Radio and Television stations catered in a way newspapers couldn t 7 Between 2006 and 2013 Blacks in newsrooms have fallen from 55 percent to 47 percent 8 Only 4700 of the 38000 news reporters were minorities iv Spanish Language Newspapers 1 By 2011 800 Spanishlanguage publications run in the US 2 Only 4 of news workers are Hispanic v Asian American Newspapers 1 Asian publications help to bring recently immigrated communities into american culture 2 Asian American journalists accounted for 3 percent of newsroom jobs in the United States vi Native American Newspapers 1 Native American Journalists account for only 037 of newsroom jobs in the United States 2 Native American Newspapers help to educate people on tribal heritage vii The Underground Press 1 Underground publications sprang up as a resounding backlash against the mainstream media 2 The Village Voice pioneered the idea of the underground press 3 250 Million readers spread amongst 130 papers c Newspaper Operations i News Holes only account for 3550 of remaining space in newspapers ii News and Editorial Responsibilities 1 Chain of command of a newspaper starts with editor in chief and managing editor in charge of daily news gathering and writing processes 2 Assistant editors have traditionally run news divisions 3 Many editorial positions are being eliminated or condensed to the job of a single editor Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 4 Reporters work for editors a General assignment reporters handle all sorts of stories that might emerge b Specialty reporters are assigned to particular beats c Bureau reporters file reports from other major cities 5 Consolidation of newspapers have led to the closing of bureaus and mass layoffs 6 Far viewer versions of a story are being produced but money is being saved iii Wire Services and Feature Syndication 1 Newspapers rely on newswires to fill up the space in a news hole 2 Daily papers pay monthly fees to access news wire stories 3 Feature syndicates work to connect papers to the best newswire stories d Newspaper Ownership Chains Lose Their Grip i Edward Wyllis founded the first newspaper chain in the 1890s ii Newspaper chains own several papers across the country iii By the 1980s more than 130 chains owned an average of 9 papers each with top 12 owning 40 of all american papers iv After 2005 chain control levelled off as readership began to decline v Local papers have now been sold off to big banks or willing investors vi There s a struggle in the sense private equity groups being more concerned with profits may change the content of a local paper e Joint Operating Agreements Combat Declining Competition i 1970Congress Passes Newspaper Preservation Act ii lt enable failing papers to continue operating through a joint operating agreement 1 Two competing papers keep separate news divisions while merging business and production operation for a period of years 4 Challenges Facing Newspapers Todaypgs 296302 a Readership Declines in the United States i Decline in daily newspaper readership began with the advent of radio in the 30 s ii The rise of television in the 60s and 70s prompted a further stop in readership iii Newspaper circulation has dropped by more than 25 in the 21st century iv Countries where the internet is still emerging are seeing increases in newspaper readership v 25 Billion people across the world read a print paper 80 million read them online b Going Local How Small and Campus Papers Retain Readers i Many smaller papers continue to do well because they provide news that larger publications don t give Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 ii Consensus oriented newspapers don t usually see dips in ad revenues c Blogs Challenge Newspaper s Authority Online i Amateur bloggers are now able to compete with journalists for news ii What was seen as a passing fad became a worldwide phenomenon that could surpass newspapers especially amongst millennials iii Now reporters start their own blogs to reach out to new readers d Convergence Newspapers Struggle in the Move to Digital i Newspapers have been slower to adapt to the internet than other media ii Some papers have online versions but not all iii Newsprint costs companies 25 of their budget many are now exclusively online iv Without the need for advertisements online editions can print more stories with more content than the print edition v Online newspapers are able to put video and other media onto their stories engaging their audiences in different ways not possible in newsprint vi Online ads only account for 13 of newspaper revenue vii Ad revenue for papers has declined 2535 in the past few years viii Now papers collaborate with Yahoo to share news articles and get more readers ix Paper are trying to establish a paywall to charge a fee for accessing online content e New Models for Journalism i Many newspapers are looking towards new ventures to regain capital 1 Former Washington Post reporters started Politico ii News organizations devoted to publishing news on public affairs should be allowed to operate as nonprofit ventures iii Federal Reforms should reorient their focus to local news in every community iv Public and Private Universities should continue to operate their papers as bastions of public knowledge v A national fund for Local News should be created vi News services should use the internet to increase their capability to reach and inform the population f Alternative Voices i Citizen journalism has arisen in response to the idea national publications ignore the local issues ii Articles are written with an air of subjectivity blurring the boundary between consensus oriented and conflict oriented writing iii Many of these citizen journalists are working with modest budgets iv The growth of citizen journalists has gotten to the point there is a new term for them 1 Proam journalists 5 Newspapers and Democracypgs 303305 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 a 1062 Journalists were killed from 1992 to mid2014 Most journalists were murdered c Journalists can expose the truth of any side leading to great power in the words they write d Investigative journalism is a heavy priced piece that can decide the outcome of the world 6 Chapter Reviewpgs 306307 7 Chapter 8 Vocabulary 5 o Partisan press an early dominant style of American journalism distinguished by opinion newspapers which generally argued one political point of view or pushed the plan of the particular party that subsidized the paper 0 Penny Papers penny press refers to newspapers that because of technological innovations in printing were able to drop their price to one cent beginning in the 1830s thereby making papers affordable to the working and emerging middle classes and enabling newspapers to become a genuine mass medium 0 Human Interest stories news accounts that focus on the trials and tribulations of the human condition often featuring ordinary individuals facing extraordinary challenges 0 Wire services commercial organizations such as the Associated Press that share news stories and information by relaying them around the country and the world originally via telegraph and now via satellite transmission 0 Yellow journalism a newspaper style or era that in the 1890s it emphasized high interest stories sensational crime news large headlines and serious reports that exposed corruption particularly in business and government 0 Investigative Journalism news reports that hunt out and expose corruptions particularly in business and government 0 Objective Journalism a modern style ofjournalism that distinguishes factual reports from opinion columns reporters strive to remain neutral toward the issue or event they cover Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 searching out competing points of view among the sources for a story 0 Inverted Pyramid style a style ofjournalism in which news reports begin with the most dramatic or newsworthy information answering who what where and when and less frequently why or how questions at the top of the story and then trail off with less significant details 0 Interpretive journalism a type ofjournalism that involves analyzing and explaining key issues or events and placing them in a broader historical or social context 0 Literary journalism news reports that adapt fictional storytelling techniques to nonfictional material new journalism 0 Consensus Oriented journalism found in small communities newspapers that promote social and economic harmony by providing community calendars and meeting notices and carrying articles on local school social events town government property crimes and zoning issues 0 Conflict Oriented journalism found in metropolitan areas newspapers that define news primarily as events issues or experiences that deviate from social norms journalists see their role as observers who monitor their city s institutions and problems 0 Underground press radical newspapers run on shoestring budgets that questions mainstream political policies and conventional values the term usually refers to a journalism movement in the 1960s 0 Newshole the space left over in a newspaper for news content after all the ads are placed 0 Feature syndicates commercial outlets or brokers such as United Features and King Features that contract with newspapers to provide work from well known political writers editorial cartoonists comicstrip artists and self help columnists Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 0 Newspaper Chain a large company that owns several papers throughout the country 0 Joint Operating Agreement JOA in the newspaper industry an economic arrangement sanctioned by the government that permits competing newspapers to operate separate editorial divisions while merging business and production operations 0 Paywall an online portal that charges consumers a fee for access to news content 0 Citizen Journalism a grassroots movement wherein activists amateurs and concerned citizens not professional journalists use the Internet and blogs to disseminate news and information Chapter 9 Magazines in the Age of Specialization 1 The Early History of Magazines a The First Magazines The first political magazine called Review appeared in London in 1704 Periodicals then resembled newspapers but were published less frequently The first publication to use the term magazine was Gentleman s Magazine in 1731 London b Magazines in Colonial America Without a substantial middle class literacy or printing technology magazines were slow to develop in the US The first colonial magazines appeared in 1741 c US Magazines in the Nineteenth Century iv Only 12 magazines operated in 1800 The early 18th century saw the proliferation of magazines albeit slowly across the eastern US The 19th century saw the birth of general interest magazines aimed at a national audience Most magazines took pieces from other publications d Nation Women s and Illustrated Magazines iii iv With the increase in literacy and drop in printing price magazines proliferated Whereas 100 magazines struggled for survival in 1825 by 1850 there were more than 600 magazines being published 1828 saw the first magazine written exclusively to a female audience Illustrations helped define the medium 2 The Development of Modern American Magazines 10 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 a Price cutting in printing and the increase in literacy saw the increase in readership of magazines b Advertising helped publishers recoup the loss of publishing c Social Reform and the Muckrakers i Many magazines engaged in yellow journalism to campaign on behalf of oppressed people ii McClure s Magazine touched off the investigative era in magazine reporting by taking on Standard Oil and urban plight iii Cosmopolitan tookjabs at the american political machine in 1906 iv Theodore Roosevelt coined the term muckrakers in large part because journalists were willing to go into the dregs of society to report what was going on d The Rise of GeneralInterest Magazines i Muckraking lasted until the start of the First World War ii After the war and into the 1950s general interest magazines held the majority stake in magazine sales iii Saturday Evening Post 1 Reached 2 million readers by the 1920s 2 Cyrus Curtis changed the journalistic tendency from muckraking to general interest 3 Popular fiction was melded into the publication to create a narrative on american life iv Reader s Digest 1 Originally sold only via subscriptions 2 Climbed to 1 million readers during the Great Depression 3 By mid 1980s it had 20 million readers in America and 1012 million abroad v Time 1 Had 3 million readers by the 1960s 2 Inspired several imitators including US News amp World Report Newsweek vi Life 1 Life developed a successful strategy for competing with popular radio shows by advancing photojournalism 2 Life had a pass along readership of more than 17 million 3 Had the first female war correspondent to fly combat flights in the Second World War Margaret BourkeWhite 4 Had Gordon Parks who became Hollywood s first African American director of major feature films e The Fall of GeneralInterest Magazines i TV Guide is Born 1 TV Guide published TV listings 2 Without a competitor to attempt the same idea the first issues reached 12 million circulation 3 It highlighted America s new interest in specialized magazines 11 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 4 It showed the growing power of sales at supermarket checkout lines 5 In 2005 TV Guide became a full sized entertainment periodical ii Saturday Evening Post Life and Look Expire 1 Saturday Evening Post folded in 1969 2 Look folded in 1971 3 Life folded in 1972 4 The magazines were selling them less than the cost to produce them Advertising revenue had to be shared with Television 6 Postal rates increased to the point it was cheaper to have an advertisement on TV 7 General Interest magazines geared towards women were the most likely to survive iii People Puts Life Back in Magazines 1 People launched in 1974 2 It stayed alive by downsizing and generating circulation via newsstand sales 3 It kept short articles with various pictures f Convergence Magazines Confront the Digital Age i Magazines Movie Online 1 Websites for magazines help expand their reach 2 Number of US consumer magazine apps grew from 98 to 2234 3 Without having to worry about ad space magazines can include interactive content ii Paperless Magazines Embrace Digital Content 1 Webzines are publications that exist solely online 2 Online magazines have reinvented the way magazines are formatted and read to utilize and innovate on the internet s capabm es 3 The Dominion of Specialization a Men s and Women s Magazines i Playboy found its audience amongst men s interest stories breaking taboos about sex and society ii Women s publications such as Women s Day gave women their own way of sharing new ideals and breaking past molds of women b Sports Entertainment and Leisure Magazines i The most popular sports magazine remains Sports Illustrated started in 1954 ii Magazines on music have diversified just like music has with new genres covered in their own publications iii National Geographic has consistently remained one of the foremost examples of excellence in journalism c Magazines for the Ages i The first children s magazines appeared in the late 18th century 0 12 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 ii Publications like Boy s Life and Highlights caters to younger boys iii Teen Vogue Girl s Life are marketed towards more adolescent girls iv GQ Maxim are targeting young adult men v AARP The Magazine targets retirees d Elite Magazines i Magazines catering to the highly educated provided critique of lay culture arts stories ii New Yorker Atlantic Vanity Fair all embody elite magazines e MinorityTargeted Magazines i Minoritytargeting magazines have existed since before the Civil War ii Crisis a publication by WEB DuBois became the official magazine of the NAACP iii The Advocate became the first major publication to address the needs and interests of the LGBTQ community in 1967 iv Spanishlanguage magazines have continuously appeared since the 1980s f Supermarket Tabloids i Supermarket tabloids push the line between decency and credibility ii The stories are sensationalized created to get a reader s attention 4 The Organization and Economics of Magazines a Magazine Departments and Duties i Editorial and Production 1 Editorial departments produce the content of a magazine excluding advertisements 2 The chain of command from editors to subeditors mimics the structure of a newspaper 3 Many magazines with smaller budgets rely on unsolicited wellwritten pieces to fill pages 4 Most commercial magazines reject 95 of unsolicited submissions ii Advertising and Sales 1 Magazines rely on advertisements to secure the funding they need to carry on 2 Magazines provide their advertisers with rate cards to tell them how much a certain ad would cost a In practice most magazines give advertisers 2550 discounts 3 The average magazine contains only about 45 ad copy and 55 editorial material 4 With online publications ads can now incorporate sounds video and animation at lower cost 5 Few magazines do not carry ads a Highlights for Children does not run ads and relies solely on subscriptions 6 The relationship between advertisers and magazines has led to a drop in investigative reporting by magazine reporters 13 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 7 Magazines now run different versions of magazines to gain a larger following a Regional editions contain stories that pertain to certain regions while keeping the same overall content b Split run editions keeps the same editorial content but runs ads purchased by local companies c Demographic editions allow magazines to run select advertisements based on where the magazines are being mailed to Circulation and Distribution 1 The circulation department monitors newsstand and subscription sales 2 In the 1950s newsstand sales counted for 43 and subscriptions for 57 in general interest magazine sales Since then 91 of sales are subscription 4 Controlled circulations allow publications to run limited versions of magazines at low cost to publishers 5 The migration to digital magazines have allowed publishers to save money on ink and paper used for print 9 b Major Magazine Chains Ownership of magazines mimics TV and film with larger groups owning several publications Time Inc Hearst Advance Meredith own several of the highest read publications in the US Magalogs allow larger groups to combine the sales pitch of a catalogue and the glossy front of a magazine c Alternate Voices At any given time there are 2000 independent magazines with many starting and failing all the time Many smaller magazines align themselves with a certain political slant to keep readership Zines have allowed for wholly independent publishing that caters to any and all niches 5 Magazines in a Democratic Society a Contemporary magazines allow for different voices to be heard b Controversial content has a hard time finding its way to print c Magazines have more freedom to participate in democratic debates because it represent a subjective interest d Good magazines can generate interest in a particular topic while also maintaining our connection to words 6 Chapter 9 Review 0 Magazine a non daily periodical that comprises a collection of articles stories and ads 0 Muckrakers reporters who used a style of early twentieth century investigative 14 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 journalism that emphasized a willingness to crawl around in society s much to uncover a story 0 General Interest magazine types of magazines that address a wide variety of topics and are aimed at a broad national audience 0 Photojournalism the use of photos to document events and people s lives 0 Passalong relationship the total number of people who come into contact with a single copy of a magazine 0 Webzines a magazine that publishes on the Internet 0 Supermarket tabloids newspapers that feature bizarre human interest stories gruesome murder tales violent accident accounts unexplained phenomena stories and malicious celebrity gossip 0 Desktop publishing a computer technology that enables an aspiring publishereditor to inexpensively write design lay out and even print a small newsletter or magazine 0 Regional editions national magazines whose content is tailored to the interests of different geographic areas 0 Split Run editions editions of national magazines that tailor ads to different geographic areas 0 Demographic editions national magazines whose advertising is tailored to subscribers and readers according to occupation class and zip code 0 Evergreen subscriptions magazine subscriptions that automatically renew on the subscriber39s credit card 0 Magalog a combination of a glossy magazine and retail catalogue that is often used to market goods or services to customers or employees 15 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 o Zines self published magazines produced on personal computer programs or on the Internet Chapter 4 Sound Recording and Popular Music 1 The Development of Sound Recording a From Cylinders to Disks Sound Recording Becomes a Mass Medium vi vii Viii de Martinville conducted the first experiments that could capture sound onto a medium but could not play them back in the 1850s 1877 Thomas Edison found a way to playback the recorded sound calling it the Phonograph Emile Berliner invented the gramophone a machine that played back sound on a round flat disk By 1901 Victrolas brought gramophones into homes replacing pianos as the centre piece for music in the home Electric record players became available after 1925 Recording material was originally on beeswax transitioned to shellac and eventually polyvinyl creating a durable medium with great sound fidelity 1948 CBS records produced a 33 13 rpm record allowing them to store 40 minutes of sound 45 rpm records became the standard for single songs and 33 13 for whole albums b From Phonographs to CDs Analogue Goes Digital vi vii Viii IX X 1940 Audiotape invented by german engineers The lightweight nature of magnetic audiotape allowed for sound editing on a new level By the 1960s engineers had condensed tapes from reeltoreel machines into cassette players Listeners gained the ability to record anything anywhere giving rise to home dubbing Stereo recording became a major innovation in 1958 allowing engineers to record to separate audio tracks to add to music s depth 1970s Thomas Stockham recorded the first digital audio on standard computer equipment CDs emerged onto the market in 1983 By 1987 CD sales were double the sales of records By 2000 CD was the dominant format making cassette and Vinyl obsolete MP3 came and replaced CD soon after c Convergence Sound Recording in the Internet Age MP3s and FileSharing 1 MP3 created in 1992 2 All digital format allowed for easy sharing and storing 16 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 3 1999 Napster s filesharing service allowed for millions of MP3s to be shared online for free 4 2001 Supreme Court ruled file sharing sites like Napster were in violation of music copyrights 5 Digital filesharing became such a large problem companies began to look to online sales to compensate in the new market 6 By 2008 itunes became the 1 music retailer in the US a By 2013 it had sold 25 Billion songs ii The Next Big Thing Streaming Music 1 We are currently shifting from the ownership of music to the access of music 2 Subscription fees to listen to unlimited amounts of music has allowed companies to retain a profit d The Rocky Relationship Between Records and Radio i Radio stations broadcast recorded music without compensating the music industry ii ASCAP established to set up music rights fees for radio stations charging a weekly fee to continue playing music iii In the early 50s radio and music industry began working together to combat the advent of TV iv Radio would play hit songs advertising them so listeners would buy them v With the advent of rock this partnership strengthened as music gained more and more audiences vi After the turn to digital music companies began charging royalty fees to streaming services 2 US Popular Music and the Formation of Rock a The Rise of Pop Music i The idea of pop music has existed since music itself ii At the turn of the 20th century mass producing sheet music for a growing middle class turned into a large opportunity for music publishers iii Jazz developed into popular music throughout the 20s iv 1930s and 40s swing music became the craze v Cover musiccovers became popular amongst all artists by 1940 vi The popularity of individual singers gave rise to a new kind of stardom b Rock and Roll is Here to Stay i Mid 1950sRock n Roll branches out from blue players via artists like BB King Muddy Waters ii RampB was urban based black music marketed out with deeper more intimate lyrics iii While originally segregated between white and black music began to become integrated c Rock Muddies the Waters i High and Low Culture 17 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 1 1956 CHuck Berry s Roll Over Beethoven mixed what was seen as low culturerock with a classical piece 2 This shift towards the provocative earned rock both praise and disdain 3 Bo Diddley s use of the guitar in a sexual way Elvis gyrating hips and skinny jeans all contributed to this new backlash that was rock ii Masculinity and Femininity 1 Rock allowed for a blurring of gender image 2 Performers would show up in makeup outrageous hair dos iii The Country and the City 1 Early white rockers combined country influences with the sound of rock 2 Buddy Holly Carl Perkins used this fusion to create the Rockabilly subgenre 3 Chuck Berry borrowed from white country music to write Maybellene 4 1956NAWCC condemned rock as a form of racial miscegenation iv The North and the South 1 Southern musical and cultural elements found themselves in the ears of Northern listeners 2 Northern attitudes and styles could be transported to southern listeners 3 The key to putting rock into the mainstream was finding a white artist that sounded blackElvis Presley v The Sacred and the Secular 1 Many early figures in rock had ties to religion 2 Many artists eventually refused to play rock seeing it as devil s music 3 Now christian rock groups are a thing to listen to d Battles in Rock and Roll i White Cover Music Undermines Black Artists 1 White musicians covering black artists music often gained all the recognition for the song leaving black artists out of recognition and without royalty payments 2 Ray Charles cover of I Can t Stop Loving You marked the first time a black artist covering a white artist s song reached the No 1 spot on the charts ii Payola Scandals Tarnish Rock and Roll 1 Payola was the practice of paying deejays to play particular songs 2 While not illegal it fostered the attitude that certain songs could not break into the mainstream 3 Payola laws eventually created in the 1960s after a scandal with Alan Freed and Dick Clark 18 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 iii Fear of Corruption Lead to Censorship 1 Rock was always viewed as a way to corrupt youth 2 By late 1959 many influential figures of rock had been tamed 3 The deaths of Buddy Holly Ritchie Valens and Big Bopper created The Day Music Died 4 By the early 60s record companies had placed their control overrock a Early 60s artists were clean cut white performers 3 A Changing Industry Reformations in Popular Music a The British Are Coming i Until 1964 American artists were able to export their music overseas while foreign artists didn t have that ability ii 1964The Beatles make their appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show causing one of the largest musical sensations the world has ever known iii Bands such as The Zombies The Animals Herman s Hermits The Who The Yardbirds had opened up rock to new kinds of interpretations b Motor City Music Detroit Gives America Soul i Black singers like James Brown Aretha Franklin Otis Redding Ike and Tina Turner and Wilson Pickett had created a new sound from Detroit called soul ii Soul created this emotional mix of gospel RampB with instrumental arrangements iii Motown came to define the generation of black artists c Folk and Psychedelic Music Reflect the Times i Folk Inspires Protest 1 Folk music mixed light acoustic playing with lyrics pertaining to people s daily struggles 2 These songs were able to protest ideals the artists were against in a nonconfrontational yet restrained way ii Rock Turns Psychedelic 1 The drug culture of the 1960s permeated into music creating a medley of folkinspired rock 2 The sound was reminiscent of being on a drug high 3 Artists used the new sound to amplify their protests against the world at the time Several artists became affiliated with the antiwar movement 4 The psychedelic rock movement found its highlight in Woodstock 1969 5 It found its end in the same year in the infamous Altamont concert d Punk Grunge and Alternative Respond to Mainstream Rock i Punk Revives Rock s Rebelliousness 1 Punk rock rose to challenge rock s increasing orthodoxy clean Image 19 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 2 Bands played simple fast songs as a catharsis for their pent up frustrations 3 The ethos was Do It Yourself 4 Many early punk acts did not have mainstream appeal 5 Ramones The Clash Sex Pistols Iggy Pop all came to define the raw power of the new sound 6 Punk started a new proliferation of musical genres heard today Grunge and Alternative Reinterpret Rock 1 Grunge represented a departure from the flashy gimmick arena rock of the 1980s with a focus not on consumerism but desperation 2 The rejection of mainstream commercial culture was the norm 3 Bands like Nirvana Mudhoney Pearl Jam came to define the genre 4 After the death of Kurt Cobain and the boycott of Ticketmaster by Pearl Jam alternative rock came to fill the void 5 Mixing the extravagance of older rock but the raw emotional power of grunge artists created another birth in music 6 Foo Fighters White Stripes Arctic Monkeys The Killers still play on the ainNaves e HipHop Redraws Musical Lines vi vii Viii ix Hip Hop emerged as a result of a lack of black musicians in popular music and the ability to sample radio tracks Combining elements of spoken word poetry and songwriting artists were able to capture a world apart from the polished radio friendly apolitical world of soul Early hiphop pioneers laid the groundwork for rappers spewing lyrics filled with energy and thought Run DMC Fat Boys LL Cool J gave rap a form and a name Run DMC s collaboration with Aerosmith laid the foundation for rap s mainstream appeal Women in hiphop gained an influential voice through artists like Queen Latifah and SaltNPeppa Gangster Rap emerging from Southern California gave rise to more marginalized sections of society to become part of society again NWA Tupac Shakur gained notoriety and respect for the realities they presented Today rappers try to carry on that legacy f The Reemergence of Pop With the fall of grunge and cooling of alternative several pop artists came to dominate the scene Katy Perry Lana Del Rey Rihanna Jason Derulo Taylor Swift have this commercial sound that appeals to mainstream crowds 4 The Business of Sound Recording a Music Labels Influence Society Few Major Labels and Falling Market Share 20 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 1 Through the 1950s to 1980s there were a large number of music labels 2 By 1998 only 6 major labels remained a Universal Warner Sony BMG EMI and Polygram 3 By 2012 Only Universal Sony and Warner are left ii The Indies Grow with Digital Music 1 Some 5000 smaller independent labels record and produce less commercially viable music 2 With the advent of streaming online several artists have broken into the mainstream b Making Selling and Profiting from Music i Making the Music 1 Labels are driven by AampR agents who scout new talent then sign them onto labels 2 A typical recording session involves getting a recording of a song without imperfections ii Selling the Music 1 Before selling involved selling CDs and tapes to businesses who in turn sold them to listeners 2 Physical recording accounted for 50 of sales in 2011 3 Digital sales now account for the majority of sales 4 Online piracy is still an issue taking a large chunk of possible revenues iii Dividing the Profits 1 Digital downloads and subscription services have surpassed physical sales 2 Before artists negotiated 8 12 royalty from an album More established artists can negotiate 15 3 Artists have to pay back any album advances as well as promotional and production costs 4 Digital sales get an artists even less because companies can retain more 5 Streaming services pay the artist per stream usually around 0007 6 70 of revenue goes to music rights holders while streaming services net 30 of profits 7 Digital downloads generate 40 for the service 50 for recording company and 10 for artist 8 YouTube and Vevo create substantial revenue for companies because they don t have to pay to use the service c Alternative Voices i Indie artists increasingly sell their own music via independent labels ii Radiohead pioneered the idea of pay what you like letting listeners pay what they wanted for music 5 Sound Recording Free Expression and Democracy 21 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 a Recorded sound allows for new thoughts and ideas to be quickly spread around a population without fear of government intervention b Digital copies of a song can be easily and quickly spread without a trace back to the original seeder 6 Chapter 4 Vocabulary o Audiotape lightweight magnetized strands of ribbon that make possible sound editing and multiple track mixing instrumentals or vocals can be recorded at one location and later mixed into a master recording in another studio 0 Stereo the recording of two separate channels or tracks of sound 0 Analog recording a recording that is made by capturing the fluctuations of the original sound waves and storing those signals on records or cassettes as a continuous stream of magnetism analogous to the actual sound 0 Digital recording music recorded and played back by laser beam rather than by needle or magnetic tape 0 Compact Discs CDs playback only storage discs for music that incorporate pure and very precise digital techniques thus eliminating noise during recording and editing sessions 0 MP3 short for MPEG 1 Layer 3 and advanced type of audio compression that reduces file size enabling audio to be easily distributed over the Internet and to be digitally transmitted in real time 0 Pop music popular music that appeals either to a wide cross section of the public or to a sizable subdivisions within the larger public based on age region or ethnic background the word pop has also been used as a label to distinguish popular music from classical music 0 Jazz and improvisational and mostly instrumental musical form that absorbs and 22 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 integrates a diverse body of musical styles including African rhythms blues big band and gospel 0 Cover Music songs recorded or performed by musicians who did not originally write or perform the music in the 1950s some white producers and artists capitalized on popular songs by black artists by covering them 0 Rock and Roll music that merges the African American influences of urban blues gospel and RampB with the white influences of country folk and pop vocals 0 Blues Originally a king of black folk music this music emerged as a distinct category in the early 1900s it was influenced by African American spirituals ballads and work songs in the rural South and by urban guitar and vocal solos from the 1030s and 1940s 0 Rhythm and blue RampB music that merges urban blues with big band sounds o Rockabilly music that mixed bluegrass and country influences with those of black folk music and early amplified blues 0 Soul music that mixes gospel blue and urban and southern black styles with slower more emotional and melancholic lyrics 0 Folk Music music performed by untrained musicians and passed down through oral traditions it encompasses a wide range of music from Appalachian fiddle tunes to the accordion led zydeco of Louisiana 0 Folk Rock amplified folk music often featuring politically overt lyrics influenced by rock and roll 0 Punk Rock rock music that challenges the orthodoxy and commercialism of the recording business it is characterized by loud unpolished qualities a jackhammer beat primal vocal streams crude aggression and defiant or comic lyrics 23 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 o Grunge rock music that takes the spirit of punk and infuses it with more attention to melody 0 Alternative Rock non mainstream rock music which includes many types of experimental music and some forms of punk and grunge 0 Hip Hop music that combines spoken street dialect with cuts or samples from older records and bears the influences of social politics male boasting and comic lyrics carried fonNard from blues RampB and rock and roll 0 Gangster Rap a style of rap music that depicts the hardships of urban life and sometimes glorifies the violent style of street gangs 0 Oligopoly in media economics an organizational structure in which a few firms control most of an industry s productions and distribution resources 0 Indies independent music and film production houses that work outside industry oligopolies they often produce less mainstream music and film 0 AampR artists amp repertoire talent scouts of the music business who discover develop and sometimes manage performers 0 Online Piracy the illegal uploading downloading or streaming of copyrighted material such as music or movies Chapter 7 Movies and the Impact of Images 1 Early Technology and the Evolution of Movies a The Development of Film i Muybridge and Goodwin Make Pictures Move 1 Muybridge took multiple photographs from different cameras of a moving object then spliced them together to give the illusion of motion 2 George Eastman created the first roll film 24 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 3 Louis Aime Augustin Le Prince created the first film camera using film roll 4 Hannibal Goodwin improved Eastman s film by using celluloid ii Edison and the Lumieres Create Motion Pictures 1 Edison planned to combine phonograph technology and film camera equipment to create talking pictures 2 When that failed he left his work at a kinetograph and kinetoscope a Kinetography were early film cameras b Kinetoscopes were single person viewing systems 3 Louis and Auguste Lumiere developed a cinematograph which combined a camera film developer and projector in one 4 Edison then went on to create a vitascope which allowed for longer shots to be created 5 Films remained short done in one take b The Introduction of Narrative i Georges Melies opened the first public movie theatre in France in 1896 ii He created several short films which told a story including A Trip To The Moon Cinderella and The Vanishing Lady iii The first american to adapt Melies work was Edwin S Porter in The Life of the American Fireman c The Arrival of Nickelodeons i Movie theatres sprang up everywhere there was space ii Spaces like shops and pubs were quickly converted into makeshift theatres 2 The Rise of the Hollywood Studio System a Production i Originally film companies would refuse to name their actors for fear they d have to pay even more ii Adolph Zukor pioneered the idea of having exclusive contracts with actors iii He signed Mary Pickford who became America s Sweetheart iv Pickford s salary would rise from 100 a week in 1919 to 15000 in 1917 v She later went on to form her own production company United Artists vi United Artists began what was known as the studio system 1 Studious would control all creative talent in the industry 2 This made the creation of new films both efficient and profitable b Distribution i Originally films were shown in vaudeville shows with producers receiving a cut from ticket sales ii Edison later formed a trust to control distribution by withholding equipment from companies not willing to pay the trusts patientuse fees 25 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 iii Studios then used block booking to ensure their films would be sold en masse to a theatre who was obliged to play them iv The practice was eventually outlawed v After the First World War american companies were able to export their movies overseas at immense profits c Exhibition i Edison s Trust tried to monopolize film viewing by making theatres purchase a license to show films ii After the collapse of the trust studious would buy up theatres in block booking to ensure their films would be viewed iii By 1921 Zukor s Paramount owned 300 theatres iv Major studios learned they only had to own firstrun theatres to make money v Movie palaces were built to accommodate middleclass audiences vi Midcity theatres were built next to train stations and bus stop to gain more viewers vii By 1920 studios had established a vertical integration model viii The Big Five Studios that had their own theatres were Paramount MGM Warner Brothers Twentieth Century Fox and RKO ix The Little Three did not own their own theatres Columbia Universal and United Artists 3 The Studio System s Golden Age a Hollywood Narrative and the Silent Era i DW Griffith created a new form of narrative using a wide variety of shots varied camera distances and multiple storylines ii The Birth of A Nation was considered the first Blockbuster costing moviegoers 2 admission iii The most popular films throughout the silent era were Napoleon BenHur The Ten Commandments iv The silent era produced many innovations and genres b The Introduction of Sound i 1927 The Jazz Singer was the first popular mass released talkie ii 1928The Singing Fool took in 5 Million against its 200000 budget iii Before the Jazz Singer opened Fox studio premiered soundfilm newsreels iv Movie attendance rose from 60 Million a week to 90 million in 1929 v By 1935 the world had adopted talking pictures as a standard c The Development of the Hollywood Style i Hollywood Narratives 1 Narratives have allure in their story and discourse 2 Hollywood codified a familiar narrative structure across all genres 3 Classic narratives have consistent decisions made in everything ii Hollywood Genres 26 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 iii 1 Grouping films allowed the industry to achieve product standardization and product differentiation Genres helped give an audience an idea of what to expect and producers on what to make Hollywood Authors Director serves as the main author of a film 2 Auteurs control all aspects of production a Hitchcock 3 Directors must have the vision needed to carry out a film 4 Film schools in California and New York trained a new wave of directors in what was necessary in a film 5 Minority groups still struggle for recognition in Hollywood d Outside the Hollywood System i Global Cinema 1 American films capture 90 of the market 2 Foreign films constitute less than 2 of films seen in the US today 3 French New Wave Soviet Social Realism Italian Neorealism have all been influential in american productions 4 Foreignlanguage movies did reasonably well in the 1920s 5 Art Houses gained power over studios in the 1950s and 1960s through independent foreign media 6 With the availability of DVDs and the internet foreign films are now more easily distributable 7 The largest film industry in the world is Bollywood ii The Documentary Tradition 1 International news reels supplied movie theatres with human interest stories by 1911 2 Early documentaries were travelogues recording daily life in a different place 3 Travel Films reached a new status after Nanook of the North 4 Over time documentaries developed stories apart from its commercial presentation 5 By the late 1950s and 1960s portable cameras led to cinema verite capturing life in its process rather than just wide shots 6 Documentaries went on to tackle unpopular topics and themes iii The Rise of Independent Films 1 Independent filmmakers operate on a shoestring budget and show their movies to smaller audiences in auditoriums etc 2 Independent movies allow Hollywood to find inexpensive options with potential for large returns 3 Independant films allow for beginning actors and directors prove their worth to the industry 4 The Transformation of the Studio System a The Hollywood Ten 27 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 i In 1947 HUAC tried several directors and actors thought to be communist sympathizers ii 10 refused to answer whether they were communists on the grounds of free speech they were jailed iii When they were released they were blacklisted never to work in Hollywood again b The Paramount Decision i After the HUAC decision the Supreme Court ruled against the major studios ownership of theatres ii Several drivein theatres local and community theatres sprang up iii Art house and documentary films now had the viability to be shown to larger audiences c Moving to the Suburbs i PostSecond World War people were more interested in buying cars and houses ii New families stayed at home rather than go out for movies iii As families moved to suburbs they were farther from theatres d Television Changes Hollywood i As people began owning TVs movies turned to more serious content ii Films began to challenge the Motion Picture Code iii Colour became a staple by the late 1950s iv 3D effects were used for the first time e Hollywood Adapts to Home Entertainment i The introduction of video cassettes allowed movies to be brought into the home ii Rental businesses sprang up immediately to capitalize on the new availability of movies iii DVD helped reinvigorate the stalling home video business in 1997 iv After the dawn of the internet home ownerships was at an all time low v The introduction of BluRay wasn t enough to stop the decline of home media vi Redbox kiosk rentals have flatlined vii Internet Distribution is the most viable form for studios to make money outside of theatres 5 The Economics of the Movie Business a Production Distribution and Exhibition Today i Making Money on Movies Today 1 8090 of films fail to make money in the domestic box office 2 Money is recouped through various methods a Creating the movie in 3D to sell more expensive tickets for b Releasing the movie onto home video 3 months after release 3 Rental companies must wait 28 days until after movies go on sale to be able to rent them 28 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 4 Movies will only be given traditional releases if they can be relatively sure to gain 20 million dollars back a Films can be released on premium channels on a case by case basis b Studious can earn revenue by distributing work to international markets c Studious make money by distributing the work of independent producers d Revenue is earned through licensing and product placement in movies ii Theatre Chains Consolidate Exhibition 1 The leading 5 theatre companies own more than 50 of US screens 2 Many of them have contracts with studios to release a movie throughout their screens 3 The trend in the 1980s and 1990s was to build megaplexes and attempt to persuade viewers away from home viewing with IMAX screens recliners etc 4 Chains seek to be less reliant on studios with digital projectors a They can screen nonmovie events and earn more than they would have strictly using film b The Major Studio Players i The Hollywood business is owned by 6 major studios 1 Warner Brothers Paramount Twentieth Century Fox Universal Columbia Pictures and Disney ii These studios account for over 77 of revenue generated by films iii They own half the movie market in Europe and Asia iv In the 1980s the movie industry began to diversify 1 By expanding into other media films could offset losses from box office failures 2 The industry now relies on a synergy between the film itself and the advertising that goes into it c Convergence Movies Adjust to the Digital Turn i Movies are increasingly available for free on the internet ii The popularity of services like Netflix in creating new content have spawned various followers like Hulu which take away from the theatre going audience iii 2012 marked the year digital online media was accessed more for movies than physical media iv The film industry is heading towards two distinct trends 1 Making large blockbusters full of special effects for a large international following 2 Making small inexpensive films that won t get a large treatment d Alternative Voices i There is an almost complete shift to digital video over celluloid film 29 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 ii Independent filmmakers can now release for free on YouTube and Vimeo 6 Popular Movies and Democracy a Films capture a population s thoughts and fears in a sharable medium b Films can evoke emotion and thought into whomever watches them 7 Chapter 7 Vocabulary o Celluloid a transparent and pliable film that can hold a coating of chemicals sensitive to light 0 Kinetograph an early movie camera developed by Thomas Edison s assistant in the 1890s 0 Kinetoscope an early film projection system that served as a kind of peep show in which viewers looked through a hole and saw images moving on a tiny plate 0 Kinescope before the days of videotape a 1950s technique for preserving television broadcasts by using a film camera to record a live TV shows off a studio monitor 0 Viascope a large screen movie projection system developed by Thomas Edison 0 Narrative Films movies that tell a story with dramatic action and conflict emerging mainly from individual characters 0 Nickelodeons the first small makeshift movie theaters which were often converted cigar stores pawnshops or restaurants redecorated to mimic vaudeville theaters 0 Vertical Integration 0 Studio system an early film production system that constituted a sort of assembly line process for moviemaking major film studios controlled not only actors but also directors editors writers and other employees all of whom worked under exclusive contracts 0 Block booking an early tactiv of movie studios to control exhibition involving pressuring theater operators to accept marginal films with no stars in order to get access to film with the most popular stars 30 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 0 Movie places ornate lavish single screen movie theaters that emerged in the 1920a in the United States 0 Multiplexes contemporary movie theaters that exhibit many movies at the same time on multiple screens 0 Big Five late 1920s through 1940s Paramount MGM Warner Brothers Twentieth Century Fox and RKO 0 Little Three late 1920s through 1940s studios without theaters Columbia Universal and United Artists 0 Blockbuster the type of big budget special effects film that typically has a summer or holiday release date heavy promotion and lucrative merchandising tie ins o Talkies movies with sound beginning in 1927 o Newsreels weekly ten minute magazine style compilations of filmed news events from around the world organized in a sequence of short reports prominent in movie theaters between the 1920s and the 1950s 0 Genre a narrative category in which conventions regarding similar characters scenes structures and themes recur in combination 0 Documentary a movie or TV news genre that documents reality by recording actual characters and settings 0 Cinema verite French term for truth film a documentary style that records fragments of everyday life unobtrusively it often features a rough grainy look and shaky handheld camera work 0 Indies independent music and film production houses that work outside industry oligopolies they often produce less mainstream music and film 31 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 0 Hollywood Ten the nine screenwriters and one film director subpoenaed by the House Un American Activities Committee HUAC who were sent to prison in the late 1940s for refusing to disclose their memberships or to identify communist sympathizers o Paramount decision the 1948 US Supreme Court decision that ended vertical integration in the film industry by forcing the studios to divest themselves of their theaters o Megaplexes movie theater facilities with fourteen or more screens 0 Big Six the six major Hollywood studios that currently rule the commercial film business Warner Brothers Paramount Twentieth Century Fox Universal Columbia Pictures and Disney 0 Digital video the production format that is replacing celluloid film and revolutionizing filmmaking because the cameras are more portable and production costs are much less expensive 0 Consensus narratives cultural products that become popular and command wide attention providing shared cultural experiences Chapter 5 Popular Radio and the Origins of Broadcasting 1 Early Technology and the Development of Radio a Maxwell and Hertz Discover Radio Waves i Maxwell theorized the existence of electromagnetic waves in the mid 1860s ii Hertz proved Maxwell s theories in 1880 b Marconi and the Inventors of Wireless Telegraphy i 1894Marconi connected a rudimentary transmitter to a morse telegraph key and sent a wireless message ii 1896Marconi travels to England to receive patent on wireless telegraphy forming Marconi Wireless Telegraphy Company iii Same year he sends a message across the English Channel 32 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 iv v vi vii viii 1901First wireless transmission from across the Atlantic Popov independently came up with wireless telegraphy 1895 he sent a message 600 yards away Work on wireless transmission was actually started by Nikola Tesla Tesla deemed inventor of radio in 1943 by Supreme Court c Wireless Telephony De Forest and Fessenden vi vii viii ix De Forest wrote his dissertation on wireless technology 1901Challenged Marconi to report on boat races 1 Jamming of radio frequencies prevented this from being a definitive test 1902De Forest set up Wireless Telephone Company to compete with Marconi over who could perfect wireless telephony De Forest s biggest breakthrough was the development of the Audion vacuum tube 1 Largely considered to be the beginning of electronics The credit for the first voice broadcast goes to Fessenden Wireless communication was moving towards becoming a onetomany communication tool Broadcasting came to mean transmitting radio waves to a large audience Narrowcasting was strictly for Telephone and Telegraph 1910De Forest broadcasted Tosca by the Metropolitan Opera in the New York area signaling the transition from novelty to entrepreneurial stage of radio d Regulating a New Medium Radio Waves As A Natural Resource 1 Radio Act of 1912 made radio waves the collective property of all Americans 2 Transmitting radio waves would require a license 3 The act governed radio until 1927 4 This eventually led to the establishment of public radio and the Fairness Doctrine The Impact of World War 1 American Marconi was the biggest and best of radio transmitters 2 1917 US Navy closed down all radio transmissions 3 By end of the war the British had a plan for a worldwide radio system 4 American business interests plotted to put radio power in American hands by buying up British Marconi patents and forming a company The Formation of RCA 1 Members of congress and corporate community opposed federal legislation that would give the navy a radio monopoly 33 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 2 GE developed a private sector monopoly called RCA to buy up patents and move american business interests across the world 3 ATampT made the wireless transmitters RCA administered the pool of money related to having a monopoly 4 To protect profits RCA wasn t allowed to manufacture products under its own name for years 5 Government restriction stipulated RCA could not be more than 20 foreign owned a This became law in 1927 and applied to all US broadcasting stocks and facilities 6 RCA gave the US almost total control of broadcasting 2 The Evolution of Radio a Building the First Networks i ATampT tried to monopolize radio arguing that radio was an extension of telephony which was under its monopoly 1 It began selling and making its own receivers ii That same year1922 ATampT started WEAF in New York becoming the first radio station to regularly sell commercial time to advertisers iii ATampT argued it had the rights to sell advertisements under toll broadcasting iv While radio originally saw itself as a public service executives realized their potential for capital v The initial strategy for ATampT was to conquer radio 1 By agreements with RCA ATampT retained its rights to interconnect the signals between stations 2 ATampT created the first network vi By the end of 1924 ATampT had connected 22 stations to air a talk by President Calvin Coolidge vii This network became known as a telephone group later as the Broadcasting Corporation of America viii GE Westinghouse and RCA interconnected smaller stations known as radio group ix The radio group had to use inferior telegraph lines after ATampT refused to let them use telephone lines x The government eventually redefined patent agreements 1 ATampT received a monopoly of wires to connect stations nationwide but had to sell its BCA network to RCA and could not enter broadcasting for 8 years later extended until the 1990s b Sarnoff and NBC Building the Blue and Red Networks i Sarnoff began as a wireless operator helping Titanic survivors to safety ii 1921Became RCA s general manager iii After RCA bought BCA Sarnoff created NBC 34 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 1 Ownership was shared by RCA50 GE30 Westinghouse20 through its network of stations iv The telephone group became the NBC red network v The radio group became the NBC blue network vi Independent stations began affiliating themselves with NBC networks to receive programming vii By 1933 NBC red had 28 affiliates NBC blue had 24 viii Network radio helped modernize America by deemphasizing local stories in favour of national ones ix Sarnoff s leadership was solidifies by two other decisions 1 Signing a deal with GM to manufacture car radios 2 Merging with RCA to create Victor Talking Machine Company x Until the 1960s the company was known as RCA Victor c Government Scrutiny Ends RCANBC Monopoly i 1923FTC charged RCA with violations of antitrust laws but allowed them to continue ii 1930Federal Marshals charged RCANBC with numerous violations iii Sarnoff proposed buying out GE s and Westinghouse s shares in RCA s manufacturing business iv By creating more competition in the radio industry they avoided indictment d CBS and Paley Challenging the NBC i UlB lined up 12 prospective affiliates and offered them 500 a week for 10 hours of station time in exchange for quality programs ii Columbia Phonograph Broadcasting System launched with 16 affiliates but lost 100000 in the first month 1 Eventually renamed CBS iii 1928William Paley bought a controlling interest in CBS 1 Brought in a PR manager named Edward Bernays to polish the network s image iv Bernays and Paley modified option time in which CBS paid 50 per hour to affiliate stations for an option on a portion of their time V In theory CBS could control up to 24 hours of affiliate radio time vi Some affiliates received thousands of dollars merely to serve as condu s vii With NBC charging 96 for affiliates to carry programs the CBS offer was extremely appealing e Bringing Order to Chaos with the Radio Act of 1927 i In the 1920s radio went from narrowcasting to broadcasting increasing the need for a controlled airspace ii The Radio Act of 1912 gave little power to deny a license or unclog the ainNaves iii 1924Herbert Hoover ordered radio stations to set aside certain frequencies for entertainment news farm and weather reports iv In 1926 the courts ruled Hoover did not have the power to restrict stations 35 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 v 1927 saw a drop in radio sales due to poor reception vi Congress passed the Radio Act of 1927 which stated licensees did not own their channels but could only license them as long as they served the public interest vii Federal Radio Commission created to oversee licenses and negotiate channel problems 1 While only a temporary measure it grew into a powerful regulatory agency viii With the passage of the Communications Act of 1934 the FRC became the Federal Communications Commission ix The FCC would have control over radio telephone telegraph and eventually TV cable and the Internet x 1941The government outlawed the practice of option time to ensure affiliates didn t have to carry programming they didn t want xi FCC also demanded RCA sell one of their NBC networks 1 NBC eventually sold NBC blue which later became ABC f The Golden Age of Radio i Early Radio Programming 1 Early on only a handful of stations operated in large markets 2 lnhouse orchestras would play live music daily with nighttime being dominated by 15 minute programs like Amos N Andy 3 Variety shows developed themselves from Vaudeville acts starting with Eveready Hour in 1923 4 By the 1930s studio audience quiz shows began to take off Dramatic programs appeared as early as 1922 6 Most programs had a single sponsor that created and produced each show ii Radio Programming as a Cultural Mirror 1 Situation comedy had its beginnings in the mid 1920s popularized by Amos N Andy 2 Amos N Andy popularized the idea of a serial show 3 Soap operas soon copied this format iii The Authority of Radio 1 The single most famous broadcast on radio was an adaptation of HG Wells War of the Worlds 2 Several people thought the broadcast was real creating mass panic in the US 3 Orson Welles used the incident to launch a highly successful movie career 3 Radio Reinvents Itself a Transistors Make Radio Portable i The invention of transistors in 1947 began the miniaturization of technology ii Texas instruments sold the first transistor radio in 1953 for 40 iii It wasn t until the 1960s that transistor radios were cheaper than conventional radios 0 36 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 b The FM Revolution and Edwin Armstrong vi vii viii ix x c The Ri I vi Edwin Armstrong first discovered FM radio in the 1920s Using vacuum tubes to create an amplifying system which enabled radio receivers to pick up distant signals making alternators obsolete Between 1930 and 1933 Armstrong received 5 patents that gave FM radio greater clarity and higher sound fidelity Armstrong pitched the idea to Sarnoff at RCA but was ultimately rejected 1 To save his business Sarnoff shifted new programming to TV keeping his AM empire safe 2 Armstrong founded a new FM station and advised other engineers in their creations 3 1941FCC approved an allocation for FM frequencies leading to a growth of over 500 FM stations in a matter of years FCC moved FM frequency to a new bandwidth making FM radios at the time obsolete Armstrong killed himself on 31 January 1954 In the early 1960s the FCC opened up more space for FM By the 1970s 70 of listeners were exclusively on AM By the 1980s FM surpassed AM in profitability By 2010s 75 of all listeners listen exclusively to FM se of Format and Top 40 Radio As early as 1949 format radio was the way to do radio 1 Management rather than deejays would control programming each hour Top 40 was born with the idea people liked listening to their favourite songs multiple times a day By the 1960s deejays would talk over the beginning and ends of songs to avoid dead air Deejays followed a hot clock which dictates everything they would have to do in a day Radio managers further divided the day into blocks of programming based on who listened the most during that time Critics stipulate that this stifles variety on radio stations leading to lesser known artists to have less exposure d Resisting the Top 40 Progressive rock emerged as a backlash against popular music of the mid1960s Many noncommercial stations emerged out of college campuses Noncommercial stations were able to play lesser known artists Experimental FM stations offered a cultural space for edgy political music By the 1970s Album Oriented Rock dominated the ainNaves taming prog rock 4 The Sounds of Commercial Radio a Format Specialization 37 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 i News Talk and Information Radio 1 The fastest growing radio format for the 1990s was talk radio 2 In 1985 there were only 175 talk stations 3 By 2014 there were a total of 2183 talk stations 4 Talk radio appeals to middleclass working adults ii Music Formats 1 Adult Contemporary format is amongst radio s oldest and most popular reaching 73 of all listeners Contemporary hit radio mixes AC with Top 40 songs Country is the most popular format in the nation Urban contemporary targets mainly african american groups Spanishlanguage radio is concentrated mainly in large hispanic markets 6 Different genres of music have their own radio stations b Nonprofit Radio and NPR i The Early Years of Nonprofit Radio 1 The government authorizes nonprofit licenses to stations that have no political agenda 2 The Pacifica FOundation was started to run experimental public stations 3 The FCC had approved 10 watt stations up until 1978 allowing local broadcasts to enter the ainNaves ii Creation of the First Noncommercial Networks 1 During the 1960s the government saw fit to create an educational informative medium a Public Broadcasting Service and National Public Radio were formed 2 Under Public Broadcasting Act of 1967 and Corporation for Public Broadcasting PBS and NPR are alternatives to commercial radio 3 In 1994 a conservative Congress cut support for both organizations and threatened to eliminate CPB 4 Stations today are very reliant on public donations c New Radio Technologies Offer More Stations i Satellite Radio 1 Radio beamed by satellite dishes was introduced in 2002 then consolidated into SiriusXM in 2008 2 Satellite radio allows for clear interference free broadcasts for a premium price ii HD Radio 1 HD radio provides additional bands for radio stations to broadcast on 2 The signals are now strong enough to carry CD quality sound d Radio and Convergence i Internet Radio U39PFDN 38 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 1 Internet radio emerged in the 1990s with the spread of the internet 2 Companies like Pandora Slacker now dominate the online radio business 3 2002 Copyright Royalty Board began to charge royalty fees from online radio stations a Many argued they were too high compared to other medium s prices 4 Now online services negotiate directly with record companies to asses royalty fees ii Podcasting and Portable Listening 1 Podcasting became a hit after broadcasters learned to put their shows in a downloadable format that could be taken anywhere 2 Mobile phones ipods are all used to carry podcasts putting them everywhere 5 The Economics of Broadcast Radio a Local and National Advertising i 10 of all US media spending goes to advertising ii Gross advertising receipts for radio hover at 16 Billion in 2009 iii Radio stations get their content free so they don t have to worry as much from advertising revenue b Manipulating Playlists with Payola i Payola the practice of paying deejays to play certain songs was rampant in the 1950s ii 1986NBC uncovered a large criminal element that had sprung up with payola schemes iii In 2007 4 major companiesCBS Radio Clear Channel Citadel Entercom agreed to pay 125 million to settle an FCC payola dispute c Radio Ownership From Diversity to Consolidation i The Telecommunications Act of 1996 eliminated most ownership restrictions on radio 1 Whereas before a company could only have 7 AM 7 FM and 7 TV stations now they could have as many as they wanted unless they were in a city 2 Depending on the size of a city would dictate how many radio stations they could have ii From 1995 to 2006 the number of radio stations declined from 6600 to 4400 iii Several chains consolidated making huge disparencies between independent and national stations d Alternative Voices i Several pirate radio stations were started up to combat the commercialized radio machine 1 The stations were pirate in the sense they didn t have a license ii Many pirate stations survive on Low power FM signals 6 Radio and the Democracy of the AinNaves 39 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 a Radio allows the masses to communicate with each other in a way everyone can listen to b It allows for the free exchange of ideas over a vast area 7 Chapter 5 Vocabulary o Telegraph invented in 1840s it sent electrical impulses through a cable from a transmitter to a reception point transmitting Morse Code 0 Morse code a system of sending electrical impulses from a transmitter through a cable to a reception point developed by the American inventor Samuel Morse o Electromagnetic waves invisible electronic impulses similar to visible light electricity magnetism light broadcast signals and heat are part of such waves which radiate in space at the speed of light about 186000 per second 0 Radio waves a portion of the electromagnetic wave spectrum that was harnessed so that signals could be sent from a transmission point and obtained at a reception point 0 Wireless telegraphy the forerunner of radio a form of voiceless point by point communication it preceded the voice and sound transmission of onetomany mass communication that became known as broadcasting 0 Wireless telephony early experiments in wireless voice and music transmission which later developed into modern radio 0 Broadcasting the transmission of radio waves or TV signals to a broad public audience 0 Narrowcasting any specialized electronic programming or media channel aimed at a target audience 0 Radio Act of 1912 the first radio legislation passed by Congress it addressed the problem of amateur radio operators cramming the ainNaves 0 Radio Corporation of America RCA a company developed during World War I that was designed with government approval to pool radio patents the formation of RCA 4O Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 gave the US almost total control over the emerging mass medium of broadcasting 0 Network a broadcast process that links through special phone lines or satellite transmissions groups of radio or TV stations that share programming produced at a central station 0 Option time a business tactic now illegal whereby a radio network in the 1920s and 1930s paid an affiliate station a set fee per hour for an option to control programming and advertising on that station 0 Radio Act of 1927 the second radio legislation passed by Congress in an attempt to restore order to the ainNaves the act stated that licenses did not own their channels but could license them if they operated to serve the public interest convenience or necess y 0 Federal Radio Commission FRC a body established in 1927 to oversee radio licenses and negotiate channel problems 0 Communications Act of 1934 the far reaching act that established the Federal Communications Commission FCC and the federal regulatory structure for US broadcasting 0 Federal Communications Commission FCC an independent US Government agency charged with regulating interstate and international communications by radio television wire satellite cable and the Internet 0 Transistors invented by Bell Laboratories in 1947 these tiny pieces of technology which receive and amplify radio signals make portable radios possible 0 FM frequency modulation a type of radio and sound transmission that offers statusless reception and greater fidelity and clarity than AM radio by accentuating the pitch or 41 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 distance between radio waves 0 AM amplitude modulation a type of radio and sound transmission that stresses the volume or height or radio waves 0 Format radio the concept of radio stations developing and playing specific styles or formats geared to listeners age race or gender in format radio management rather than deejays controls programming choices 0 Rotation in format radio programming the practice of playing the most popular or best selling songs many times throughout the day 0 Top 40 format the first radio format in which stations played the forty most popular hits in a given week as measured by record sales 0 Progressive rock an alternative music format that developed as a backlash to the popularity of Top 40 0 Album Oriented rock AOR the radio music format that features album cuts from mainstream rock bands 0 Drive time in radio programming the periods between 6 and 10 AM and 4 and 7 PM when people are commuting to and from work or school these periods constitute the largest listening audiences of the day 0 Newstalkinformation the fastest growing radio format in the 1990s dominated by news programs or talk shows 0 Adult Contemporary one of the oldest and most popular radio music formats typically featuring a mix of news talk oldies and soft rock 0 Contemporary hit radio CHR originally called Top 40 radio this radio format encompasses everything from hip hop to children s songs it appeals to many teens and young adults 42 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 0 Country claiming the largest number of radio stations in the US this radio format includes such subdivisions as oldtime progressive country rock western swing and country gospel 0 Urban Contemporary one of the radio s more popular formats primarily targeting African American listeners in urban areas with dance RampB and hip hop music 0 Pacifica Foundation a radio broadcasting foundation established in Berkeley California by journalist and World War II pacifist Lewis Hill he established KPFA the first non profit community radio station in 1949 0 National Public Radio NPR noncommercial radio established in 1967 by the US Congress to provide an alternative to commercial radio 0 Public Broadcasting Service PBS noncommercial television established in 1967 by the US Congress to provide an alternative to commercial television 0 Public Broadcasting Act of 1967 the act of the US Congress that established the Corporation for Public Broadcasting which oversees the Public Broadcasting Service PBS and National Public Radio NPR o Corporation for Public Broadcasting CPB a private nonprofit corporation created by Congress in 1967 to funnel federal funds to nonprofit radio and public television 0 Satellite radio pay radio services that deliver various radio formats nationally via satellite 0 HD radio a digital technology that enabled AM and FM radio broadcasters to multicast two to three additional compressed digital signals within their traditional analog frequency 0 Internet radio online radio stations that either stream simulcast versions of onair broadcasts over the Web or are created exclusively for the Internet 43 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 o Podcasting a distribution method coined from iPad and Broadcasting that enabled listeners to download audio program files from the Internet for playback on computers or digital music players 0 Payola the unethical but not always illegal practice of record promoters paying deejays or radio programmers to favor particular songs over others 0 Telecommunications Act of 1996 the sweeping update of telecommunications law that led to a wave of media consolidation 0 Low Power FM LPFM a new class of noncommercial radio stations approved by the FCC in 2000 to give voice to local groups lacking access to the public ainNaves the 10 watt and 100watt stations broadcast to a small community based area Chapter 6 Television and Cable The Power of Visual Culture 1 The Origins and Development of Television a Early Innovations in TV Technology i From roughly 1897 to 1907 the cathode ray tube was the closest anyone was to a TV ii Paul Nipkow developed the scanning disk in the 1880s to transmit images as a series of lines on a screen b Electronic Technology Zworykin and Farnsworth i Boris Rosing improved upon Nipkow s design in 1907 ii His assistant Vladimir Zworykin left Russia in 1919 to work for Westinghouse and RCA iii Received a patent for his invention called the iconoscope which converted light into electrical signals in 1923 iv Philo Farnsworth sent the first electronic image in 1927 at age 21 v RCA challenged him to a major patents battle aftenNards vi 1930Farnsworth is acknowledged to be the inventor of the electric television vii RCA later negotiated to use Farnsworth s patents viii Setting Technical Standards 44 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 1 In the 1930s the NTSC set up manufacturing regulations and technical standards 2 1941FTC adopted analogue standards for all US TV sets Other countries adopted it before switching to PAL standards 4 Analogue signals remained the standard until 2009 when the US switched to Digital standards ix Assigning Frequencies and Freezing TV Licenses 1 In the early days of television channels often interfered with one another to the point certain cities didn t have one channel or another 2 In the 1940s the FTC assigned channels based on geographic loca on 3 By 1948 there were too many channels that they began to interfere with one another 4 FCC declared a freeze on new TV licenses from 1948 to 1952 5 Wherever there were TV channels movie nightclub and taxi receipts dropped significantly 6 After the freeze communities were able to expand into more remote sections of the country a Mid 1950sMore than 400 TV channels existed x The Introduction of Colour Television 1 1952FCC tentatively approved the CBS colour system 2 1954RCA s colour system usurped CBS s system 3 1966THe majour 3 television networks broadcast in colour c Controlling ContentTV Grows Up i Program Format Changes Inhibit Sponsorship 1 Up until the 1950s shows were largely funded by commercial sponsors 2 Sarnoff appointed Sylvester Pat Weaver as president of NBC a He formulated the change from 15 minute shows to 30 minutes or longer to raise program costs for sponsors 3 The introduction of magazine format shows and variety hours allowed TV networks to keep control of TV content ii The Rise and Fall of Quiz Shows 1 1955CBS aired The 64000 Question and spawned a wave of successors 2 1957 James Van Doren won 129000 on a quiz show but was accused of cheating 3 When it was discovered he had cheated quiz shows were canceled iii QuizShow Scandal Hurts the Promise of TV 1 THe sponsors pressure to rig quiz shows put an end to sponsors influencing TV content 2 Fraud undermined American idea that TV was democratic 3 The scandals signaled TV as part of low culture rather than high culture 9 45 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 2 The Development of Cable a CATVCommunity Antenna Television i Small cable systems originated in 1940s Oregon Pennsylvania and New York City ii Containing only 12 channels this served isolated communities 1 The use of coaxial cables was honed in at the time iii lts downside was its reliance on wires to get its signals across b The Wires and Satellites behind Cable Television i Arthur C Clarke published first idea of satellite television ii 1960ATampT launched Telstar the first satellite capable of receiving amplifying and returning signals iii By mid1960s scientists could put satellites in geosynchronous orbits iv Cable TV required a central service to control programming which was then fed into the homes of every subscriber v Cable companies were able to latch onto phone and electric wires to spread their area vi The first cable network to use satellites to transmit tv regularly was HBO c Cable Threatens Broadcasting i 14 of TV owners had cable in 1977 46 in 1985 ii Cable had been able to narrowcast into people s homes iii Cable channels became more diverse and specific over time because they could be sold in packages d Cable Services i Basic Cable Services 1 Basic cable was 100 local channels plus access channels 2 The basic rate of cable paid for access to CSpan and other channels ii Premium Cable Services 1 Premium channels exist to provide quality programming without commercial interruptions 2 Companies sell them for 10 a month making a profitable venture 3 1985Companies introduced PayPer View allowing them to make money on live sporting events and eventually movies 4 Video on demand allowed customers to stream movies directly into their homes e DBS Cable without Wires i Direct Broadcast Satellite allowed homes to receive programming without the need for wires ii It could connect rural viewers with network television iii Signals used by Satellite could be easily hijacked leading companies to scramble their signals and issuing set top boxes 3 Technology and Convergence Change Viewing Habits a Home Video i Consumer attention shifted to home video in the 1970s 46 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 ii Betamax was released in 1985 while VHS was released in 1986 iii VHS became the prefered format due to its ability to hold more content iv People began taping movies on network tv for free v VHS gave way to DVD in 1995 vi DVD is now obsolete compared to BluRay vii By 2012 more than 50 of US homes had DVRs which allowed them to download programs and record TV viii 95 of all american homes have some kind of VCR or DVD player ix People increasingly time shift or watch content at a later time b The Third Screen TV Converges with the Internet i The internet allowed for certain shows to be streamed directly online ii Aside from special features shows can now be entirely released online iii Netflix Hulu Amazon Video now release TV shows only to the internet iv YouTube has spawned a new shift in web series 1 Short engaging videos become series with massive followers and huge advertising potential v Internet now allows for viewers to catch up on missed shows all on demand c Fourth Screens Smartphones and Mobile Video i lpads mobile phones can now stream content from tv and the internet ii Cable companies now have apps to live stream their tv shows onto people s phones 4 Major Programming Trends a TV Entertainment Our Comic Culture i Sketch comedies resurrected the idea of stage variety in american TV ii Situational Comedies brought a relatable storyline viewers could enjoy iii All shows had exaggerated caricatures of people to represent the daily existence of various people b TV Entertainment Our Dramatic Culture i Anthology Drama and the Mini Series 1 Anthology dramas brought live dramatic theatre to audiences 2 Anthologies had a brief run for two main reasons a Advertisers disliked the for presenting complex issues that couldn39t be resolved easily b People who could afford TVs could also afford tickets to plays if they wanted such drama they d go to theatres c Anthology dramas were expensive to produce d Anthologies were too politically controversial for middle class families e By the early 1960s dramatic form had entirely disappeared from American TV f Overseas shows specifically British shows have brought a resurgence of dramatic production in TV 47 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 ii Episodic Series 1 Chapter shows contain selfcontained stories that resolve themselves by the end of an episode 2 Serial programs have an open ended format that continue episode to episode 3 Soap operas exemplify Serial programs that can exists for decades at a time c TV Information Our Daily News Culture i Network News 1 News shows began with The Chef Huntley Report on NBC 2 News shows would have an anchor bring in topics for the show and create stories out of them to edify an audience 3 The CBSTV News debuted in 1948 became the first show taped for rebroadcast on affiliate stations 4 The anchors chosen for the shows came to have large influences across the country a Walter Cronkite helped convince americans to oppose the Vietnam War 5 Eventually TV networks would have separate anchors in different cities ii Cable News Changes the Game 1 CNN became the first 247 news channel in 1980 2 Other stations soon copied the format and set aside time in their programming for news every day 3 Cable news was able to keep viewers in a loop of information continuously d Reality TV and Other Enduring Trends i Realitybased programs give viewers an instant connection with TV personalities as they are presented as everyday people ii Spanish Language television is growing as more and more people from Latin American countries migrate to the US e Public Television Struggles to Find lts Place i Public Television is primarily educational low viewership has resulted ii There have been several attempts to cut funding entirely to Public Television iii PBS is largely supported by donations from local views iv USA gives some of the least amount of monetary support to Public Television 5 Regulatory Challenges to Television and Cable a Government Regulations Temporarily Restrict Network Control i Prime Time Access Rule restricted network s control of prime time programming from 4 to 3 hours ii 1970FCC created the Financial Interest and Syndication Rules to curb network tv influences and stop the money flow from older tv shows iii The Justice Department limited the production of nonnews shows 48 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 iv Most of the programming had to come from independent companies of film studios v Gradually the FCC lifted the ban on production of shows as well as nonnews programming to encourage competition b Balancing Cable s Growth against Broadcaster s Interests i Must Carry 1 First established in 1965 and reaffirmed in 1972 all cable operators must carry local TV broadcasts on their systems 2 Guidelines also prohibited cable companies from bringing in networkaffiliated stations from another city when a local station already carried that network s programming ii AccessChannel Mandates 1 1972FCC mandated that access channels must be carried to provide public educational and government use iii Cable s Role Electronic Publisher or Common Carrier 1 The Communications Act of 1934 had not anticipated the existence of Cable 2 Cable providers argued they were electronic publishers who had the right to choose what channels they would carry 3 FCC argued cable carries were common carriers providing services not content and should offer their services on a firstserved basis on whomever could pay the rate 4 1979Midwest Video case upheld rights of cable companies to determine channel content defining the industry as electronic publishing 5 Must carry rules contradict with Midwest Video case but continues anyways c Franchising Frenzy i Cable franchises are minimonopolies on a local area for a 15 year pedod ii One company is allowed to lay down cable wires which then gives them first choice in servicing a community iii Larger towns may have competing cable companies d The Telecommunications Act of 1996 i Between 1986 and 1996 lawmakers went back and forth on must carry rules ii The Telecommunications Act of 1996 brought cable under full federal rules that had governed telephone radio telegraph and TV industries iii Congress knocked down regulatory barriers allowing regional providers to enter one another s districts iv While the law was signed in the hopes of encouraging competition 90 of american towns are still serviced by one cable company v Satellite companies have brought up the price of cable 6 The Economics and Ownership of Television and Cable a Production 49 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 i New shows are produced with the idea that they will be in debt unless they become hits ii Shows are leased to TV networks less than what it costs to produce them to entice network executives iii lfthe shows do well both parties receive money if not the production company loses out b Distribution i Cable providers rely on subscription fees to pay broadcast networks retransmission fees in carrying their content ii Networks pay affiliates to run their programming iii Networks sell the bulk of their advertising time to recoup their fees iv Local affiliates still retain ultimate control of programming c Syndication Keeps Shows Going and Going i Types of Syndication 1 Offnetwork syndication is when a show is rerun on local stations 2 Firstrun syndication is when a show is produced for the sole purpose of being sold to different channels a Wheel of Fortune ii Barter versus Cash Deals 1 ln cash deals the highest bidder buys a show for syndication and keeps it for a certain amount of time 2 ln barter deals untested shows are shown on tv ad revenues are split between the production company and network d Measuring Television Viewing i The Impact of Ratings and Shares on Programming 1 Ratings are used to gauge how much interest there is in a certain tv show 2 Shares are used to gauge how many people have watched the tv show 3 Shows that have high ratings and large shares are considered hits and prominently displayed or moved to better timeslots 4 910 shows introduced in the fall will fail to get enough viewers and be considered failures ii Assessing Today s Converged and Multiscreen Markets 1 Before the internet a show with a rating of 17 and a share between 20 or 30 was considered a success 2 With the influx of movies and online videos a rating of 3 and a share of 10 is passable 3 Many popular programs are cancelled prematurely due to advertisers feeling they target the wrong demographic 4 YouTube has consistently taken away from network television to the point advertisers now put ads for shows in YouTube itself e The Major Programming Corporations i The Major Broadcast Networks 50 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 1 CBS NBC ABC FOX Univisionand the CW dominate primetime TV ii Major Cable and DBS Companies 1 Time Warner Cable Comcast Cox own several TV channels and TV markets 2 Directv and Dish compete head to head for satellite TV iii Effects of Consolidation 1 There is a fear with so many companies owned by one large group the diversity of programming will disappear f Alternative Voices i Municipally owned cable systems have appeared to combat private cable companies and give a balance to TV viewers 7 Television Cable and Democracy a Since the 1950s TV has broadened the scope of American culture by exposing people to constant narratives b The arrival of visual news helped inspire people to change government systems for the better c The access of local citizens to local televisions allows for a spread of ideas in a palpable manner 8 Chapter 6 Vocabulary Chapter 2 The Internet Digital Media and Media Convergence 1 The Development of the Internet and the Web a The Birth of the Internet i The internet began as a network connecting US computers in the 1960s ii The Defense Department created Advanced Research Projects AgencyARPA to handle the creation and development of computer technologies iii ARPAnet enabled military and government computers to exchange information iv Email was invented in 1971 by Ray Tomlinson to directly communicate with other computers v Computers remained in the hands of government and university researchers b The Net Widens i With the advent of microprocessors the computers became smaller allowing people to buy them for their home personal use ii 1986National Science Foundation established NSFNET to link computers from different university campuses iii Mld 1980sFiber optic cable allowed for instantaneous communication c The Commercialization of the Internet i The World Begins To Browse 51 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 1 The World Wide Web developed by TimBernersLee encoded information as packets and allowed for that information to be searched via HTML links 2 Web browsers soon appeared for the general public to be able to use this new Web 3 1993Mosaic was the first web browser capable of displaying text and graphics in a magazine like layout 4 1995Microsoft bundled Internet Explorer with every copy of Windows making it the most popular web browser of its time ii Users Link in through Telephone and Cable Wires 1 Originally users connected to the internet va telephone wires 2 AOL became the US s top ISP through its famous dialup connec on 3 Broadband connections were soon developed which allowed for faster access and the ability to access multimedia content 4 By 2007 ATampT had surpassed AOL as an ISP by embracing broadband 5 Top lSPs today are Verizon Time Warner Cox Charter iii People Embrace Digital Communication 1 EMail was capable of sending messages at the speed of electricity 2 Instant messaging became popular because it allowed people to communicate in real time without having to use text messages on a phone iv Search Engines Organize the Web 1 Web sites quickly expanded past their original intentions to capitalize on the internet s growth a Yahoo was originally a directory 2 Catalogue sites were eventually to small to capture the whole of the world wide web 3 Search engines offered an automatic route to find websites without having to individually catalogue each one 2 The Web Goes Social a Types of Social Media i Blogs 1 Journallike entries became popular as a way to express oneself on the internet 2 Blogs gave people across the world a forum for which to begin debates 3 Several blogs grew into news outlets based on popularity and the opinions provided a HuffPost Mashable TechCrunch ii Collaborative Projects 1 Wikis were created as encyclopedias anyone could edit 2 Kickstarter allowed people to collectively pool resources towards a goal 52 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 iii Content Communities 1 Flickr is a site where people can post and share photos they ve taken 2 YouTube is where people can share and post videos iv Social Networking Sites 1 Facebook allows people to connect with friends and loved ones anywhere in the world 2 MySpace was created to showcase originality soon eclipsed by Facebook 3 Google now has its own social media site Google v Virtual Game World and Virtual Social Worlds 1 World of Warcraft connects millions of people online in an online realm where they can play games together 2 Virtual worlds like Second Life allow people to create whole new identities and play in simulated environments b Social Media and Democracy i Hacking groups have taken to Distributed Denial of Service attacks to stop organizations they feel are corrupt 1 Anonymous hacked into the Church of Scientology website to stop access to it ii Twitter was used to ignite the Arab Spring protests before it was shut down by several middle eastern countries 3 Convergence and Mobile Media a Media Converges on Our PCs and TVs i Mid 1970slt was theorized computers would eventually come into the home for personal use ii By the early 2000s a majority of homes had computers iii Mobile phones now have internet capabilities built into them allowing access to the internet anywhere b Mobile Devices Propel Convergence i 2002Blackberry launched the first popular telephone with internet capabm es ii 2008 The first phone running Android was released iii 2014 Android phones now held 512 of the market while Apple held 413 via their lphone c The Impact of Media Convergence and Mobile Media i Our Changing Relationship with the Media 1 The merging of media into one device has now blurred distinctions between what used to be separate media 2 Fans can now actively engage in support of a certain topic via multiple media paths a Watching a football match on TV can be accompanied by Tweeting the scores and celebrating on Facebook all on your phone ii Our Changing Relationship with the Internet 53 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 1 There are more people buying mobile phones with internet than home computers 2 The number of Facebook users keeps increasing 3 platforms are now creating walled garden interfaces that require separate applications to use 4 The internet is now chaotic and unruly iii The Changing Economics of Media and the Internet 1 The rise of Napster in the late 1990s led to changes in how companies distribute music movies books 2 Apple went from selling music devices to also incorporating music sales 3 Amazon went from a traditional online retailer to creating its own book reading deviceKindle and starting a whole section devoted to ebooks d The Next Era The Semantic Web i The internet is in need of organization in a meaningful way ii With the advent of Siri people can now search for whatever they want even faster than before 4 The Economics and Issues of the Internet a Ownership Controlling the Internet i Microsoft 1 Microsoft s software business is in gradual decline but has supplemented it by releasing Windows Phone and creating Microsoft Office as a Cloudbased service ii Google 1 Google is the most popular search engine in the world 2 Google began buying up services like YouTube to expand its reach online 3 Now Google develops advanced technologies for the world to use iii Apple 1 Founded as a computer company in 1976 Apple is now the 1 music retailer in the US iv Amazon 1 Amazon is the top rated online merchandise seller v Facebook 1 Facebook now has 128 billion users across the world b Targeted Advertising and Data Mining i Advertising had to reintroduce itself into the internet ii Using data from search engines ad agencies were able to get a profile on specific users where they could then tailor make advertisements for all users iii The legality of such actions are questioned due to their invasion of privacy iv 1998FTC required sites disclose their data collecting activities give consumers options on if the site is allowed to collect data permit 54 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 individuals to have access to their data and secure data from unauthorized use c Security The Challenge to Keep Personal Information Private i Government Surveillance 1 Government agencies have detailed search logs on internet usage since the inception of the internet 2 The US PATRIOT Act allows for deregulated surveillance activities on US citizens ii Online Fraud 1 Identity theft can now be done online by hackers 2 7 of Americans fall victim to hacking schemes and lose their identity d Appropriateness What Should Be Online i The question of content on the internet has divided legislators for years ii Communications Decency Act of 1996 and Child Protection Act of 1998 prevent children from being exposed or part of indecent acts on the internet iii Pornography is largely flourishing on commercial sites but are easy to access e Access The Fight to Prevent a Digital Divide i There is an increasing divide between the information haves and information have nots ii Only 67 of americans aged 64 and up use the internet iii Only 71 of americans without a high school education have access to the internet iv Poorer people in other countries do not have access to the internet v Wealthy users are able to ensure their privacy and faster levels of connec on f Net Neutrality Maintaining an Open Internet i The idea of net neutrality refers to the idea that every internet user has the right to the same speed and access ii Internet companies want to keep the internet tiered so they can sell faster rates to richer customers and make more money iii Twice have rules by FCC regarding net neutrality been rejected by the Supreme Court g Alternative Voices i OpenSource Software 1 Noncommercial software is developed and shared in the hopes it can benefit all users 2 Systems like Linux have given software to third world countries and allowed them to remain on par with technological advances ii Digital Archiving 1 Librarians have worked tirelessly to archive the whole of the internet for everyone to see 55 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 2 There are now more than 150 billion archived web pages 5 The Internet and Democracy a The internet has allowed for the free unfiltered exchange of ideas across the world b Internet technologies are constantly growing constantly giving people more options when it comes to communications 6 Chapter 2 Vocabulary o lnternetThe vast network of telephone and cable lines wireless connections and satellite systems designed to link and carry computer information worldwide 0 ARPAnetThe original internet designed by US Defense Department s Advanced Research Projects Agency 0 emailElectronic mail messages sent over the internet developed by Ray Tomlinson in 1971 o microprocessorsMiniature circuits that process and store electronic signals integrating thousands of electronic components into thin strands of silicon along which binary codes travel 0 fiberoptic cableThin glass bundles of fiber capable of transmitting thousands of messages converted to shooting pulses of light these bundles of fiber can carry broadcast channels telephone signals and all sorts of digital codes 0 World Wide WebA data linking system for organizing and standardizing information on the internet the WWW enables computeraccessed information to associate withor link toother information no matter where it is on the internet 0 HTMLThe written code that creates web pages and links a language that all computers can read 0 browsersInformationsearch services such as Microsoft s Internet Explorer Firefox or Google Chrome that offer detailed organizational maps to the internet 0 Internet service providersA company that provides internet access to homes and businesses for a fee 0 broadbandData transmission over a fiberoptic cablea signaling method that handles a wide range of frequencies 0 digital communicationlmages texts and sounds that use pulses of electric current or flashes of laser light and are converted into electronic signals represented as varied combinations of binary numbers these signals are then reassembled as a precise reproduction of a TV picture a magazine article or a telephone voice 0 instant messagingA web feature that enables users to chat with buddies in real time via popup windows assigned to each conversation 0 search engineSites or applications that offer a more automated route to finding content by allowing users to enter keywords or queries to locate related web pages 0 social mediaDigital applications that allow people worldwide to have conversations share common interests and generate their own media content online 0 blogsSites that contain articles in reverse chronological orderjournalIike form often with reader comments and links to other articles on the web 0 wiki websitesWeb sites that are capable of being edited by any user the most famous is Wikipedia 56 Exam 2 Study Guide COM 107 content communitiesOnline communities that exist for sharing of all types of content from text to photos and videos social networking sitesSites on which users can create content share ideas and interact with friends Telecommunications Act of 1996The sweeping update of telecommunications law that led to a wave of media consolidation portalAn entry point to the internet such as a search internet data miningThe unethical gathering of data by online purveyors of content and merchandise ecommerceElectronic commerce or commercial activity on the web cookieslnformation profiles about a user that are usually automatically accepted by a web browser and stored on a user s own computer hard drive spywareSoftware with secretive codes that enable commercial firms to spy on users and gain access to their computers optin or optout policiesControversial website policies over personal data gathering optin means websites must gain explicit permission from online consumers before the site can collect their personal data optout means that websites can automatically collect personal data unless the consumer goes to the trouble of filling out a specific form to restrict the practice phishingAn internet scam that begins the phony email messages that appear to be from an official site and appear to be from an official state and request that customers send their credit card numbers and other personal information to update their account digital divideThe socioeconomic disparity between those who do and those who do not have access to digital technology and media such as the internet net neutralityThe principle that every web site and every userwhether a multinational corporation or youhas the right to the same internet network speed and access opensource softwareNoncommercial software shared freely and developed collectively on the internet 57
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